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New generation EU directives, sustainability, and the role of transnationalcoordination in Baltic Sea maritime s... Mer info
Ocean and Coastal Management 2019, 169 : 254-263.
The EU MSP Directive is an example of a so-called new generation directive, which gives Member States room foradaptation to national contexts. The main objective in this article is to identify and analyse potential obstacles toeffective and efficient planning caused by the diversity among national MSP frameworks that the Directive'sbroad regulatory boundaries have led to. It is shown that planning approaches can differ substantially betweenneighbouring countries, which can make it challenging to coordinate across national borders. Divergence betweennational MSP frameworks can also emerge from how political, jurisdictional and, administrative systemsand traditions are organised in different Member States. It is shown that neighbouring countries can divergesubstantially in how the ecological, economic and social dimensions of sustainability are balanced, which canmake transnational coordination challenging. Furthermore, it is shown that stakeholder consultations differamong Member States in terms of, for example, who were invited, how the consultations were undertaken, andthe role they play in relation to political decision-making. Because of these, and other differences in how MSPframeworks are being developed in the Member States, it is suggested that regional integration should bepromoted with discretion. From this perspective, it seems reasonable to embrace diversity, while simultaneouslypromoting the adaptive management of coordination problems at lower levels, when, or if, they emerge or canbe foreseen. Thus, increased integration of national MSP frameworks should be viewed as an instrument toreduce concrete efficiency losses, rather than as an intrinsic good.
Malmö : Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2019.
Barns filosofi utmanar både etablerade filosofiska idéer och pedagogiska praktiker genom att ställa frågor om det som vuxna ofta tar för givet. Den här boken utgår från de filosofiska frågor och undersökningar som uppstår i barns egna göranden, lekar och växande. Utifrån barnens filosoferande visas hur deras tankar och undersökningar bidrar till filosofiska diskussioner och hur dessa kan påverka vuxnas pedagogiska förhållningssätt. I boken möter barnens tankar filosofi från antiken till vår samtid, från olika traditioner, som existentialism, pragmatism och urfolksfilosofi, samt filosofer som Platon, Thoreau, Diogenes, Wittgenstein, Kierkegaard, Heidegger och Weil. Här behandlas frågor om barndom och lek, språk och mening, politik och etik, liv och död, samt pedagogiska förhållningssätt till barns utforskande av sådana ämnen. Genom att uppmärksamma den filosofi som uppstår i mötet med barnens nyfikenhet förespråkar författaren en omedelbarhetens pedagogik. En pedagogik som består i att kunna ta tillvara barnens filosofi när den uppstår. Detta är en bok som väcker frågor, intresse och en känsla för barns tänkande, snarare än att ge färdiga svar – det är en bok att tala om, diskutera och tänka med. Filosofi i tidig barndom - Omedelbarhetens pedagogik riktar sig i huvudsak till blivande förskollärare och barnskötare och till de som arbetar med barn i förskolan, men även till dem som lever med barn och som intresserar sig för små barns tänkande. Viktor Johansson är Lektor i pedagogik vid Södertörns högskola. Hans forskning har fokus på pedagogisk filosofi, litteraturens roll i pedagogiska undersökningar, samt barns tänkande.
Psychiatry Research 2019, 271 : 721-725.
Historically, asthma has had a mixed association with mental health. More research is needed to examine the associations between asthma and specific psychiatric disorders, and whether these associations hold true across racial groups in the general population of the United States. Using the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys, we examined the associations between lifetime asthma and specific DSM-IV psychiatric disorders, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and smoking status. We found that when looking at the entire sample, self-reported diagnosis of asthma was associated with greater odds of reporting mood disorders (AOR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.05-1.74). Asthma was not significantly associated with total anxiety disorders (AOR 1.25; 95% CI: 0.98-1.60), though it was specifically associated with generalized anxiety disorder. Asthma was associated with greater odds of having alcohol use disorders (AOR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.24-2.37), but was not associated with total eating disorders (AOR:1.36; 95% CI: 1.17-2.51) (though it was significantly associated with higher odds for binge eating disorder, but lower odds of reporting bulimia). The strength and the significance of the associations between asthma and psychiatric disorders varied when stratified by race, underscoring the importance of examining race as a potential explanation for the mixed findings observed previously in the literature.
