Vi skapar möten mellan olika kunskapsformer: praktik och teori, konst och vetenskap. Vi utforskar, medvetandegör och vidareutvecklar praktisk kunskap med betoning på arbetslivets olika kunskapsformer.
Möten mellan människor är grundläggande inom många yrkesområden. Centrum för praktisk kunskap bedriver forskning och erbjuder vidareutbildningar för yrkesgrupper där människokännedom på olika sätt är avgörande för yrkeskunnandet: i vård, skola och omsorgsyrken, exempelvis för poliser, skådespelare och högskolelärare. Våra utbildningar tar oftast sin utgångspunkt i deltagarnas erfarenheter och undersöker dessa utifrån (mestadels) humanistisk teoribildning.
Här publiceras löpande publikationer från publikationsdatabasen DiVA.
In: Wittgenstein and Naturalism. New York : Routledge, 2018. 223-240.
My aim in this paper is to use the later Wittgenstein to argue against what I call the continuity-view of human and animal expression. Further, I will show that skepticism about animal expression is not the only alternative to the continuity-view. The paper has three sections. In the first section, I articulate the central commitments of the continuity-view: 1) There is a significant overlap in expressive behavior between humans and animals 2) Adding new expressive repertoire to include linguistic expression does not fundamentally alter the entire spectrum of expressive behavior. In the second section, I develop some passages in Wittgenstein into an argument against those commitments. Reflections on the temporal dimension of expressions and the interplay between non-verbal and verbal expression are central to this argument. In the third and more tentative section, I turn to how to avoid skepticism about animal expression, specifically in the form of claiming that the word “expression” is ambiguous. I discuss two ways of preserving conceptual unity while avoiding the continuity-view: categorial generality (which I find in John McDowell’s view on the human-animal relation) and family resemblance (which I associate with Wittgenstein).
International Journal of Early Childhood 2018, 50 (1): 1-14.
This article explores how constructions of identity, race and difference permeate and are challenged in a Swedish preschool class. The study is informed by theories of phenomenology and critical whiteness. Data are drawn from a larger ethnographic study conducted in an ethnically diverse preschool. The purpose of the study was to explore how preschool teachers manage and reflect upon the construction of children’s social identity within the institution of a preschool. This report considers one incident relating to racial identity. It began with a child’s representation, the boy named Stanley, in a self-portrait: ‘I want to be white and blonde when I grow up… I want to be like Oscar, not a black boy’. Within this article we consider teachers’ reflections on this incident, discussing how ‘whiteness’ is performed, constructed and interrogated by young children and adults in the preschool and uncovering a certain institutional ‘colour blindness’. In this example ‘race’ announces itself and the children make it visible as an existing category in their everyday life. Children’s drawings and narratives reveal much about the implicit understandings and norms that surround them, pointing to teachers’ responsibilities for exploring the possibilities and limitations offered in preschool education to deal with these understandings.
Life Sciences, Society and Policy 2018, 14 (1): -.
This paper argues that phenomenological insights regarding selfhood are relevant to the informed consent process in the treatment of depression using electro-convulsive therapy (ECT). One of the most significant side-effects associated with ECT is retrograde amnesia. Unfortunately, the current informed consent model does not adequately appreciate the full extent in which memory loss disturbs lived-experience. Through the philosophy of Merleau-Ponty, it is possible to appreciate the way in which memory loss affects a person's self-experience, with emphasis given to one's pre-reflective and embodied, relationship with things in the world. This paper aims to demonstrate that proper informed consent should acknowledge the extent to which repeated ECT treatments affect a patient's sense self.
Life 2018, 14 (1): -.
In this article we explore how diagnostic and therapeutic technologies shape the lived experiences of illness for patients. By analysing a wide range of examples, we identify six ways that technology can (trans)form the experience of illness (and health). First, technology may create awareness of disease by revealing asymptomatic signs or markers (imaging techniques, blood tests). Second, the technology can reveal risk factors for developing diseases (e.g., high blood pressure or genetic tests that reveal risks of falling ill in the future). Third, the technology can affect and change an already present illness experience (e.g., the way blood sugar measurement affects the perceived symptoms of diabetes). Fourth, therapeutic technologies may redefine our experiences of a certain condition as diseased rather than unfortunate (e.g. assisted reproductive technologies or symptom based diagnoses in psychiatry). Fifth, technology influences illness experiences through altering social-cultural norms and values regarding various diagnoses. Sixth, technology influences and changes our experiences of being healthy in contrast and relation to being diseased and ill. This typology of how technology forms illness and related conditions calls for reflection regarding the phenomenology of technology and health. How are medical technologies and their outcomes perceived and understood by patients? The phenomenological way of approaching illness as a lived, bodily being-in-the-world is an important approach for better understanding and evaluating the effects that medical technologies may have on our health, not only in defining, diagnosing, or treating diseases, but also in making us feel more vulnerable and less healthy in different regards.
Medicine, Health care and Philosophy 2018, 21 (1): 77-87.
In this article I investigate the ways in which phenomenology could guide our views on the rights and/or wrongs of abortion. To my knowledge very few phenomenologists have directed their attention toward this issue, although quite a few have strived to better understand and articulate the strongly related themes of pregnancy and birth, most often in the context of feminist philosophy. After introducing the ethical and political contemporary debate concerning abortion, I introduce phenomenology in the context of medicine and the way phenomenologists have understood the human body to be lived and experienced by its owner. I then turn to the issue of pregnancy and discuss how the embryo or foetus could appear for us, particularly from the perspective of the pregnant woman, and what such showing up may mean from an ethical perspective. The way medical technology has changed the experience of pregnancy-for the pregnant woman as well as for the father and/or other close ones-is discussed, particularly the implementation of early obstetric ultra-sound screening and blood tests (NIPT) for Down's syndrome and other medical defects. I conclude the article by suggesting that phenomenology can help us to negotiate an upper time limit for legal abortion and, also, provide ways to determine what embryo-foetus defects to look for and in which cases these should be looked upon as good reasons for performing an abortion.
If You Encounter a Man in a Cage - Swedish Soldiers’ Encounters with Unstructured Problems in AfghanistanMer info
In: Mission Afghanistan. [Stockholm] : CSMS, Swedish Centre for Studies of Armed Forces and Society : The Swedish Association for Military history, 2017. -.
[Stockholm] : CSMS, Swedish Centre for Studies of Armed Forces and Society : The Swedish Association for Military history, 2017.
Every soldier has a story. They have, in their professional and everyday lives, gained experience from many different areas. The soldiers we meet in this book have ended up in various places and situations and have encountered people with dissimilar values and different kinds of knowledge. They have been in numerous situations and have visited a variety of places. Their involvement in different contexts has taught them how concepts are shaped in interaction with others. Their prosperity and adversity have enabled them over time to develop military professionalism based on memories, experience and knowledge. All of this has formed them into the unique individuals and professionals they are today. Still, the question remains: what and how can we learn from these examples?
Kritisk självreflektion i komplexa frågor - Att hjälpa studenterna att ta makten över sitt tänkandeMer info
Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 2017, : 1-20.
This paper presents and explicates the theory of empathy found in Edith Stein’s early philosophy, notably in the book On the Problem of Empathy, published in 1917, but also by proceeding from complementary thoughts on bodily intentionality and intersubjectivity found in Philosophy of Psychology and the Humanities published in 1922. In these works Stein puts forward an innovative and detailed theory of empathy, which is developed in the framework of a philosophical anthropology involving questions of psychophysical causality, social ontology and moral philosophy. Empathy, according to Stein, is a feeling-based experience of another person’s feeling that develops throughout three successive steps on two interrelated levels. The key to understanding the empathy process á la Stein is to explicate how the steps of empathy are attuned in nature, since the affective qualities provide the energy and logic by way of which the empathy process is not only inaugurated but also proceeds through the three steps and carries meaning on two different levels corresponding to two different types of empathy: sensual and emotional empathy. Stein’s theory has great potential for better understanding and moving beyond some major disagreements found in the contemporary empathy debate regarding, for instance, the relation between perception and simulation, the distinction between what is called low-level and high-level empathy, and the issue of how and in what sense it may be possible to share feelings in the empathy process. © 2017 The Author(s)
Society and Animals 2017, 25 (6): 573-591.
