Forskning / Projekt

Journalism in change - professional journalistic cultures in Russia, Poland and Sweden

Journalism is a key factor in public sphere, in political communication as well as in formation of identities in society. New digital technology, increased commercial pressure and the growth of a network society changes the conditions for journalism - but is it changing in the same way in different media systems? How are journalistic practices and values influenced by the media development in different media systems? The purpose of the project is to study how professional journalistic cultures are influenced by media development in three different media systems: Sweden, Poland and Russia. The three countries have a different historical and political legacy, the relations between media and political/economical power are quite different and there are big differences in the patterns in media use. The question is how the trends in media development relate to the different conditions of the media systems, and how the professional journalistic cultures are changing in the three countries? What is the relation between common trends and national differences - and what does it mean for journalism?

The theoretical foundations for the project are comparative media studies (Weaver 1998, Hallin/Mancini 2004, Hanitzsch 2007), journalism as a profession (Shoemaker & Reese 1996, Freidson 2001) and studies of journalistic cultures (Zelizer 2005, Ekström Nohrstedt 1996). Earlier research in the area has mostly covered US and Western Europe - both comparative media studies and media development. The project will use these theoretical perspectives and focus on central and Eastern Europe in comparison with Sweden as a representative of the north/central European model of media system.

Two methods are used in the project:
- A survey to 500 journalists in each country. The survey is focused on journalistic practices and how they relate to the tradition and journalistic values in each country.
- Interviews with journalists in two different generations; one group in the age of 30 and one group 60-65 years old.

In the project researchers from Södertörn University, University of Wroclaw and Moscow State University are working close together with the same methods to make the project truly comparative. The empirical results will fill a gap in comparative media studies and studies of journalism as a profession. The project will also give a new comparative perspective on media development and how democracy is influenced by a changing journalism.

Read more: http://www.journalisminchange.com/

 

Publikationer

In: Journalism in change. Frankfurt am Main : Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2015. 233-257.

FörfattarePubliceringsårÄmne
Elena Johansson

Östersjö- och Östeuropaanknytning

Ja
2015

Institution/Centrumbildning

Samhällsvetenskaper
Journalistik

Forskarutbildningsområde

Politik, ekonomi och samhällets organisering

In: Journalism in change. Frankfurt am Main : Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2015. 259-278.

To be a journalist in Poland, Russia and Sweden means - in many ways - to be a part of the same community: the most important ideals are the same, the daily work is performed with similar tools, formats and expressions are similar. On the surface there are many similarities, but still there are important differences when it comes to the conditions for  professionals. The frames in the daily work  describing the boundaries for each journalist are different – commercial and political limitations for what is possible in journalistic practice. There are commercial pressures from owners and advertisers and political influence on media companies and newsrooms on journalists to adapt in their daily work. Additionally, what is more important, these limitations differ between the three countries and among different types of media.These are some of the results presented in previous chapters in this anthology. The point of departure for the project has been the rapid changes in media technology, society (changes in users’ behaviour) in combination with crisis for business models and increasing market influence in the media sector. The question is how these changes influence professional journalistic cultures in different media systems. Poland, Russia and Sweden represent different traditions in journalism, and the position of media in relation to political power and society differs as well. We knew from the beginning that there were differences – but is it also possible to identify similarities between journalistic cultures in the era of globalization of professional cultures (Waisbord, 2013)?The project has researched the changes in journalism from the perspective of representatives of this profession. With a survey to a representative sample of 500 journalists in each country, opinions and experiences were  studied. In 20 in-depth interviews in each country journalists were asked to give more detailed answers going beyond the questions in the survey. All the empirical work was accomplished by national teams in 2012, and the results were analyzed and presented at international and national conferences in 2013-2014 (see Chapter 2).The results of the project have been presented in thematic chapters. In this final conclusion we summarize and present answers for the following research questions: -      How is technological and economic development influencing professional journalistic cultures in the three countries?-      Do the changing practices influence journalists’ perception of routines and values?-      What are the consequences for professional autonomy – in daily work and in relation to other social fields such as politics and the economy?-      Is media development making journalism more similar in spite of differences in traditions and media systems? Is there a homogenization of journalism or is it more correct to label it hybridization?-      Is the status of journalism as a social field changing; is there a de-professionalization as a result of media development?