In: Managing Hybrid Organizations. Cham : Palgrave Macmillan, 2019. 49-72.
For more than a century, mutual insurers have dominated the Swedish insurance market. Independent of the historical roots and traditions, companies that sell life and other (non-life) forms of insurance have chosen the mutual organizational form. We focus on two different mutual insurers—Folksam and Länsförsäkringar—in decoding their historical roots, governance and management structure. Our focus is on the differences and similarities with special attention to customer’s participation in governance. The chapter shows that it is indeed possible to organize successful hybrid organizations with longevity and that the state’s role in the process is vital but not always a precondition for successful development of hybrid firms. In addition, the chapter also shows that it is difficult to include customers/owners in the governance of these firms and that there exist many different options for creating such systems.
Examining the role of integration in marine spatial planning - Towards an analytical framework to understand challenges in diverse settingsMer info
Ocean and Coastal Management 2019, 169 : 1-9.
Contemporary Politics 2019, 25 (1): 1-10.
Democratic innovations have recently gained momentum throughout the world. An increasing number of such practices takes place and coincides with a visible grow in the number of analyses focusing on the forms, functioning and effects of democratic innovations. In spite of these developments, a great deal of research on democratic innovations have largely neglected Central and Eastern Europe. This special issue of Contemporary Politics adds to the existing literature on democratic innovations by focusing on such attempts to deepen citizen participation in the political decision-making process in Central and Eastern Europe. Its attempt to expand the research agenda relies on new empirical evidence relative to three major forms of democratic innovations (direct democracy, deliberative democracy and citizens’ involvement with the aid of ICTs).
Master seminars in music education across eighteen years - Inclusion, equality and democracy as lived experienceMer info
In: Advancing Music Education in Northern Europe. : Routledge, 2019. -.
As a newly enrolled master’s’s student in music education, my supervisor sent me to Oslo and my first Nordic Network for Music Education (NNME) seminar, my first real academic experience. Then, as well as now, the NNME network plays a very important role for students and scholars in a rather small and Northerly situated institution. I was totally overwhelmed by interesting research presentations, an atmosphere of skill and curiosity, as well as generosity and openness, when it came to both academic communication and social activities. I think the feelings that permeated that first seminar in 1999 have for me influenced all following NNME seminars and steering group meetings, as well my expectations all through academic life. Highlights from that experience can be seen as expressions of inclusion, equality and democracy, concepts that I will come back to all through this text. I will reflect upon how I have been included, how my voice has been heard and listened to and how I have experienced democracy as a participant in NNME activities. I will also explore how, together with others, I have contributed likewise within different roles in NNME settings, and how the different content, themes and methods of the seminars have developed intertwined with the inclusive, equal and democratic atmosphere. This chapter will start with a picture of my journey from a master’s’s student, through the role of PhD student, teacher, keynote speaker, member of the steering group and application writer, which also will function as a red thread through the chapter. Next comes a theoretical introduction where the mentioned concepts will be philosophically based, and thereafter follows a section where inclusive, equal, democratic music education in practice will be questioned and discussed. Finally I will share some thoughts about the future. Thus I will illuminate the different angles of inclusion, equality and democracy that have characterized my participation and experiences while taking part in NNME seminars across 18 years.
Citizenship Education - Ideology or System? A Critical View on Civic Educational Policy ThinkingMer info
In: Handbook of Research on Education for Participative Citizenship and Global Prosperity. Hershey, PA : IGI Global, 2019. 431-446.