The aim of this study is to enhance the understanding of how sport dressage riders describe rider-horse communication when riding, and to relate these descriptions to current research on human-horse communication. Interviews with 15 amateur dressage riders were analyzed using a qualitative approach. The study shows that the interviewed riders describe the communication with the horses partly in a behavioristic way, applying concepts based on learning theory, which deviate from the description of riders as lacking understanding of these concepts put forth by some researchers. The riders connect the timing of their aids to equestrian feel, which they describe as the most difficult yet the most awarding aspect of the interspecies communication that riding is. Simultaneously, they acknowledge that horses are fully capable of choosing to listen to and cooperate with their requests.
Phenomenological bioethics - medical technologies, human suffering, and the meaning of being aliveMer info
Europe as identity and ideal - Reading Barroso’s ‘New Narrative’ heretically alongside Hegel, Husserl and PatočkaMer info
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2017.
Genom sin distinkta röst och inriktning har Marcia Sá Cavalcante utvidgat det svenska filosofiska språket. I sina texter har hon förvandlat den i hennes eget fall fritt valda exilen till ett tema av större räckvidd. Hennes tänkande är inte bara ett ”lovtal till intet”, som titeln lyder på en av hennes böcker, utan också till mellanrummet, såväl det historiska, kulturella, språkliga och filosofiska mellanrum där förlust och ankomst alltid är sammanlänkade. Genom hennes närvaro har den svenska och nordiska filosofiska miljön blivit rikare, mer mångfacetterad och mer spännande. Hon har också breddat förståelsen för vad filosofi är och därmed utvidgat möjligheterna för vad som är möjligt inom nordisk filosofi. Men hennes inflytande hörs inte bara i norden, utan har även fått internationell genklang och sträcker sig långt utöver det egna ämnets gränser. Om detta vittnar flera av bidragen i denna bok. Det känns följdriktigt att få hylla denna sällsynt mångspråkiga och mångbegåvade filosof med en volym som både genom sin utformning och sitt innehåll utgör en mötesplats for många röster, språk, och uttrycksformer – inte bara filosofin, utan även litteraturen, konsten och musiken.
In: Phenomenology of Pregnancy. Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2016. 7-14.
This anthology takes its starting point in the conviction that a phenomenologyof pregnancy could play an important role in contemporary thought. Stating this is also an acknowledgment that it doesn’t play such a role—yet. The aim of this anthology is to contribute to making philosophical reflectionon pregnancy a greater part of the discussions to come.
In: The Bloomsbury Companion to Contemporary Philosophy of Medicine. London : Bloomsbury Academic, 2016. 205-226.
The present chapter provides an overview of how phenomenology may enhance our understanding of themes central to medicine: the experience of illness, the meaning of suffering, the role of empathy and dialogue in the clinical encounter, the relationship between medical science on the one hand and medical practice on the other, and, finally, the impact of technology development on contemporary medicine. I will start out by explaining why and how a phenomenology of human embodiment is crucial to comprehend the experiences of illness in relation and contrast to biological dysfunctions of the body – diseases. I will then proceed by arguing that such an understanding of embodied illness can be developed and extended by way of comprehending the suffering of patients as embedded in a life world of human concerns.
Planerarens fronesis, intellectus och icke-vetande - En undersökning av den praktiska kunskapens djupdimensionerMer info
Medborgardialog – om det svåra i att mötas - Praktikers reflektioner om ett av demokratins viktigaste verktygMer info
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2016.
Här tecknar studenter på den erfarenhetsbaserade förskollärarutbildningen, och forskare som undervisar på samma utbildning, en bild av förskolepedagogens praktiska kunskap. Texterna rör sig mellan ett förtroget inifrånperspektiv och ett teoretiskt utifrånperspektiv. Boken kombinerar på så vis en djupgående undersökning av dagsaktuella frågor som relationen mellan omsorg och lärande, det ökade antalet diagnostiserade barn, resursbrist, lek och utbildningens betydelse, samtidigt som den sätter dessa frågor i relation till vilken förskola, och vilket samhälle, vi vill ha.
Om du möter en man i en bur - om svenska soldaters möten med ostrukturerade problem i AfghanistanMer info
Avhandlingspresentation: Please Be Patient - A Cultural Phenomenological Study of Haemodialysis and Kidney Transplantation CareMer info
In: Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal. Lengerich : Pabst Science Publishers, 2016. -.
In: Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal. Lengerich : Pabst Science Publishers, 2016. -.
Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal - A Comprehensive Literature ReviewMer info
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2016.
The fundamental and irreducible experience of carrying a child and bringing forth new life from one’s own body is in this anthology subjected to careful analyses that specifically, though not exclusively, draw on female experiences. In this way the crucial role of a phenomenology of pregnancy for contemporary thought is investigated. Exploring the phenomenon of pregnancy not just as a biological process, but also as a problem of lived bodily meaning, the contributions investigate a wide array of experiences that engage the limits of human life, subjectivity, intersubjectivity, and ethics, but also opens important methodological perspectives on the relation transcendental phenomenology and empirical research.
Review of: Krinková, Zuzana 2015. From Romani to Iberian Para-Romani Varieties. Prague: Karolinum Mer info
Please Be Patient - A Cultural Phenomenological Study of Haemodialysis and Kidney Transplantation CareMer info
This thesis examines the practice of haemodialysis and kidney transplantation, the two medical therapies available for persons with kidney failure, from a phenomenological perspective. A basic assumption made in the thesis is that contemporary biomedicine is deeply embedded in the cultural, historical, economic, and political circumstances provided by the particular local, national, and transnational contexts in which it is practiced. The aim of the thesis is twofold. On the one hand, the aim is to examine the forms of person- and patienthood enacted and negotiated in haemodialysis and kidney transplantation care and in the daily lives of persons with kidney failure. On the other hand, the aim is to investigate the ways in which the enacted and negotiated forms of person- and patienthood are culturally embedded and normatively charged. In order to examine and investigate this twofold aim, an empirical material has been gathered that comprises observations and in-depth interviews with patients and caregivers at four haemodialysis units, one in Riga, Latvia, and three in Stockholm, Sweden. The theoretical approach and methodology of the study is cultural and phenomenological in character, drawing on an ethnological and anthropological understanding of culture as processual and relational, and on a phenomenological understanding of personhood as embodied and intertwined with the surrounding world. The thesis shows that patients’ encounters and attempts to deal with the diagnoses and treatments associated with kidney failure are complex and often misalign them with the normatively charged orientations enacted and recommended by medicine. The complex situation that emerges when they undergo transplantation, for example, stands in stark contrast to the widespread official view of organ transplantation as a self-evidently health-bringing and normalising therapy. Through their repeated and extensive experiences of undergoing haemodialysis and living with the disease, patients eventually become able to create a synthesis between their lived experiences of their own body and their body as a medical object – what in the thesis is called a ‘sick body’ – a synthesis that allows them to reorient themselves in life and experience a sense of direction. This process relies, to a large extent, on the temporal structure that haemodialysis affords life; it is by repeatedly undergoing the treatment that patients become able to create a sick body. Even so, many of them find this temporal structure problematic; they experience it as disruptive of their control and future-orientedness and as causing an existentially difficult-to-handle boredom. The thesis also shows that the political developments and the norms prevalent in the two national contexts studied greatly affect the orientations of the treatment practices and the participants’ lives. In both Riga and Stockholm, ideals of freedom, activity, control, and self-actualisation influence what forms of patienthood and personhood are enacted. The study indicates that persons who fall ill with a serious and chronic disease only gradually become able to understand and actively cope with their differently embodied circumstances of life. This suggests that medical professionals should not too hastily enlist their patients as experts on their own bodies, but rather provide them with the time and support necessary for making repeated attempts at creating and maintaining a life with a sick body.
Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 2016, 15 (2): 227-245.
This paper presents a phenomenological account of empathy inspired by the proposal put forward by Edith Stein in her book On the Problem of Empathy, published originally 1917. By way of explicating Stein’s views, the paper aims to present a characterization of empathy that is in some aspects similar to, but yet essentially different from contemporary simulationist theories of empathy. An attempt is made to show that Stein’s proposal articulates the essential ingredients and steps involved in empathy and that her proposal can be made even more comprehensive and elucidating by stressing the emotional aspect of the empathy process. Empathy, according to such a phenomenological proposal, is to be understood as a perceptual-imaginative feeling towards and with the other person’s experiences made possible by affective bodily schemas and being enhanced by a personal concern for her. To experience empathy does not necessarily or only mean to experience the same type of feeling as the target does; it means feeling alongside the feeling of the target in imagining and explicating a rich understanding of the experiences of the very person one is facing.