FörfattarePubliceringsårÄmne

Boguslawa Dobek-Ostrowska

Gunnar Nygren

Östersjö- och Östeuropaanknytning

Ja
2015

Institution/Centrumbildning

Samhällsvetenskaper
Journalistik

Forskarutbildningsområde

Politik, ekonomi och samhällets organisering

In: Journalism in change. Frankfurt am Main : Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2015. 119-152.

Freedom in  daily work is important for nearly all journalists in the three countries. It is the second most important factor in choosing the place of work, according to the survey. A degree of autonomy is also an important part of self-perception of journalists in their professional roles and closely related to job satisfaction (Weaver and Willnat, 2012:534).But there are also clear differences between journalists in how big this perceived autonomy is in  daily work. There are different kinds of pressure from outside and inside the media company – pressure from lack of time and formats of the media, constraints within the organization, political and commercial pressure. There is also a media development challenging the professional identity of journalists;  journalistic work is undergoing fundamental changes – transitioning from a monologue to more of dialogue with the audience, with new tools and media formats introducing new kinds of expressions. Increasing commercialization and fragmentation of the media landscape are changing the foundations on which journalism rests (Deuze, 2007; Mitchelstein and Boczkowski, 2009; Singer et al., 2011).One may assume that all these changes influence the degree of professional autonomy for journalists. But the direction is not obvious; some changes, like  strong commercialization might put  pressure on the degree of autonomy, but others might work in another direction; for example it is possible that technological development can both increase perceived autonomy, giving journalists more tools and a stronger position, but also limit the autonomy in an increasing demand to produce more and faster.The purpose of this chapter is to study how perceived autonomy in  daily work is related to factors on a different level, from the individual level of journalist, the position of the journalist within the media organization and to the level of media system. This analysis is also related to media development, both technological and commercial factors. From this, perceived professional autonomy is related to different kinds of media systems with various degrees of political and commercial pressure on journalism.This allows one to raise three research questions: RQ1: What are the differences and similarities between the three countries and media systems when it comes to professional autonomy?RQ2: What are the most important factors explaining differences in perceived autonomy on three different levels – the individual, organizational and societal level?RQ3: How are these factors influenced by media development? What is giving stronger or weaker perceived autonomy?

FörfattarePubliceringsårÄmne
Gunnar Nygren

Östersjö- och Östeuropaanknytning

Ja
2015

Institution/Centrumbildning

Samhällsvetenskaper
Journalistik

Forskarutbildningsområde

Politik, ekonomi och samhällets organisering

In: Journalism in change. Frankfurt am Main : Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2015. 19-40.