The purpose of this chapter is to investigate salient approaches to citizenship and civic-normative educationin liberal democratic life. The chapter argues that core technocratic assumptions about clarity,linearity, and predictability feeding into civic-educational deployment and change warrant critical attention.The chapter aims to shed new light on states’ instinct to regard themselves and their value setsas seamless conceptual wholes. A range of ramifications of this typical approach are interrogated, inprinciple as well as in relation to Swedish civic-educational matrices. The chapter refines a heuristicmodel for unpacking citizenship and civic-normative education thinking in liberal democracy originallypresented in an earlier work by the author. It is concluded that even as the enormous policy efforts thatgo into organizing and revamping public civic-normative education in response to new societal challengeshave little chance of meeting governments’ intentions; they may still be important since they areexerted in highly visible public spaces and domains.
Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 2019, 31 (1-2): 104-118.
For a sample of all 88 counties in the State of Ohio over a 5-year period, this study documents the effect of flagship enterprises and concentrated industrial clusters on regional innovation. Consistent with the agglomeration arguments and the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship, both appear to affect regional innovation positively. Additionally, regional educational attainment positively moderates the effect of industrial clusters on innovation. At the same time, flagship enterprises primarily affect regional innovation in regions with low education levels. Results are obtained with the help of conservative econometric techniques and are robust to the choice of alternative dependent variables and estimators. The findings have major policy implications and provide insights into alternative routes to encouraging regional innovation.
Grazing networks promote plant functional connectivity among isolated grassland communities Mer info
Diversity & distributions 2019, 25 (1): 102-115.
Aim: Habitat loss threatens plant diversity globally. Lack of plant functional connectivity between isolated populations is often pinpointed as one of the major underlying mechanisms driving subsequent species extinctions. Therefore, landscape-scale conservation management promoting functional connectivity needs to be implemented urgently. Supporting the movement of seed dispersal vectors such as grazing animals may help safeguard local and regional plant diversity in fragmented landscapes. However, the efficacy of such management remains to be thoroughly assessed. Location: Stockholm archipelago, Sweden. Methods: We test how grazing animals may serve as mobile corridors within rotational grazing networks promoting plant functional connectivity via directed seed dispersal. Using landscape genetics, we compare isolated populations of the grassland perennial Campanula rotundifolia located in either active or abandoned grazing networks, to test if spatial patterns in their genetic diversity, differentiation and allele frequencies relate to the presence or absence of connectivity via rotational grazing management. Results: Grazing networks imprinted strong landscape-scale spatial patterning in pairwise population genetic differentiation and within-population genetic diversity. Isolated C. rotundifolia populations functionally connected by grazing animals held higher genetic diversity compared to populations no longer connected by grazing livestock. Gene flow linked to the directed seed dispersal was higher between populations within grazing networks, confirmed by their increased allele richness. We found a predictable, nested loss of genetic diversity among C. rotundifolia populations in abandoned grazing networks. Main conclusions: Grazing animals were important seed dispersal vectors, functionally connecting isolated grassland communities, so being vital to the successful long-term persistence and conservation of not only species but also genetic diversity. Crucially, the study underlines the possibilities of using domestic livestock as mobile corridors within rotational grazing networks as an effective tool to manage, conserve and restore both genetic and species diversity among isolated plant communities in fragmented landscapes.
Stability of Autistic Traits from 5 to 8 Years of Age Among Children in the General Population Mer info
Journal of autism and developmental disorders 2019, 49 (1): 324-334.
Little is known about the across time stability of autistic traits during the transition period from preschool to school age in the general population. The current study compared autistic traits assessed by a mother-reported quantitative measure, the Social Responsiveness Scale, at age 5 and 8 years and examined the intraclass correlation coefficients of scores across the period for 168 Japanese community-based children. Results showed that total and two subdomain-related autistic trait scores remained primarily stable in males and females. This stability was observed for both children with higher and lower autistic traits scores with a possible sex-specific pattern. Our findings suggest that autistic traits in the general population can be reliably assessed using quantitative measures for this age period.
Worlds apart, worlds together - Converging and diverging frames in climate and energy governanceMer info
Globalizations 2019, 16 (1): 67-82.