Jenny Slatman: Our Strange Body: Philosophical Reflections on Identity and Medical Intervention Mer info
[Review of] The Feeling Body: Affective Science Meets the Enactive Mind, Giovanna Colombetti. Cambridge and Lond... Mer info
Somatechnics 2015, 5 (1): 32-51.
The aim of this paper is to explore the complexity of the concept of the victim within the context of organ trading. By examining the intricate phenomenon of organ trade, we show how prevailing notions of victimhood form the basis of concrete social practices. The empirical basis for this exploration comprises in-depth interviews conducted during fieldwork in South Africa and Kosovo. We also draw on research undertaken at various expert meetings. What our research in these locations attests to is that one-dimensional and generalised conceptualisations of victimhood are rife, and that these tend to be founded on a pre-theorised opposition between agency and victimhood. For persons who become practically and intimately involved in dealing with cases of organ trade – such as investigators and prosecutors – such conceptualisations do not hold. What is required is an understanding of victimhood that takes into account its complexity. In this paper, we explore attempts to grasp and reduce this complexity, and argue against generalised concepts of victimhood and for concepts that are sensitive to contextual and relational variations.
In: Bodily Exchanges, Bioethics and Border Crossing. Abingdon : Routledge, 2015. 19-34.
In this chapter I will attempt to develop a phenomenology of parts of the human body that have been removed from their site of origin but nevertheless preserve their “aliveness.” What happens when human body parts are stored in the medical laboratory and are even being transformed or cultivated there? How are we to view the ontological and ethical status of cells and organs that are being transplanted from one human body to another? Do these body parts preserve some kind of relationship to their source of origin: that is, the person from whom they have been retrieved? Do they belong to the person they originate from and, if so, in what way? What implications does this type of ownership have for ethical analysis? In some cases, at least, would the concept of sharing be more adequate in describing transfer of body parts between persons than the idea of a gift being made?
Coaching dressage riders - a qualitative interview study examining the changing paradigms of equestrian trainingMer info
In: Book of abstracts. : .
The proposed paper reports how coaches in dressage riding describe their methods for teaching riders to communicate with their horses, an ability which is considered paramount to an equipage's success at all levels of dressage test riding.The dominating description of dressage riding is anchored in a behaviourist paradigm, where the rider is seenas aprovider of signals to the horse through a combination so called aids (weight, leg, reins and voice), to which the horse responds. The rider's combination and timing of the aids is thus the focus of the training. The role of the horse is simply to react to these signals. This paradigm, together with the close ties to the uses of horses within the military, has favoured command-oriented methods in the training of horses and riders alike. However, during the last fifteen years, the interest in alternative ideas about training horses as well as when it comes to the role of the coach and their communication with the riders, has begun to grow.To begin examining how this shift-in-process affects dressage training today, data has been collected through semi-structured, in-depth interviews with five dressage coaches. Transcriptions of the interviews have been analysed from a phenomenographical perspective, an approach favouring qualitative investigations of how people experience and think about a phenomenon. The analyses reveal that the coaches work within a field of tensions between ideas pertaining from different theories on learning as well as different 'horseologies' (a termwhich we introduce to describe ideas about the role of the horse, about how horses learn and about horse-human relations which form an ideological core inthe various traditions within the equestrian communities). All coaches stress that their primary task and goal is to improve the riders' ability to communicate with their horse and thus to improve their 'equestrian feel'. They also point to the importance of involving the rider in the communicative work of the coaching situation. Some seem to be basing their work more firmly on the traditional understanding of the role of the horse as an object responding to the rider's signals, whereas others emphasizea some what more symmetrical relation, where the rider's role is that of aguide rather than that of acommander. In the coaches' accounts of their training practices, adaptions to the needs of each equipage arealso central. Such adaptions take into accountaspects such as the equipage's educational level, the short-and long term development goals and the current shape of horse and rider alike.The study reported in this paper is a part of a larger study concerning communication in the horse-rider-trainer triad.
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2015.
The idea of a limit of reason, a measure that defines reason and that it must not overstep, has been a constitutive part of philosophy since its beginnings in Greek thought. Placing itself in opposition to the madness of hubris, the excesses of tragedy, and the stories of religion and myth, philosophy expels its others just as much as it thrives on them. It begins and ends at the limit; it is drawn towards its outside, and exists as a perpetual attempt to find a line of demarcation that always ends up passing through its interior.The present collection analyzes the phenomenon of limit and excess, through readings that range from tragedy and Greek thought, through early Christianity and the Renaissance, to modern phenomenology and philosophy of language.
Continental philosophy review 2015, 48 (2): 107-122.
This article develops a phenomenological exploration of chronic pain from a first-person perspective that can serve to enrich the medical third-person perspective. The experience of chronic pain is found to be a feeling in which we become alienated from the workings of our own bodies. The bodily-based mood of alienation is extended, however, in penetrating the whole world of the chronic pain sufferer, making her entire life unhomelike. Furthermore, the pain mood not only opens up the world as having an alien quality, it also makes the world more lonesome and poor by forcing the sufferer to attend to the workings of her own body. To suffer pain is to find oneself in a situation of passivity in relation to the hurtful experiences one is undergoing. In making the body and the world more unhomelike places to be in, pain also tends to rob a person of her language. Severe pain is hard to describe because it pushes the person towards the borderlines of imaginable experience and because it makes it hard to see any meaning and purpose in the situation one has been forced into. The analysis of chronic pain in the article is guided by the attempts made by Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Jean-Paul Sartre, and Martin Heidegger to understand the nature of human embodiment and existence, and also by descriptions of chronic pain found in the Swedish author Lars Gustafsson’s novel The Death of a Beekeeper.
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2015.
Klassiska texter om praktisk kunskap är det allra första försöket att i bokform sammanställa texter som är centrala för den praktiska kunskapens teoribildning. Antologin består av 13 översättningar av olika tänkare från främst filosofi och vetenskapsteori, som undersöker den praktiska kunskapen i förhållande till språk, tänkande och känslor. Frågeställningarna rör teman som expertis, skicklighet, synen på arbete, språklöshet och etik. Genom att på detta sätt sammanställa dessa texter inom en mycket ung forskningsdisciplin väcker antologin, med ny skärpa, frågor om hur praktisk kunskap ska förstås och formuleras inte bara i sin praktik utan också i sin teori. Det framgår att fältet redan rymmer intressanta motsättningar och gemensamma frågeställningar, till exempel om hur expertis ska värderas, om hur olika former av praktisk kunskap värderas på olika sätt och om vad det egentligen innebär att förstå arbete som självförverkligande.
Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift 2015, 1 : 56-62.
I artikeln görs ett försök att visa, inte hur ADHD-diagnosen har skapats av den västerländska kulturen, utan snarare hur ADHD har blivit en viktig del av vår samtida senmoderna kultur. Kulturella faktorer kan utan tvekan bidra till att en psykiatrisk diagnos blir vanligare eller ovanligare i ett samhälle över tid, och den kraftfulla ökning av antalet diagnosticerade fall av ADHD som ägt rum i Sverige och övriga västvärlden de sista trettio åren är förmodligen, åtminstone delvis, kulturell till sin natur. Men oavsett vilka de diagnosdrivande faktorerna är har neuropsykiatriska begrepp och modeller också kommit att prägla vårt sätt att uppfatta och tolka varandra som människor i olika vardagliga sammanhang under 2000-talet. På detta sätt är ADHD en kulturdiagnos och i artikeln utforskas hur ADHD-diagnosen numera inte bara är ett stigma eller ett sätt att komma i åtnjutande av resurser, utan också en form av identitet.
Medicine, Health care and Philosophy 2015, 18 (2): 267-277.
Whereas empathy is most often looked upon as a virtue and essential skill in contemporary health care, the relationship to sympathy is more complicated. Empathic approaches that lead to emotional arousal on the part of the health care professional and strong feelings for the individual patient run the risk of becoming unprofessional in nature and having the effect of so-called compassion fatigue or burnout. In this paper I want to show that approaches to empathy in health care that attempt to solve these problems by cutting empathy loose from sympathy-from empathic concern-are mistaken. Instead, I argue, a certain kind of sympathy, which I call professional concern, is a necessary ingredient in good health care. Feeling oneself into the experiences and situation of the patient cannot be pursued without caring for the patient in question if the empathy is going to be successful. Sympathy is not only a thing that empathy makes possible and more or less spontaneously provides a way for but is something that we find at work in connection to empathy itself. In the paper I try to show how empathy is a particular form of emotion in which I feel with, about, and for the other person in developing an interpretation of his predicament. The with and for aspects of the empathy process are typically infused by a sympathy for the person one is empathizing with. Sympathy can be modulated into other ways of feeling with and for the person in the empathy process, but these sympathy-replacement feelings nevertheless always display some form of motivating concern for the target. Such an understanding of empathy is of particular importance for health care and other professions dealing with suffering clients.