The concept of  ongoing professionalization has been a key area in journalism studies for many years (Zelizer, 2004; Schudson, 2003; Waisbord, 2013). Journalism has been described as gaining influence within the media system, mainly in relation to political power and state. With common standards and professional institutions, journalism has grown stronger in modern society. But is this still the case in an emerging interactive network society? Is the development the same in different media systems – is it possible to still have a process of professionalization in some parts of the world, and the reverse process in other parts of the world; a de-professionalization? Is professionalization the same in different media systems?This theoretical introduction gives some background to these questions covered in the project “Journalism in Change”. It gives different perspectives from research in four areas:-  Professions and professional logic, based on sociological research on professions.-  Ideals and standards as described in comparative journalism research.-  Professional autonomy and pressure from the political and economic spheres.-  Professionalization and media development, professional control and open participation. In the title, the object of study is labelled as “professional journalistic cultures” in Poland, Russia and Sweden. We know from cultural studies that cultures are not fixed, but remain in a constant flux and develop under influences from outside – from other cultures and areas. In journalism this becomes clear in the study of the history of journalism; for example in Sweden journalism has developed since the 18th century under French, German, British and American influence (Gustafsson and Rydén, 2010). The question is not if but how  journalistic cultures are changing; if globalization brings a more homogeneous journalistic culture, or if the development rather can be labelled as a hybridization where some element of global values and standards in journalism are adapted to national journalistic cultures (Hallin and Mancini, 2012:286).“Culture” is one of the key notions in this project, and the other is “professional”. To be a professional demands some kind of control over your own work, to have some kind of autonomy to follow the standards and values of the profession. Research in professions emphasize this autonomy as a question of power, about creating institutions making it possible for the members of the profession “to make a living while controlling their own work” (Freidson, 2001:17). Research has described a professionalization of journalism during the 20th century, but the question is how this is influenced by media development. Digital technology and commercialization are global trends, but how does this influence nationally rooted professional cultures? Are the consequences for professional autonomy the same in different kinds of media systems?For example: in Western countries, some researchers describe a de-professionalization of journalism: more unclear borders around the profession, harder economic conditions for traditional media and professional control questioned by an interactive network society (Nygren, 2008b:168, Örnebring, 2010b:568, Waisbord, 2013:60). But at the same time, journalists and media in many developing countries struggle for more professional control in relation to authoritarian regimes and also use new kinds of media platforms to achieve this. In countries with authoritarian regimes, professionalization can still be a strategy towards a greater degree of press freedom (Harro-Loit et al., 2012:153).In the project “Journalism in Change” we use theories on professionalization and comparative journalism research to analyze how  professional cultures are influenced by media development. Our basic assumption is that the changes are not the same in countries as different as Poland, Russia and Sweden. But it is also likely to find similarities – and these might bring  journalistic cultures closer to each other.In the  end there is also the underlying question about  media content; how are standards and practices among journalists influencing  journalistic content, which is so important for all citizens to construct their picture of the world? This project does not include analyses of media content, but the basic assumption is that journalists´ belief about standards and values and their professional practice also influence the results in newspapers, broadcasts on TV and radio and in online news sites.That is why professional journalistic cultures are not only a question for journalists, but for society as a whole.

FörfattarePubliceringsårÄmne
Gunnar Nygren

Östersjö- och Östeuropaanknytning

Ja
2015

Institution/Centrumbildning

Samhällsvetenskaper
Journalistik

Forskarutbildningsområde

Politik, ekonomi och samhällets organisering

In: Journalism in change. Frankfurt am Main : Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2015. 41-62.

The object of this study is professional cultures among journalists in three countries. The first question in the process is to decide who is a journalist – and the answer is not evident. Deuze (2007:141) describes contemporary journalism as only one kind of work in the broad media sector – an industry with unclear borders between different parts and media workers going in and out of different professional roles. He calls them “portfolio workers” going between assignment and professional roles, which become liquid. Other research describes journalism as a profession passing through on the way to other  better paid jobs (Nygren, 2011:219; Pasti et al., 2012:280).In this study, journalists are defined as people professionally producing content based on facts (not fiction or entertainment) for what  we traditionally label as “mass media”, in contemporary debate also called “legacy media”: newspapers and magazines, TV and radio channels, online and digital formats connected to the traditional media industry. Also the growing number of “content producers” outside  media companies is included; freelancers  and those employed in production companies. This classic definition of a journalist has problems, for example the borders towards public relations, content marketing and towards entertainment in feature journalism. It also means that independent bloggers and people producing all kind of content produced for  social media platforms are not included in the definition, even if this content has journalistic qualities and sometimes also can generate incomes making it professional in some sense.It is likely that the definition of “journalists” is going to change, professional borders are not fixed forever and media development changes the industry quickly (Anderson et al., 2013). But still this old definition has relevance in relation to the content for daily media consumption. This old definition also makes it possible to connect to earlier research on journalists and their professional cultures in the coming analysis.In this chapter we give the reasons behind the choice of Poland, Russia and Sweden, and some background on professional journalism in these three countries. We also describe the design of the project and the research questions to be answered. The methods in accomplishing the survey and interviews are described in detail.