This paper argues that past research has overlooked how the way problems and solutions are framed contribute to a prevailing gap in the global governance of climate and energy. Empirically, this paper investigates the frames of energy and climate change as expressed in key documents from the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and International Energy Agency (IEA). Partly in contrast to past research, this paper finds (1) that there is a growing similarity in how the IPCC and IEA frame climate and energy; (2) that the IEA has gone from ignoring to acknowledging climate change and the transformation to a low-carbon energy system; and (3) that there is a prevailing difference in emphasis, whereas the IPCC only marginally discuss energy, while the IEA is still mainly talking about energy needs and fossil fuels even if climate change and renewables have entered their agenda.
Critique 2019, 60 (1): 1-10.
This article proposes a fresh contextual reading of Amis’s Money as a novel that engages the crisis of Fordism in the 1970s and 1980s. Critical attention has focused largely on its satirical examination of the Thatcherite ethos, but Money is also centrally preoccupied with the collapse of postwar capitalism’s institutional structures of inter-class coordination. As a result of this process, the social phenomenology constructed by the novel is not only defined by growing inequality and economic fetishism, but also by a pervasive sense of political uncontrollability over the accumulation process.
Altered non-reproductive behavior and feminization caused by developmental exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol pers... Mer info
Aquatic Toxicology 2019, 207 : 142-152.
The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), ubiquitous in the aquatic environment and commonly detected in sewage effluents, interferes with the endocrine system in multiple ways. Exposure during sensitive windows of development causes persistent effects on fertility, reproductive and non-reproductive behavior in mammals and fish. In the present study, three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were exposed to nominal 0 and 20 ng/L EE2 from fertilization to 7 weeks post-hatch. After 8 months of remediation in clean water three non-reproductive behaviors, not previously analyzed in developmentally EE2-exposed progeny of wild-caught fish, were evaluated. Chemical analysis revealed that the nominal 0 and 20 ng/L exposure contained 5 and 30 ng/L EE2, respectively. Therefore, the use of control fish from previous experiments was necessary for comparisons. Fish exposed during development showed significant concentration-dependent reduction in anxiety-like behavior in the scototaxis (light/dark preference) test by means of shorter latency to first entrance to the white compartment, more visits in white, and longer total time in white compared to unexposed fish. In the novel tank test, developmental exposure significantly increased the number of transitions to the upper half of the aquaria. Exposure to EE2 during development did not alter shoal cohesion in the shoaling test compared with unexposed fish but fish exposed to 30 ng/L EE2 had significantly longer latency to leave the shoal and fewer transitions away from the shoal compared to fish exposed to 5 ng/L EE2. Skewed sex ratio with more females, sex reversal in genetic males as well as intersex in males was observed after exposure to 30, but not 5 ng/L EE2. In conclusion, EE2 exposure during development in three-spined stickleback resulted in persistent effects on anxiety-like behaviors. These long-term effects from developmental exposure are likely to be of higher relevance for natural populations than are short-term effects from adult exposure.
The Politics of Land Grabbing - State and corporate power and the (trans)nationalization of resistance in CameroonMer info
Journal of Agrarian Change 2019, 19 (1): 41-63.
Approaching land grabbing as a site of politics wherein power functions in the challenge and/or stabilization of agrarian socioecological injustices, we capture agrarian relations in Cameroon in 2 fundamental ways. Drawing on Laclauian insights, we discuss power as a “counter‐hegemonic” practice, to characterize the resistance strategies of local NGOs, in terms of their articulated discourses around the socioecological effects of land grabs, on the one hand, and the political possibilities that this articulatory practice opens, in terms of (trans)nationalizing resistance across social identities and space, on the other hand. Here, the analysis adopts a Foucauldian‐inspired critique with strong commitments towards agrarian socioecological justice, in a context where policies to protect democratic access to land are absent. Second, framed as a hegemonic/governmental “form of rule,” we capture how state and diplomatic actors sought to override dissent and stabilize the contentious land deal. We also show how a moment of presidential “nondecision,” characterized by a hyper‐centralized bureaucracy conjoined with these hegemonic forces to disempower local administrative and judicial leverage, thereby fostering corporate power. The article thus contributes to debates on state and corporate powers, as well as the strategies of, or possibilities and constraints for resistance “from below” to irradiate and structure into a compelling force.