In: The Encyclopedia of Global Bioethics. Dordrecht : Springer, 2014. 1-10.
Phenomenology is a research tradition in German and French philosophy which has had an influence in many other fields and disciplines, recently also in medicine and nursing. The main idea of phenomenology is to study the structure and content of lived experience from the first-person perspective. This chapter provides an overview of three different ways in which phenomenology has proved useful as a method and inspiration for bioethics so far and how it could do so in the future. Phenomenological bioethics can be carried out either as an integrated part of, or as a critical perspective on, principle-based bioethics. Phenomenology can be used either to inform the application of principles by way of describing the experiences of moral dilemmas, or to criticise the contemporary set-up of bioethics and offer alternative approaches. The critical alternatives may be more or less radical in nature: offering alternative principles or abandoning the idea of application altogether. Phenomenological bioethics may also be viewed as an attempt to strengthen and thicken the philosophical anthropology implicitly present in contemporary bioethical studies by focusing on themes such as body, psyche, life, death, authenticity, suffering, vulnerability, empathy, compassion, integrity, dialogue, gift, and responsibility.
In: Feminist phenomenology and medicine. New York : SUNY Press, 2014. 201-221.
According to the basic idea of bodily phenomenology the body is exactly the center and vehicle of my whole existence: I am as a body which feels, acts and thinks in my different ways of making myself at home in the world. The lived body, however, is not only my most fundamental home, it is also a creature with a life of its own that harbors autonomous powers. Sometimes this autonomy of the body turns alien in the sense that it changes my basic being at home with it (as it) into an experience of bodily alienation: the body becomes not only mine, but also other to me in an uncanny way. In the chapter some such forms of bodily uncanniness are identified and related to the example of anorexia nervosa. This analysis helps us to discern different ways in which our bodies can turn up as alien to us and what types of processes (biological, emotional-cognitive, social-cultural) the forms of otherness in question are tied to. Anorexia nervosa displays several such ways of being alienated from one’s body in an uncanny way. These include forms of alienation that can be found in somatic illness, but they also concern ways of being objectified in an everyday manner in the social world by the gazes of others, finding oneself in a cultural pattern of norms regarding the feminine, the healthy, the beautiful, and the successful. The alienating gazes of the others are soon made into a self-surveying gaze by the anorexic girl, in the process of which the image of the own body is made increasingly unrealistic and self-punishing. Anorexia, in most cases, is set off by cultural influences, but when the starvation and over-exercise have been brought into play, the malnourished body as a kind of self-defence inflicts moods that make its bearer strangely disembodied, increasingly apprehending the body as a thing, and a thing that is still not thin enough, despite its now uncannily thin look to others.
Robert Whitaker: Pillerparadoxen: varför lider fler och fler av psykiska problem när medicinerna bara blir bättr... Mer info
Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 2014, 35 (6): 407-420.
This article develops a phenomenology of suffering with an emphasis on matters relevant to medical practice and bioethics. An attempt is made to explain how suffering can involve many different things-bodily pains, inability to carry out everyday actions, and failure to realize core life values-and yet be a distinct phenomenon. Proceeding from and expanding upon analyses found in the works of Eric Cassell and Elaine Scarry, suffering is found to be a potentially alienating mood overcoming the person and engaging her in a struggle to remain at home in the face of loss of meaning and purpose in life. Suffering involves painful experiences at different levels that are connected through the suffering-mood but are nevertheless distinguishable by being primarily about (1) my embodiment, (2) my engagements in the world together with others, and (3) my core life values. Suffering is in essence a feeling (a mood), but as such, it has implications for and involves the person's entire life: how she acts in the world, communicates with others, and understands and looks upon her priorities and goals in life. Suffering-moods are typically intense and painful in nature, but they may also display a rather subconscious quality in presenting things in the world and my life as a whole in an alienating way. In such situations, we are not focused directly upon the suffering-mood-as in the cases of pain and other bodily ailments-but rather, upon the things that the mood presents to us: not only our bodies, but also other things in the world that prevent us from having a good life and being the persons we want to be. Such suffering may in many cases be transformed or at least mitigated by a person's identifying and changing her core life values and in such a manner reinterpreting her life story to become an easier and more rewarding one to live under the present circumstances.
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2014.
Här beskriver åtta högskolelärare i företagsekonomi egenupplevda undervisningssituationer utifrån vilka de, med hjälp av pedagogiska och filosofiska teorier, undersöker och reflekterar över sin praktiska kunskap.Vad kan dessa lärares redogörelser och reflektioner säga oss om universitetslärarens arbetssituation? Hur gör de för att lösa de problematiska situationer som uppstår? Hur kommer det sig att de lyckas få studenter med vitt skilda förväntningar, varierande bakgrunder och förutsättningar och med olika grader av motivation, att lära sig nya sätt att tänka och att med tiden utvecklas till självständiga yrkesutövare?
Kunskap genom gestaltning och reflektion - om forumteater och forumspel som kunskapande handlingMer info
Medicine, Health care and Philosophy 2014, 17 (2): 245-248.
This article is an introduction to a thematic section on the phenomenology of empathy in medicine, attempting to provide an expose of the field. It also provides introductions to the individual articles of the thematic section.
Medicine, Health care and Philosophy 2014, 17 (2): 293-299.
Empathy is a thing constantly asked for and stressed as a central skill and character trait of the good physician and nurse. To be a good doctor or a good nurse one needs to be empathic-one needs to be able to feel and understand the needs and wishes of patients in order to help them in the best possible way, in a medical, as well as in an ethical sense. The problem with most studies of empathy in medicine is that empathy is poorly defined and tends to overlap with other related things, such as emotional contagion, sympathy, or a caring personality in general. It is far from clear how empathy fits into the general picture of medical ethics and the framework of norms that are most often stressed there, such as respect for autonomy and beneficience. How are we to look upon the role and importance of empathy in medical ethics? Is empathy an affective and/or cognitive phenomenon only, or does it carry moral significance in itself as a skill and/or virtue? How does empathy attain moral importance for medicine? In this paper I will attempt to show that a comparison with the Aristotelian concept of phronesis makes it easier to see what empathy is and how it fits into the general picture of medical ethics. I will argue that empathy is a basic condition and source of moral knowledge by being the feeling component of phronesis, and, by the same power, it is also a motivation for acting in a good way.
Diagnosing mental disorders and saving the normal - American Psychiatric Association, 2013. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th ed. American Psychiatric Publishing: Washington, DC. 991 pp., ISBN: 978-0890425558. Price: $122.70Mer info
In: Jewish Thought, Utopia and Revolution. Amsterdam / New York : Rodopi, 2014. 79-93.
This article presents the view on revolution in the writings of French-Jewish philosopher Emmanuel Levinas. Levinas is often thought of as a mainly ethical thinker, cautious regarding the political. Here, the political implication of his thought is emphasised. Levinas, the article argues, is a thinker of the revolution. His thought is also criticized in the article, however, for drawing too severe boundaries between the home and the public sphere.
Medicine, Health care and Philosophy 2014, 17 (2): 259-268.
In phenomenology, theories of empathy are intimately connected with the question of how it is possible to have insight into the mind of the other person. In this article, the author wants to show why it is self-evident for us that the other person is having experiences. In order to do so, it is not enough to discuss the phenomenon of empathy with a starting point in the already constituted adult person; instead the article presents a genetic approach to human development. The author thus contrasts Edith Stein's discussion of Einfühlung (empathy), which takes its starting point in the experience of the grown-up, with Max Scheler's discussion of Einsfühlung (feeling of oneness), where the relation between mother and infant is taken as one example. Maurice Merleau-Ponty's discussion of the world of the infant is read as one way of developing Scheler's theory of intersubjectivity and of Einsfühlung. This genetic approach is developed further into a phenomenological analysis of the experience of the fetus and of birth. The author argues that the analysis of the fetus highlights the distinction between knowing that another person is having experiences, and knowing the specific content of the other person's experiences. The fetus does not experience different persons, but has a pre-subjective experience of life that includes what is later experienced as belonging to "another." Later in life, the experience of empathy, as an experience of a specific content, can be developed from this experience. In this way empathy and Einsfühlung can be understood as complementary rather than as competing phenomena.