FörfattarePubliceringsårÄmne

Boguslawa Dobek-Ostrowska

Elena JohanssonGunnar Nygren

Östersjö- och Östeuropaanknytning

Ja
2015

Institution/Centrumbildning

Samhällsvetenskaper
Journalistik

Forskarutbildningsområde

Politik, ekonomi och samhällets organisering

In: Journalism in change. Frankfurt am Main : Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2015. 9-18.

FörfattarePubliceringsårÄmne

Boguslawa Dobek-Ostrowska

Gunnar Nygren

Östersjö- och Östeuropaanknytning

Ja
2015

Institution/Centrumbildning

Samhällsvetenskaper
Journalistik

Forskarutbildningsområde

Politik, ekonomi och samhällets organisering

Frankfurt am Main : Peter Lang Edition, 2015.

A transnational research project: “Journalism in Change: Professional journalistic culture in Poland, Russia, and Sweden” The purpose of the project “Journalism in Change” is to identify common parts of a transnational journalistic culture and common changes in journalism in general in different media systems, as well as the differences among the three selected countries. It is also possible to relate the results to national differences in history and culture, to analyze the relationship between globalization and national differences.The research design can be described as a “most-different” selection of cases. The project includes three countries representing different media systems, of different historical and political backgrounds and different sizes – Sweden, Russia and Poland, situated on the Baltic Sea. All of them have had  relationships in the past. They were intense between Poland and Sweden in the times of the 16th and 18th centuries, and between Sweden and Russia from the 12th to 19th century, and Poland and Russia have had a very deep relationship from medieval times until today. The communist period (1945-1989) was significant for Polish and Russian journalism and professional cultures. Despite a common geographical location and history, the three states are different in many aspects: journalistic culture  being influenced by different external factors, such as a democratic tradition (or lack of this experience), religion, education systems, economic development, and access to  new technologies of communication. In  fact, “Journalism in Change” is the first comparative project covering journalistic culture in these three countries.We were aware of these differences from the beginning, , but we also wanted to look at whether there are any similarities. With the study design it has become possible to analyze what changes in journalism in different types of society have in common, and what kind of differences come from the characteristics of each society. Who  takes part in the project and why? Journalism has experienced deep changes in recent  decades. For this reason, it seemed interesting to verify this general opinion in the case of only a few countries using  empirical research. The points of departure for this book are based on two variables – technical and economic; it was our  goal to observe how these two types of changes are influencing different media systems. The research project “Journalism in Change – professional journalistic cultures in Poland, Russia and Sweden” was conducted in the period  2011-2014. The project assumes a multidisciplinary approach, with researchers in journalism, media sociology, and political science. Researchers from Södertörn University (Sweden), Moscow State University (Russia) and University of Wrocław (Poland) worked together in the project to produce this final monograph. Two additional reports were published at the earlier stages of the project (Nygren et al., 2012; Anikina et al., 2013). Dissemination activities also include a number of articles published in scientific journals (Anikina, Dobek-Ostrowska and Nygren, 2013; Dobek- Ostrowska, Barczyszyn and Michel, 2013; Dobek-Ostrowska, Barczyszyn, Michel and Baranowski, 2013; Johansson, 2013, 2014; Johansson and Nygren, 2014; Nygren, 2012c). Hypotheses We formulated the two groups of hypotheses (see more 2.2.1.), which are important from the comparative perspective. The first group is linked with similarities/differences among journalistic cultures in three countries: H1: There is an increasing similarity in journalistic cultures in different media systems; market influence and liberal ideals are more common in pushing journalism in the direction of a commercialized Western model.H2: The similarities between journalistic cultures are mostly superficial, nationally rooted traditions of history and culture still deeply influence journalistic cultures and preserve differences between them. The liberal ideals in journalism are getting stronger with market liberalism; a global media culture is emerging (Hallin and Mancini, 2004). This hypothesis can be defined as a homogenization of journalism in different media systems under the influence of technological and economic development, and the counterhypothesis can be the opposite that the similarities are mostly superficial: H3: Media development makes the profession weaker as a collective, the borders of journalism are more diffuse and professional autonomy weaker. Journalism, both as media content and as a profession, will be more difficult to perceive, because it will be different from that which we knew during the 20th century.H4: Media development can strengthen the position of the individual journalist, giving him/her new possibilities both in research and in publishing. This can give journalists a new kind of autonomy. Other research shows that social institutions like journalism are  hesitant to abandon their  conventions even in the “age of the net” when communication patterns in  society are changed (O’Sullivan and Heionen, 2008). A professional culture is sluggish, and moves only slowly in spite of changes in the surroundings – technical, economic and political. Journalists are often seen as conservative, and research