What About the Hyperlocals? - The drivers, organization and economy of independent news media in SwedenMer info
Journalism Practice 2019, 13 (1): 68-89.
Using a survey of a sample of hyperlocal actors in Sweden (N = 178), this article examines preconditions, motivations and sustainability for hyperlocal media operations, outside the traditional media chains, in order to provide a picture of their function in the current media landscape, and to further build on the understanding of the hyperlocal business model. This study extends the hyperlocal definition by including media platforms other than websites. The results show that the operations indeed aim to support and foster citizenship, strengthen democracy and mirror the local community. At the same time, as shown by other studies, the fact that they are not large-scale, highly profitable operations may challenge their sustainability. Nonetheless, most of them claim to be profitable, largely because of the print platform, and have a positive outlook on the future. Revenues from advertising and readership are currently less substantial for Web-based operations, which reinforces the need to broaden the definition of hyperlocal publishing platforms when talking about financial sustainability. Currently, hyperlocal media in Sweden, with small resources and a lower publishing frequency, cannot be viewed as a replacement of established media, but play important roles as complementary alternative voices and contribute to media plurality in the local community.
Adverse childhood experiences, exposure to a natural disaster and posttraumatic stress disorder among survivors ... Mer info
Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences 2019, 28 (1): 45-53.
Aims.: To investigate whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) modify the impact of exposure to a natural disaster (the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami) on the occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among older people. Methods.: Data were collected as part of the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES), which is an on-going epidemiological survey investigating social determinants of health among older people across Japan. Information on PTSD symptoms based on the Screening Questionnaire for Disaster Mental Health, traumatic exposure to the earthquake (i.e., house damage and loss of relatives/friends during the earthquake/tsunami) and ACEs was obtained from 580 participants aged 65 or older living in Iwanuma City, Miyagi Prefecture, which suffered severe damage as a result of the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami in March 2011. Associations were examined using Poisson regression analysis with a robust variance estimator after adjusting for covariates. Results.: The prevalence of PTSD was 9.7% in this population; compared to those with no traumatic experience, the prevalence of PTSD was approximately two times higher among those who experienced the loss of close friends/relatives (PR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.11–3.03, p = 0.018), or whose house was damaged (PR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.07–4.34, p = 0.032). ACE was not significantly associated with PTSD. Stratified analyses by the presence of ACE showed that damage due to the earthquake/tsunami was associated with PTSD only among those without ACEs; more specifically, among non-ACE respondents the PR of PTSD associated with house damage was 6.67 (95% CI = 1.66–26.80), while for the loss of a relative or a close friend it was 3.56 (95% CI = 1.18–10.75). In contrast, no statistically significant associations were observed among those with ACEs. Conclusion.: Following the Great East Japan earthquake/tsunami in 2011 a higher risk of developing PTSD symptoms was observed in 2013 especially among older individuals without ACEs. This suggests that ACEs might affect how individuals respond to subsequent traumatic events later in life.
Studia Phaenomenologica 2018, XVIII : 183-205.
In this paper I examine how Merleau-Ponty develops Husserl’s genetic phenomenology through an elaboration of language, largely influenced by Saussure’s linguistics. Specifically, my focus will be on the unpublished notes to the course Sur le problème de la parole (On the Problem of Speech). I show how Merleau-Ponty recasts Husserl’s notion of the historicity of truth by means of an inquiry into the relation between truth and its linguistic expression. The account that Merleau-Ponty offers differs from Husserl’s in two important respects. Firstly, whereas Husserl describes a regressive inquiry of truth, Merleau-Ponty describes a regressive movement of truth, where every acquired truth seizes the tradition that precedes it. Secondly, this new notion of truth, and its dependency on its proper expression, opens up for a new understanding of literature.