Stockholm : The Swedish Centre for Studies of Armed Forces and Society (CSMS), 2013.
A military commander serving overseas must be prepared to act and take responsibility for events that they are not fully in control of or can influence. The same commander needs to be ready to deal with imponderable situations and operate in contradictory contexts, often in situations where there are no predetermined solutions. In Mission Commander, seven Swedish military officers describe their experiences of stressful and morally challenging situations. The interviewees have held posts ranging from battalion commander to force commander. The purpose of Mission Commander is to stimulate discussion and reflection on military professionalism. This book also describes a method of developing military skills by using structured reflection, dialogue and writing. Lotta Victor Tillberg has interviewed Hans Ilis-Alm, Anders Brännström, Olof Granander, Ulf Henricsson, Hans Håkansson, Jan-Gunnar Isberg and Mats Ström. Peter Tillberg is the project leader of ‘The Use of Force and Modern Military Professionalism’, of which the interviews are a part. He is also the picture editor of Mission Commander. The book is part of an ongoing research project on the modern military profession and was commissioned by the Swedish Armed Forces. The Swedish Centre for Studies of Armed Forces and Society (CSMS), a forum for promoting and exchanging research on military organizations and civil–military relations, has carried out this work.
Journal of consciousness studies 2013, 20 (7-8): 15-32.
This paper will explore the relationship between selfhood and depression, by focusing upon the lived body’s capacity to “resonate” with the world and thus open up an “attuned” space of meaning. Persons will become differently tuned in different situations because they embody different patterns of resonance—what is most often referred to as different temperaments—but the self may also suffer from idiosyncrasies in mood profile that develop into deficiencies of resonance, making the person in question ill. In many cases of depression one might describe this as a being out of tune in the sense of being oversensitive to the sad, anxious and boring tune qualities of the world. This phenomenological model allows us to describe a spectrum of various normal sensitivities which might favor certain moods over others, but also to identify pathologies, like depression, in which the body is out of tune and makes the being-in-the-world overwhelmingly unhomelike.
In: Human Experience and Nature. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2013. -.
In this paper I present and compare the philosophies and ideas behind naturalistic theories of health on the one hand and phenomenological theories of health on the other. The basic difference between the two sets of theories is no doubt that whereas naturalistic theories claim to rest on value neutral concepts, such as normal biological function, the phenomenological suggestions for theories of health take their starting point in what is often named intentionality: meaningful stances taken by the embodied person in experiencing and understanding her situation and taking action in the world.Although naturalism and phenomenology are fundamentally different in their approach to understand and define health, they are not necessarily opposed when it comes to understanding the predicament of ill persons. Naturalism can afford phenomenology an important strategic importance in finding clues for medical investigations, just as phenomenology can envelop a naturalistic understanding of diseases. Furthermore, the two theories display similarities in their emphasis of embodiment as the central element of health theory and in their stress on the alien nature of the body displayed in illness. Theories of biology and phenomenology are, indeed, companionable and in many cases also mutually supportive in the realms of health and illness.
Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 2013, 20 (1): 81-91.
Anorexia nervosa is a disorder that is closely related to questions of selfhood and social roles. The pursuit of excessive thinness is part of a search for identity in which the control of the body—its size and needs— becomes central. This need for control appears to be triggered by a state of bodily alienation in which the body is perceived to be foreign and horrifying to its bearer. The relentless dieting and excessive exercise pursued by the anorexic person eventually leads to a state of starvation in which the relationship of control between the person and her body becomes reversed: the body now controls the thoughts, feelings and actions of the anorexic person in an uncanny and life threatening way. In this paper an attempt is made to better understand the ways in which the body becomes alien in anorexia nervosa by way of a phenomenological analysis. The analysis is exemplified and supported by stories told by girls suffering from the illness. The aim of the paper is to show that anorexia nervosa is neither a bodily dysfunction, nor a cultural product, only. Rather, the disorder is best understood as an illness in which the autonomous nature of one’s own body becomes overwhelming in a fatal and characteristic way. The different ways of becoming bodily alienated interact in anorexia in establishing an uncanniness of the body that is both conspicuous—to people around the ill person—and hard to escape—for the person herself.
Hägersten : Tankekraft förlag, 2013.
Diagnoser som ångestsyndrom, depression, ADHD, fetma och datorspelsberoende har snabbt ökat i omfattning och de är intimt sammankopplade med den tid vi lever i. Varför har det blivit så svårt att sluta? Sluta oroa sig. Sluta förtvivla. Sluta äta. Sluta stöka. Sluta spela. Varför kan vissa men inte andra låta bli? Och när beror det på att man är sjuk?Med utgångspunkt i egna erfarenheter och ett skärskådande av forskningsläget om olika diagnoser tar författaren pulsen på vår samtid. Människan har alltid varit en lidande varelse. Nu lider hon också på den medicinska vetenskapens vis, som en ”homo patologicus”. Men vad är egentligen en medicinsk diagnos? Varför har diagnoser blivit så viktiga för oss i vårt vardagsliv? Vilken betydelse får psykiatriska diagnosmanualer som DSM för vår syn på människan och hur hon skall hjälpas i hälso- och sjukvården?
Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 2013, 34 (1): 1-15.
Heidegger's thoughts on modern technology have received much attention in many disciplines and fields, but, with a few exceptions, the influence has been sparse in biomedical ethics. The reason for this might be that Heidegger's position has been misinterpreted as being generally hostile towards modern science and technology, and the fact that Heidegger himself never subjected medical technologies to scrutiny but was concerned rather with industrial technology and information technology. In this paper, Heidegger's philosophy of modern technology is introduced and then brought to bear on medical technology. Its main relevance for biomedical ethics is found to be that the field needs to focus upon epistemological and ontological questions in the philosophy of medicine related to the structure and goal of medical practice. Heidegger's philosophy can help us to see how the scientific attitude in medicine must always be balanced by and integrated into a phenomenological way of understanding the life-world concerns of patients. The difference between the scientific and the phenomenological method in medicine is articulated by Heidegger as two different ways of studying the human body: as biological organism and as lived body. Medicine needs to acknowledge the priority of the lived body in addressing health as a way of being-in-the-world and not as the absence of disease only. A critical development of Heidegger's position can provide us with a criterion for distinguishing the uses of medical technologies that are compatible with such an endeavor from the technological projects that are not.
By All Necessary Means - Brigadier General Jan-Gunnar Isberg's experiences from service in the Congo 2003-2005Mer info
Vikten av kropp - [Recension av:] Helena Dahlberg. ”Vikten av kropp: Frågan om kött och människa i Maurice Merleau-Pontys Le Visible et l’invisible”, [doktorsavhandling,] Göteborgs universitet, 2011Mer info
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2012.
The distinction between the secular and the sacred or holy seems at first to constitute a definitive line, the establishment of which also defines Western modernity. Yet this apparently strict demarcation is today not only questioned, but also increasingly difficult to maintain. In order to understand and conceptualize what is happening in the intersection between religion, politics, and aesthetics, we need to rethink the very meaning of the sacred in its full ambiguity, to explore again in thinking the vicissitudes and possibilities of this complex phenomenon, and to learn to move more freely through the category itself.The book contains contributions by researchers from many different fields, philosophers, theologians, political scientists, and literary historians, who also comment on each other. It establishes new connections and trajectories for mapping and understanding the nature and meaning of the sacred both as a social, an aesthetic, and a religious phenomenon.
Organ Transplantation and Personal Identity - How Does Loss and Change of Organs Affect the Self?Mer info
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 2012, 37 (2): 139-158.
In this paper, changes in identity and selfhood experienced through organ transplantation are analyzed from a phenomenological point of view. The chief examples are heart and face transplants. Similarities and differences between the examples are fleshed out by way of identifying three layers of selfhood in which the procedures have effects: embodied selfhood, self-reflection, and social-narrative identity. Organ transplantation is tied to processes of alienation in the three layers of selfhood, first and foremost a bodily alienation experienced through illness or injury and in going through and recovering from the operation. However, in cases in which the organ in question is taken to harbor the identity of another person, because of its symbolic qualities (the heart) or its expressive qualities (the face), the alienation process may also involve the otherness of another person making itself, at least imaginatively, known.
Selfhood and Self-Esteem - A phenomenological critiqueof an educational and psychological conceptMer info
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2012.