shows that fast changes also promote a reaction of defense of old values (Witschge and Nygren, 2009). This can also be defined as hybridization, when hybrid systems emerge, melting together elements from the global development and national history and traditions (Hallin and Mancini, 2012). Research questions The hypotheses presented below provoke a long list of research questions, which are presented by the authors in each chapter. The research questions are linked with an area of analysis, but in general, three fundamental questions were addressed: RQ1: What are the differences and similarities among  journalists in Poland, Russia and Sweden when it comes to the basic dimensions (age, sex, education and professional training, membership of  professional associations), working conditions, professional autonomy of the individual, organizational and societal level, ideals, standards and values of research’s participants, their relationship with politics and politicians, their attitudes towards commercialization, the new technologies used in  journalistic practice?RQ2: What are the most important factors explaining the differences observed between media systems?RQ3: How are the factors mentioned in RQ1 influenced by media development in the three countries? Methods The researchers from the three countries participated in the research workshops and in accomplishing the research. Three methods were used: Survey/quantitative data analysis: A total 1500 respondents – a sample of 500 journalists from each country - Poland, Russia and Sweden, participated in the survey (see more 2.2.3.).Interview/qualitative data analysis: 60 in-depth interviews were conducted with a broad selection of 20 journalists in each country (see more 2.2.4).The survey and the interviews have covered several areas:Who are the journalists? – age, gender and social position, income, and education.The daily work – employment and conditions, perceived autonomy and influence.Professional identity and relation to politics, commercialism and media owners.Attitudes towards technology, interactivity and change in work. Social media use and multiskilling.Professional roles in society, quality and press freedom.Quantitative and qualitative comparative analysis: Surveys and interviews which were conducted in the three countries allowed  us to use the received results for analyzing data sets by listing and counting all the combinations of variables observed in the data set. We compared the unique combination of values of its independent and dependent variables. We compared the data as numbers, percentages, standard deviation, means, factor analysis, and Pearson correlation.The project has not studied journalism performance and media content. It has focused on the journalists, on how they think about their role in society and in  media companies, about their daily work and their reflections on change. For example,  journalists gave opinions on the quality of journalism, answering the question of whether it could be said to decrease, or not. There are no empirical data to support these opinions, no content analyses. The results are only the opinions of the journalists.But in a comparative perspective, this still can bring new knowledge. It is possible to compare different generations, journalists in different kinds of media and in different media systems. What the journalists say has  relevance, as long as we believe there is a connection between what you think and how  you act. Monograph “Journalism in Change” This book is designed as a series of comparative chapters in different areas. Each author is responsible for the chapter, but the results have been discussed in the group and were carefully evaluated.In Chapter One Gunnar Nygren gives a theoretical background to comparative journalism studies. The study covers theories on professions, autonomy, as well as research on how current media developments influence journalism.In Chapter Two, background information on media systems in three selected countries is provided by Gunnar Nygren, Bogusława Dobek-Ostrowska, and Elena Johansson. The manuscript also contains a description of methods in the survey and the interviews and how the results have been analyzed.In   Chapter Three Michał Głowacki makes attempts to answer the question “Who is a journalist today?” He puts the emphasis on selected dimensions of comparative studies of journalism: demographic traits and facts on education, conditions of employment and the role professional associations.In   Chapter Four  Jöran Hök analyzes  daily work practices, working conditions, multiskilling and other dimensions of daily work.In Chapter Five Gunnar Nygren focuses on the perceived autonomy among journalists and the degree of freedom within given frames in the three countries, as well as on political and commercial pressure on journalists in their daily work.In Chapter Six Maria Anikina analyzes ideals and values, professional ethics and attitudes towards society. Also verification and other key values are analyzed in relation to media developments.In Chapter Seven Bogusława Dobek-Ostrowska analyzes the relationship between journalism and politics, both the political preferences of journalists and how politics interferes in news processes.In Chapter Eight Bogusława Dobek-Ostrowska analyzes the relationship between journalism and commercialization. This includes foreign ownership and also external economic pressure.In   Chapter Nine Elena Johansson analyzes how journalists relate to social media, how they use social media and for  what purposes.In   Chapter Ten Gunnar Nygren and Bogusława Dobek-Ostrowska summarize the analysis, and relate the results to other comparative research in journalism. They discuss the questions of homogenization of journalism globally, or if  development is more likely to be described as hybridization of journalism with new forms of media systems emerging. 