Indigeneidad y diálogos interculturales en la política local - Una etnografía del Estado sobre los Kichwas de Cotacachi y OtavaloMer info
In: Imbabura Étnica. Ibarra, Ecuador : Editorial UTN/ Universidad Técnica del Norte, 2018. 73-113.
El objetivo principal del presente texto es examinar y problematizar la politización de la indigeneidad mediante el enfoque analítico en los encuentros y diálogos interculturales, y más específicamente de los Kichwas de Cotacachi y Otavalo, localidades tradicionalmente marcadas por las estructuras sociales excluyentes y racistas. Dentro del marco de la democracia deliberativa intercultural y las estructuras de oportunidades políticas, se analizarán las alianzas sociopolíticas de diferentes agrupaciones de ciudadanos y colectivos indígenas, que anteriormente estuvieron excluidas de las esferas públicas, y que confrontan nuevos desafíos y dilemas una vez que emergen como autoridades políticas a nivel local. ¿Cómo se reflejan las complejidades identitarias y de las alianzas interculturales en los procesos político-electorales locales de Cotacachi y Otavalo desde las perspectivas de los actores indígenas? Teóricamente y metodológicamente, la presente etnografía del Estado enfoca concretamente en el las transformaciones de los vínculos entre las poblaciones indígenas de Cotacachi y Otavalo y el Estado, asimismo considerando los diálogos y alianzas interculturales del movimiento indígena en las dos localidades. Estos procesos asimismo conllevan modificaciones de la indigeneidad, considerando que el grupo étnicamente definido siempre se autoidentifica en relación con otra categoría étnica, es decir: ¿Qué pasa con la identidad étnicamente definida cuando el movimiento colectivo llega a la posición de autoridad del Estado? Esta aproximación se sostiene metodológicamente en trabajo etnográfico en el campo, con una gran cantidad de entrevistas, conversaciones informales y observaciones participativas durante períodos en Cotacachi y Otavalo entre 2004 y 2018, así como una lectura crítica de publicaciones de los temas. Asimismo, hasta cierto grado se utiliza una aproximación metodológica comparativa, pero hay que aclarar que no se ofrecerá una comparación completamente sistemática entre los dos casos, más bien se destacarán las características y complejidades particulares de los dos contextos.
In: . : .
This paper focuses on the collaborative, society engaged practices of several Nordic architects that formed a joint-venture called “At Work With” at the Nordic pavilion, Venice Architecture biennale in 2010. As such, “At Work With, a hub for alternative practices within the field of architecture and design, forms the epi centrum of an emerging scene.The exhibition opens for three different discussions, the before, during and after of the exhibition.Before. Discussing the role of networks and dissemination of the many times temporary, site specific projects that the different groups work with. Thus, documentation and distribution through exhibitions, in magazines and on web-pages, became crucial for forming what Canadian media scientist Will Straw defines a scene, a scene that later could use the exhibition at the Venice Biennale as a site for practice.During. Following the exhibition as it unfolded over the 100 days of the biennale, as it was used as an ongoing space for production. Turning the sometimes static space for representation into an active space for participation. The Nordic pavilion changed into a temporary office space with a new “host” each week of the biennale.After. What ever happened to the net-worked based scene afterwards? Did the 100 days have any implications after the biennale? How was it received in a narrow discourse of Nordic architecture, and how was it understood in a broader context of international alternative practices?