Eros manifests itself in multiple ways: as tragic eros and philosophical eros, as love, sexuality, seduction, care, desire, and friendship. Eros both defines us as beings and dislocates our existence. It breaks down our certitudes about selfhood and otherness, familiarity and strangeness. This volume gathers together contributions toward a phenomenological understanding of eros. The first part examines eros in relation to ancient philosophy and religion, the second part examines eros in relation to modern phenomenology. The analyses presented show how the question of eros brings us to the core of philosophy. Questions of time, desire, embodiment, intersubjectivity, and perception are all implicated in the phenomenology of eros.
Utility, Trust, and Rights in Swedish Governmental and Expert Discourses on Organ Donation Policy - Mixed messages and Hidden AgendasMer info
Concealed by the "Gift of Life" - The Complexities of Living with Dialysis and Kidney Transplantaiton in Stockholm and RigaMer info
The Phenomenology of Organ Transplantation - How does the Malfunction and Change of Organs have Effects on Personal Identity?Mer info
The Body as Gift, Resource, and Commodity - Exchanging Organs, Tissues, and Cells in the 21st CenturyMer info
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2012.
Departing from three metaphors—the body as gift, resource, and commodity—the book explores the contemporary exchange of organs, tissues, and cells. Although the gift is the sanctioned metaphor for donating parts of the body, the underlying perspective from the side of states, authorities, and the medical establishment often seems to be that the body shall be understood as a resource. But medicine, as some of the contributors to this book show, is not sealed off from the market economy. Increasingly, therefore, body parts become commodities on legal as well as illegal markets.The chapters of the book are arranged in a way that presents, one after the other, the three metaphors of the body, starting with the body as gift, proceeding by way of the body as resource, and ending in the body as commodity. Although all three metaphors as ways of conceptualizing and making use of the human body can be found throughout human history, the present drive of commercialization will increasingly force us to identify and scrutinize the way these metaphors are used. Not only in addressing the fascinating question of what kind of an object (subject) the human body is, but also in trying to decipher what interests lurk behind the use of the metaphors in question when claiming that human bodies, organs, tissues, and cells are gifts, resources or commodities. The ambition of this volume is to address and remedy the need of a hermeneutics not only of depth, but also of suspicion, in the case of organ transplantation and other medical technologies involving the transfer of human tissues and cells.
Stockholm : Svenskt militärhistoriskt biblioteks förlag, 2011.
Aneignung der Welt - Eine phänomenologische Annäherung an die Theorie und Praxis des LernensMer info
"Die Welt mit anderen teilen" - Über den Zusammenhang von Urteilskraft und Erziehung bei Hannah ArendtMer info
Nostalgi och nationalism - Om raskrigare och framväxten av en parlamentarisk främlingsfientlighetMer info
Medicine, Health care and Philosophy 2011, 14 (3): 333-343.
In this paper, an attempt is made to develop an understanding of the essence of illness based on a reading of Martin Heidegger’s pivotal work Being and Time. The hypothesis put forward is that a phenomenology of illness can be carried out by highlighting the concept of otherness in relation to meaningfulness. Otherness is here to be understood as a foreignness that permeates the ill life when the lived body takes on alien qualities. A further specification of this kind of otherness can be found by the concept of unhomelike being-in-the-world. Health, in contrast to this frustrating unhomelikeness, is a homelike being-in-the-world in which the lived body in most cases has a transparent quality as the point of access to the world in understanding activities. The paper then proposes that the temporal structure of illness can be conceptualized as an alienation of past and future, whereby one’s past and future appear alien, compared with what was the case before the onset of illness. The remainder of the paper follows two paths as regards the temporality of illness. The first path explores the temporality of the body in relation to the temporality of the being-in-the-world of the self. One way of understanding the alienating character of illness is that nature, as the temporality of our bodies, ceases to obey our attempts to make sense of phenomena: the time of the body no longer fits into the time of the self. The second path explored in the paper is the one of narrativity. When we make sense of the present, in relation to our future and past, we do so in a special manner, namely, by structuring our experiences in the form of stories. Illness breaks in on us as a rift in these stories, necessitating a retelling of the past and a re-envisioning of the future, in an effort to address and change their alienated character. These stories, however, never allow us to leave the silent otherness of our bodies behind. They are stories nurtured by the time of nature at the heart of our existence. It is then claimed that the idea of life being a story must be understood in a metaphorical sense and an exploration of how phenomenology addresses the metaphoric quality of its conceptuality is ushered. It is pointed out that metaphors can be systematically related to each other and that they always have a founding ground in the orientation and basic activities of the lived body. If the concepts used in working out a phenomenological theory of health and illness are, to a certain extent, metaphorical, one could, therefore, nevertheless, claim that the metaphoric qualities of the phenomenological concepts are primary in referring back to the lived body and the way it inhabits the world.
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2011.
Det här är en bok om praktisk kunskap i äldreomsorg. Boken inleds med sju reflekterande berättelser skrivna av omsorgspersonal om dilemman de möter i sitt arbete. Dilemman i den mening som ges i texterna är svårbedömda situationer där det inte finns några enkla lösningar och där författaren själv är involverad som handlande aktör. Under flera års tid samarbetade vi lärare och forskare vid Centrum för praktisk kunskap vid Södertörns högskola i en serie vidareutbildningar med anställda i äldreomsorgen i Huddinge kommun. De flesta var undersköterskor eller vårdbiträden som inte tidigare kommit i kontakt med högre utbildning, men deltog gjorde också arbetsterapeuter, sjukgymnaster, sjuksköterskor, administratörer och en enhetschef. Deltagarna kom från ett brett spektrum av verksamheter; korttidshem, dagvård, gruppboende, ålderdomshem och hemtjänst.Att uppmärksamma och undersöka praktisk kunskap är att rikta blicken mot handlingar med kraft att göra skillnad i enskilda människors vardag. Praktisk kunskap kommer ur de erfarenheter vi gör i livet och hur vi förhåller oss till och ansvarar för dem. Det är kunnande som bottnar, och som utvecklingsarbeten och omtankar kan ta avstamp i. Praktisk kunskap äger rum i ett specifikt sammanhang och uttrycks i handling. Ett av de språk som kan förflytta den till andra rum är berättelsen. Genom berättelser och exempel som gestaltar kan handlingskunskap och erfarenhet bli synlig och reflekteras till nytta för de handlande personerna själva, men också för andra som bryr sig om och vill lära av erfarenheter från äldreomsorg. Ur de enskilda exemplen kan vi förstå och se nya saker i vår egen praktik, men också få syn på det allmängiltiga. Men alla berättelser har inte denna kraft bara för att de är berättelser. Att reflektera över berättelser om handlingssituationer på ett sätt som blir meningsfullt förutsätter ett blottläggande av den egna erfarenheten med dess brister och möjligheter som kräver mod, men också ödmjukhet.
[Review of] Christian Lotz, From Affectivity to Subjectivity. Husserl's Phenomenology Revisited Mer info
Den enskilde och de båda - om Jonna Hjertström Lappalainens avhandling Den enskilde: En studie av trons profana möjlighet i Sören Kierkegaards tidiga författarskapMer info
Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 2010, 31 (3): 179-196.
This paper investigates the question of what an organ is from a phenomenological perspective. Proceeding from the phenomenology of being-in-the-world developed by Heidegger in Being and Time and subsequent works, it compares the being of the organ with the being of the tool. It attempts to display similarities and differences between the embodied nature of the organs and the way tools of the world are handled. It explicates the way tools belong to the totalities of things of the world that are ready to use and the way organs belong to the totality of a bodily being able to be in this very world. In so doing, the paper argues that while the organ is in some respects similar to a bodily tool, this tool is nonetheless different from the tools of the world in being tied to the organism as a whole, which offers the founding ground of the being of the person. However, from a phenomenological point of view, the line between organs and tools cannot simply be drawn by determining what is inside and outside the physiological borders of the organism. We have, from the beginning of history, integrated technological devices (tools) in our being-in-the-world in ways that make them parts of ourselves rather than parts of the world (more organ- than tool-like), and also, more recently, have started to make our organs more tool-like by visualising, moving, manipulating, and controlling them through medical technology. In this paper, Heidegger’s analysis of organ, tool, and world-making is confronted with this development brought about by contemporary medical technology. It is argued that this development has, to a large extent, changed the phenomenology of the organ in making our bodies more similar to machines with parts that have certain functions and that can be exchanged. This development harbours the threat of instrumentalising our bodily being but also the possibility of curing or alleviating suffering brought about by diseases which disturb and destroy the normal functioning of our organs.