FörfattarePubliceringsårÄmne

Boguslawa Dobek-Ostrowska

Gunnar Nygren

Östersjö- och Östeuropaanknytning

Ja
2015

Institution/Centrumbildning

Samhällsvetenskaper
Journalistik

Forskarutbildningsområde

Politik, ekonomi och samhällets organisering

Baltic Worlds 2014, VII (2-3): 27-36.

The specific of Russian media model called as Statist Commercial model is a combination of Western market economy elements with considerable influence from the political elite. It is also characterized by state control of media, lack of legal protection for journalists, restriction of professional journalistic autonomy, and censorship/self-censorship. However, the media market is represented not only by propagandistic national TV channels but also by press disloyal to the Kremlin, indicating a degree of diversity and pluralism.The Russian media is targeting different audiences: the larger group serves the wide audience who passively absorbing the propaganda; the smaller (“liberal”) media group enables a small stratum of intellectuals to let off steam and as a facade of democracy for the worldwide public. Both groups are functioning diachronically, being directly or indirectly managed by the state.The development of social media created new conditions for Russian journalists. LiveJournal is the most popular and relatively non-controlled blog platform in Russia. The core of political/public discourse is mainly held there and potentially can be useful for Russian journalists. This research is based on analysis of 100 journalist’s blogs in the period of the last presidential election 2012; the findings show how they use LiveJournal for professional goals. This paper is discussing to what extend journalists’ blogging works as a compensatory means and a tool for self-expression outside the media companies in conditions of press freedom restriction.  

FörfattarePubliceringsårÄmne
Elena Johansson

Östersjö- och Östeuropaanknytning

Ja
2014

Institution/Centrumbildning

Samhällsvetenskaper
Journalistik

Forskarutbildningsområde

-

Central European Journal of Communication 2014, 7 (2): 273-290.

The Russian journalism has certain peculiarities based on deeply rooted traditions and state of the modern media system. It has developed a double professional culture; on the one hand it has been serving the state interests and on the other hand journalism has been a mission of enligthment and education in the tradition of the “intelligentia”. New technologies drastically affect media work. Since the mid of 2000s the introduction of social media challenged journalists’ role in society as well as professional practices and norms. This paper discusses an existence of pattern of using social media by Russian journalists based on historical roots and socio-cultural and political background. 

FörfattarePubliceringsårÄmne
Elena JohanssonGunnar Nygren

Östersjö- och Östeuropaanknytning

Ja
2014

Institution/Centrumbildning

Samhällsvetenskaper
Journalistik

Forskarutbildningsområde

Politik, ekonomi och samhällets organisering

The Journal of Media Innovations 2014, 1 (2): 75-96.