Familj, medborgarskap, migration. - Sveriges politik för anhöriginvandring i ett jämförande perspektivMer info
Familj, medborgarskap, migration - Sveriges politik för anhöriginvandring i ett jämförande perspektivMer info
Stockholm : Delegationen för Migrationsstudier, 2018. (Delmi rapport ; 2018:5)
Since the 1980s, family migration is the most common reason for foreign citizens outside the Nordic countries to be granted the right to settle in Sweden. Family migration cover cases when a person who already live in a country reunites with a family member from another country.In June 2016, Sweden introduced a law on temporary restrictions in the possibility to achieve residence permit. The law was a direct result of the record-breaking immigration of asylum seekers experienced during the fall 2015. The measure was presented by the government as a necessity to protect the asylum reception system, as well as other central societal functions, from the strains caused by the large inflow of asylum seekers. One area where the 2016 rule changes have had the largest impact is family migration, which is the focus of study in this report. In particular, the stricter regulations meant that persons granted subsidiary protection status had very limited chances to get the right to reunite with their close family members. But the rule changes implied stricter regulations in relation to family migration affecting also other categories, and the Swedish population at large, e.g. in relation to support and housing requirements to be allowed to bring in a partner from a country outside of the EU.Adopting a comparative perspective, this study analyses how the recent Swedish changes in family migration regulations relate (1) to existing EU legislation; (2) to other countries’ national regulations and (3) to arguments and considerations previously put forward in the Swedish policy debate, as well as arguments reflected in family migration policy debates in the neighboring countries Denmark and Norway.The report begins with an introductory section describing the study’s aims, points of departure, method and delimitations. Thereafter follows a section which includes an overview of the numbers of family migrants in relation to other migrant categories, and a review of international research on family migration policies. The section provides a discussion about what principles, interests and values are at stake in this policy field. It is established that, besides migration policy concerns, issues revolving around family migration also bring to the fore central aspects of integration, citizenship and a society’s core values. A common European policy trend – identified in the literature as a “civic turn” in immigrant integration – is particularly highlighted. The trend reflects a renewed interest among states across Europe to actively strengthen and protect the national identity via formulation of new or sharpened requirements targeted at immigrants. Access to permanent residence permit, national citizenship or the right to reunite with a family member from abroad may for instance be conditioned with the applicant’s knowledge in the receiving state’s language, history and culture. Family migration policies potentially involve a “double conditionality” in the sense that integration requirements can be targeted both at the foreign family migrant and at the sponsor.The empirical study is divided in two parts. In the first part an overview is presented (based on MIPEX 2015) of family migration policy regulations in the 28 EU member states plus Norway and Switzerland. The overview concerns four categories conditions and demands that (under certain conditions) the EU family reunification directive allows states to use: (1) requirements on status of residence and residence time; (2) age requirements; (3) support and housing requirements and (4) language and integration requirements. Discussing the member states’ commitments according to the directive and giving an overview of existing legislation in differeing countries, this analysis contributes to concretize what the “EU minimum level” may imply. The empirical study in this part also gives an account of how the Swedish legislation positions itself in relation to the “EU minimum level” before and after the temporary law of 2016.The second part of the report study central policy processes in Sweden, Denmark and Norway which preceded decisions to introduce new or tougher demands and restrictions on family migration – or to reject such changes. The analysis provides a broad account of policy development in the three countries, from the turn of the millennium up to 2016, identifying what considerations, arguments and problem representations have guided the decisions. One conclusion of this analysis is that the large asylum migration in 2015 provoked reforms and changes in regulations in all three countries. But whereas the changes in Denmark and Norway were in line with policy development which had been noted during a very long (Denmark) or rather long (Norway) period of time, in Sweden the changes are to be described in terms of a sudden and paradigmatic migration policy change.In the last section the conclusions of the study and what insights can be drawn from them in relation to future policy decisions are discussed. The report shows that the Swedish 2016 changes in family migration regulations represented a dramatic deviation from previous policies, motivated solely as a way to reduce asylum immigration. The intention was to adjust Swedish rules to the EU minimum level, in order not deviate as the country with more generous rules. For future policy decisions there is however a need of a more profound and elaborated debate and analysis, which in earnest takes into consideration the different core principles and values which are at stake in family migration.
Förvarings- och odlingsdammar - Fiskdammar i det senmedeltida och tidigmoderna VästergötlandMer info