Medicinens humaniora: vad skulle det kunna vara? = The Humanities of Medicine: What Could This Be? Mer info
The Body as Gift, Resource or Commodity? - Heidegger and the Ethics of Organ TransplantationMer info
Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 2010, 7 (2): 163-172.
Three metaphors appear to guide contemporary thinking about organ transplantation. Although the gift is the sanctioned metaphor for donating organs, the underlying perspective from the side of the state, authorities and the medical establishment often seems to be that the body shall rather be understood as a resource. The acute scarcity of organs, which generates a desperate demand in relation to a group of potential suppliers who are desperate to an equal extent, leads easily to the gift’s becoming, in reality, not only a resource, but also a commodity. In this paper, the claim is made that a successful explication of the gift metaphor in the case of organ transplantation and a complementary defence of the ethical primacy of the giving of organs need to be grounded in a philosophical anthropology which considers the implications of embodiment in a different and more substantial way than is generally the case in contemporary bioethics. I show that Heidegger’s phenomenology offers such an alternative, with the help of which we can understand why body parts could and, indeed, under certain circumstances, should be given to others in need, but yet are neither resources nor properties to be sold. The phenomenological exploration in question is tied to fundamental questions about what kind of relationship we have to our own bodies, as well as about what kind of relationship we have to each other as human beings sharing the same being-in-the-world as embodied creatures.
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2010.
Att i galopp flyga fram över ängen, att med svettpärlorna droppandes i pannan med gemensamma krafter få timmerlasset över sjön eller att som 8-åring för första gången få upp hästens hov och kratsa den med en splitterny hovkrats – detta är bara några bilder av det mångfacetterade kunskapsfältet mellan människa och häst som undersöks i antologin Kentauren. Om interaktion mellan häst och människa.Den här boken beskriver och analyserar den praktiska kunskapen mellan häst och människa i ett humanistiskt och tolkande perspektiv. I de olika bidragen får vi möta ridlärarens, filosofens, idéhistorikerns, mimarens, etnobiologens, häst-dressörens och terapeutens berättelser om vad det är som händer i interaktionen mellan häst och människa och hur denna kan begreppsliggöras.
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2010.
The last two decades have witnessed a rising interest from philosophers in the phenomenological, hermeneutic, and continental tradition in questions concerning religion, religious experience, and the relation between faith and reason. The essays in this volume, written by philosophers, theologians, and religious scholars engage in a dialogue concerning these new frontiers. They retrace the earliest roots of phenomenological reflection on religion in the work of Husserl, Heidegger, and Stein, and they address contemporary debates, not least the much discussed "theological turn" in phenomenology, in the work of Marion, Derrida, and Henry. Among the themes treated are transcendence and immanence, immensity, prayer, and the messianic. The essays trace new paths and open up questions of relevance for all those interested in what it means to think religion from a philosophical position today.Jonna Bornemark holds a PhD in philosophy and is a lecturer and researcher at Södertörn UniversityHans Ruin is professor in philosophy at Södertörn University
Medicine, Health care and Philosophy 2009, 12 (2): 169-178.
This paper explores the differences between bringing about self-change by way of antidepressants versus psychotherapy from an ethical point of view, taking its starting point in the concept of authenticity. Given that the new antidepressants (SSRIs) are able not only to cure psychiatric disorders but also to bring about changes in the basic temperament structure of the person—changes in self-feeling—does it matter if one brings about such changes of the self by way of antidepressants or by way of psychotherapy? Are antidepressants a less good alternative than psychotherapy because antidepressants are in some way less authentic than psychotherapy? And, if so, what does this mean exactly? In this paper I try to show that the self-change brought about by way of antidepressants challenges basic assumptions of authentic self-change that are deeply ingrained in our Western culture: that changes in self should be brought about by laborious ‘self-work’ in which one explores the deep layers of the self (the unconscious) and comes to realise who one really is and should become. To become oneself has been held to presuppose such a journey. While the assumed importance of self-work appears to be badly founded on closer inspection, the notions of exploring and knowing oneself appear to be more promising in fleshing out an ethical distinction between psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic practice with the help of the concept of authenticity. Psychotherapy, to a much greater extent than psychopharmacological interventions, involves the whole profile of the self in its attempts to effect a change, not only in the temperament but also in the character of the person in question, and this is important from an ethical point of view. In the article, the concepts of self-change, authenticity, temperament and character are presented and used in order to understand and flesh out the relevant ethical differences between the practice of psychotherapy and the use of antidepressants. Looping, collective effects of psychopharmacological self-change in a cultural context are also considered in this context.
The Phenomenology of Falling Ill - An Explication, Critique and Improvement of Sartre’s Theory of Embodiment and AlienationMer info
Human Studies 2009, 32 (1): 53-66.
In this paper I develop a phenomenology of falling ill by presenting, interpreting and developing the basic model we find in Jean-Paul Sartre’s Being and Nothingness (1956). The three steps identified by Sartre in this process are analysed, developed further and brought to a five-step model: (1) pre-reflective experience of discomfort, (2) lived, bodily discomfort, (3) suffered illness, (4) disease pondering, and (5) disease state. To fall ill is to fall victim to a gradual process of alienation, and with each step this alienating process is taken to a new qualitative level. Consequently, the five steps of falling ill have not only a contingent chronological order but also a kind of logical order, in that they typically presuppose each other. I adopt Sartre’s focus on embodiment as the core ground of the alienation process, but point out that the alienation of the body in illness is not only the experience of a psychic object, but an experience of the independent life of one’s own body. This facticity of the body is the result neither of the gaze of the other person, nor of a reflection adopting the outer perspective of the other in an indirect way, but is a result of the very otherness of one’s own body, which addresses and plagues us when we fall ill. I use examples of falling ill and being a patient to show how a phenomenology of falling ill can be helpful in educating health-care personnel (and perhaps also patients) about the ways of the lived body.
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2009.
Denna antologi handlar om dilemman i polisens arbetsvardag. Den innehåller sju berättelser om svåra, komplexa och problematiska situationer där mötet med andra människor är centralt. I sådana situationer krävs ett upparbetat och välreflekterat omdöme. Det kan röra ett viktigt ögonblick i ett ingripande, i en utredning eller i ett förhör. Ofta är det den typen av omdöme som är avgörande för vad som skiljer ett dåligt, ordinärt, gott eller superbt polisarbete.Det goda omdömet kan inte läras in teoretiskt utan växer fram med erfarenhet och vana. Det kan också uppövas via reflektion och dialog. De som medverkar i denna antologi har prövat ett sätt att utbyta kunskap som bygger på reflektion, skrivande och kollektivt samtal. Denna processkrivande metod ligger till grund för berättelserna.Författarna har deltagit i pilotprojektet Kunskapsutbyte inom polisorganisationen som pågått mellan 2006 och 2007. Projektet har genomförts i samverkan mellan Polishögskolan, Polismyndigheten i Stockholm och Södertörns högskola.
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2009.
Idag står alla som arbetar inom de mellanmänskliga yrkena inför en ny utmaning: kravet på "evidensbasering". Begreppet har väckt debatt, inte minst på psykoterapins område. Men när allt fokus läggs på frågan om vilken vetenskaplig grund dessa yrken vilar på riskerar diskussionen att tappa kontakten med själva verksamheten: Vad ska egentligen en duglig psykoterapeut eller psykoanalytiker kunna? De senaste vetenskapliga rönen från hjärnforskningen? De mest effektiva teknikerna för symptomlindring? Vilken betydelse har den praktiska kunskap som ligger i själva bemötandet, och arbetet i relationen tillsammans med klienten?Författarna i denna antologi framhåller att psykoterapin och psykoanalysen ofta har mätts med måttstockar som inte varit rimligt avpassade för verksamhetens karaktär. Att istället börja nära praktiken, i en fenomenologisk beskrivning av själva arbetet, för att reflexivt undersöka vilka förmågor den kompetenta yrkesutövaren tar i anspråk, kan ge oss en rikare grund för ett kritiskt samtal.Boken innehåller texter av Rolf Künstlicher, Lotta Landerholm, Christian Nilsson, Gudrun Olsson, Jurgen Reeder och Fredrik Svenaeus.
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2009.
Antologin beskriver och fördjupar forskningsfältet praktisk kunskap med tonvikt på frågor kring yrkeskunnande och utbildning. Medverkande är lärare, forskare och magisterstudenter vid Centrum för praktisk kunskap, Södertörns högskola. Perspektiven i bokens olika bidrag är företrädesvis humanistiska, bland nyckelbegreppen märks praktisk visdom, tyst kunskap, känslor och kunskap, erfarenhet, reflektion, fenomenologi, hermeneutik, bildning, dilemma, dygdeetik, berättelse och essä.