Multiskilling in a journalism context is not a case of “de-skilling” of the profession. There are problems related to the quality in newsrooms adapting multiskilling strategies, but in general multiskilling is more correctly defined as a re-skilling or an up-skilling. This is the conclusion from results of a survey of 1,500 journalists in Poland, Russia and Sweden, along with interviews with 60 journalists in these three countries. Multiskilling in journalism gives more room for creativity and more power to the individual journalist, according to those with experience of working as multi-reporters. It allows them more freedom to make their own decisions in their daily tasks, e.g., choosing subjects and stories. At the same time, from the perspective of the media company, multiskilling is a strategy to increase production in the newsrooms. But multiskilling has no direct correlation with downsized newsrooms: it is rather an industry norm for how to organize work in newsrooms of today.  Multiskilling is also changing the journalistic culture, putting more focus on production and adapting content for different channels.

FörfattarePubliceringsårÄmne
Gunnar Nygren

Östersjö- och Östeuropaanknytning

Nej
2014

Institution/Centrumbildning

Samhällsvetenskaper
Journalistik

Forskarutbildningsområde

Politik, ekonomi och samhällets organisering

Journal of Print and Media Technology Research 2014, 3 (2): 107-118.

Professional journalistic culture is a complex of journalistic values, practices, norms and media products. On the one hand it tends to unification across the globe, but on the other hand these cultures varies according to cultural diversities.  Technological development leads to a media convergence, increasing interactivity and plenty of opportunities for individualization of media content influence audience’s demands and consequently challenge of traditional routine of journalists’ work, affect professional practices and even undermine traditional role of a journalist in society. Social media creates new conditions for both actors: readers/viewers/listeners and for media professionals who use it as a tool for media work.  Journalists in the different countries, however, use social media for professional needs not equally. This paper is discussing differences and similarities in the patterns of social media use by Polish, Russian and Swedish journalists.  The research is based on a survey of 500 journalists in each country.  

FörfattarePubliceringsårÄmne

Pawel Baranowski

Elena JohanssonGunnar Nygren

Jonas Appelberg


Östersjö- och Östeuropaanknytning

Nej
2014

Institution/Centrumbildning

Samhällsvetenskaper
Journalistik

Forskarutbildningsområde

Politik, ekonomi och samhällets organisering

In: Journalism in Russia, Poland and Sweden. Huddinge : Journalistik, Södertörns högskola, 2012. 53-72.

FörfattarePubliceringsårÄmne
Jöran Hök

Östersjö- och Östeuropaanknytning

Nej
2012

Institution/Centrumbildning

Samhällsvetenskaper
Journalistik

Forskarutbildningsområde

-

In: Journalism in Russia, Poland and Sweden. Huddinge : Journalistik, Södertörns högskola, 2012. 73-95.

FörfattarePubliceringsårÄmne
Gunnar Nygren

Östersjö- och Östeuropaanknytning

Nej
2012

Institution/Centrumbildning

Samhällsvetenskaper
Journalistik

Forskarutbildningsområde

-

Huddinge : Journalistik, Södertörns högskola, 2012.

Denna skrift är en första rapport från ett forskningsprojekt som leds av professor Gunnar Nygren - Journalism in Change. Projektet studerar hur den moderna teknologin förändrar villkoren för journalistiken.I skriften, den första på engelska i vår skriftserie, medverkar projektdeltagare från Sverige, Polen och Ryssland: Gunnar Nygren och Jöran Hök från journalistikämnet; Maria Anikina, Moskva och Boguslawa Dobek-Ostrowska, Wroclaw.

FörfattarePubliceringsårÄmne
Gunnar Nygren

Östersjö- och Östeuropaanknytning

Nej
2012

Institution/Centrumbildning

Samhällsvetenskaper
Journalistik

Forskarutbildningsområde

-

Status

Avslutad

Projektledare

Gunnar Nygren
Professor
Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper

Personer knutna till projektet

Elena Johansson
Projektforskare, Fil dr
Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper

Jöran Hök
Lektor, Fil dr
Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper


Professor Boguslawa Dobek Ostrowska, University of Wroclaw

PhD Maria Anikina, Moscow State University

Mer information

Projektstart: 2011
Projektslut: 2015

Finansiär: Östersjöstiftelsen

Projektet har Östersjö- och Östeuropaanknytning: Ja

Information in English

Ämnen som projektet är knutet till

Institution/Centrumbildning som projektet är knutet till