Sekularisering öppnar för förnyad erosteologi - [recension av Ola Sigurdson: Himmelska kroppar :inkarnation, blick, kroppslighet]Mer info
Ateismen handfallen inför modern gudsbild - [recension av] Peter Thalén, Ateismens fall : den moderna religionskritikens Mer info
[Recension av] Christian Braw, Förnuft och uppenbarelse : en berättelse om aristoteliskt tänkande i teologin... Mer info
Hur mycket religion tål samhället? - [recension av] Johan Modée och Hugo Strandberg (red.), Frihet och gränser : filosofiska perspektiv på religionsfrihet och toleransMer info
Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 2007, 28 (1): 31-62.
Debates about the legitimacy of embryonic stem-cell research have largely focused on the type of ethical value that should be accorded to the human embryo in vitro. In this paper, I try to show that, to broaden the scope of these debates, one needs to articulate an ontology that does not limit itself to biological accounts, but that instead focuses on the embryo's place in a totality of relevance surrounding and guiding a human practice. Instead of attempting to substantiate the ethical value of the embryo exclusively by pointing out that it has potentiality for personhood, one should examine the types of practices in which the embryo occurs and focus on the ends inherent to these practices. With this emphasis on context, it becomes apparent that the embryo's ethical significance can only be understood by elucidating the attitudes that are established towards it in the course of specific activities. The distinction between fertilized embryos and cloned embryos proves to be important in this contextual analysis, since, from the point of view of practice, the two types of embryos appear to belong to different human practices: (assisted) procreation and medical research, respectively. In my arguments, I highlight the concepts of practice, technology, and nature, as they have been analyzed in the phenomenological tradition, particularly by Martin Heidegger. I come to the conclusion that therapeutic cloning should be allowed, provided that it turns out to be a project that benefits medical science in its aim to battle diseases. Important precautions have to be taken, however, in order to safeguard the practice of procreation from becoming perverted by the aims and attitudes of medical science when the two practices intersect. The threat in question needs to be taken seriously, since it concerns the structure and goal of practices which are central to our very self understanding as human beings.
Medicine, Health care and Philosophy 2007, 10 (2): 153-66.
In this paper, I explore the questions of how and to what extent new antidepressants (selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors, or SSRIs) could possibly affect the self. I do this by way of a phenomenological approach, using the works of Martin Heidegger and Thomas Fuchs to analyze the roles of attunement and embodiment in normal and abnormal ways of being-in-the-world. The nature of depression and anxiety disorders - the diagnoses for which treatment with antidepressants is most commonly indicated - is also explored by way of this phenomenological approach, as are the basic structures of self-being. Special attention is paid in the analysis to the moods of boredom, anxiety and grief, since they play fundamental roles in depression and anxiety disorders and since their intensity and frequency appear to be modulated by antidepressants. My conclusion is that the effect of these drugs on the self can be thought of in terms of changes in self-feeling, or, more precisely, self-vibration of embodiment. I present the idea of a spectrum of bodily resonance, which extends from the normal resonance of the lived body, in which the body is able to pick up a wide range of different moods; continuing over various kinds of sensitivities, preferences and idiosyncrasies, in which certain moods are favored over others; to cases that we unreservedly label pathologies, in which the body is severely out of tune, or even devoid of tune and thus useless as a tool of resonance. Different cultures and societies favor slightly differently attuned self-styles as paradigmatic of the normal and good life, and the popularity of the SSRIs can therefore be explained, not only by defects of embodiment, but also by the presence of certain cultural norms in our contemporary society.
In: Medical technologies and the life world. Abingdon, Oxon, UK : Routledge, 2007. 164-183.
Focuses on the ways new health technologies intervene into our lives. This book explores: how new health technologies are understood by lay people and patients; how the outcomes of these technologies are communicated in various clinical settings; and, how these technologies can alter our notions of health and illness and create 'new illness'.
Jaget som evighetens spegelbild - Spegelbild som central metafor för relationen mellan människa och Gud hos Johannes Scotus EriugenaMer info
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2007.
Inom den moderna hermeneutiska filosofin har begreppet bildning fått en ny och kritisk aktualitet. Det betecknar inte längre bara besittningen av ett kulturarv utan handlar mer om att tänka den process varigenom en individ formas i mötet med det främmande. I bildningsprocessen träder människan ut ur det egna och utsätter sig för det nyas prövning. Därigenom blir också det egna främmandegjort. Genom mötet med det allmänna formas i bildningsprocessen en unik individ och person. Det filosofiska begreppet »person« är intimt länkat till bildningstanken. Begreppen »person« och »bildning« är båda också mötesplatser för filosofi och teologi, eftersom bildning ursprungligen förknippades med att formas till Guds avbild. I åtta nyskrivna bidrag belyser bokens författare hur frågan om bildning och person formulerats hos bland andra Kant, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche och Heidegger, och pekar vidare mot vad ett kritiskt bildningsbegrepp kan betyda i dag.
The Task of Thinking in the State of Exception - Agamben, Benjamin and the Question of MessianismMer info
Sverigedemokraterna i de svenska kommunerna 2002-2006 - En studie av politisk aktivitet, strategi och mobiliseringMer info
En nattens filosofi - Jan Patočkas essäer uppsöker upplysningens skuggsidor. [Recension av: Patočka, Jan, Kätterska essäer om historiens filosofi]Mer info
Döden går att dela - viktig bok om den svåra vården. [Recension av: Mazzarella, Merete, Den goda beröringen : om kropp, hälsa, vård och litteratur]Mer info
Phenomenology and Psychiatry - A Contemporary Diagnosis Introducing the Work of Thomas FuchsMer info
[Recension av]: Philosophical Aspects on Emotions, ed. Åsa Carlson, Stockholm: Thales, 2005. 351 pp. Mer info
När människan möter medicinen - livsvärldens och berättelsens betydelse för förståelsen av sjukdom och medicinsk teknologiMer info
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2004.
Lukter och dofter är gåtfulla - mäktiga men undflyende. En doft avklingar snabbt, även om luktämnet finns kvar i luften, men intrycken lever kvar i vårt inre. Luktsinnet hjälper oss att finna mat och dryck och kärlek, men de dofter som leder oss låter sig ogärna fångas i ord.Luktsinnet har betraktats som primitivt, djuriskt. Det förekommer sällan i vetenskapliga studier.I Näsans kunskap lyfter fem forskare fram luktsinnet från dess undanskymda plats. De kommer från vitt sklida ämnesområden: konst och litteratur, arbetsliv och yrkeskunnande, filosofi och psykologi. Här presenteras också sensoriken, den vetenskap som utforskar just lukt och smak.
Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 2003, 24 (5): 407-31.
The relevance of the Aristotelian concept of phronesis--practical wisdom--for medicine and medical ethics has been much debated during the last two decades. This paper attempts to show how Aristotle's practical philosophy was of central importance to Hans-Georg Gadamer and to the development of his philosophical hermeneutics, and how, accordingly, the concept of phronesis will be central to a Gadamerian hermeneutics of medicine. If medical practice is conceived of as an interpretative meeting between doctor and patient with the aim of restoring the health of the latter, then phronesis is the mark of the good physician, who through interpretation comes to know the best thing to do for this particular patient at this particular time. The potential fruitfulness of this hermeneutical appropriation of phronesis for the field of medical ethics is also discussed. The concept can be (and has been) used in critiques of the conceptualization of bioethics as the application of principle-based theory to clinical situations, since Aristotle's point is exactly that problems of praxis cannot be approached in this way. It can also point the way for alternative forms of medical ethics, such as virtue ethics or a phenomenological and hermeneutical ethics. The latter alternative would have to address the phenomena of health and the good life as issues for medical practice. It would also have to map out in detail the terrain of the medical meeting and the acts of interpretation through which phronesis is exercised.
Stockholm : Natur och kultur, 2003.
När läkare och andra som arbetar i vården möter sina patienter står de inför den svåra uppgiften att försöka förstå och hjälpa människor som lider på många olika sätt och av många olika anledningar. Detta är ett tolkningsarbete som kräver stor kunskap och erfarenhet av lyssnandets konst. I tider av tilltagande biologisering är det viktigt att peka på hur sjukdomen rymmer många olika dimensioner. Den sjuka människan lever i ett samhälle och en kultur som präglar hennes upplevelser. Kropp, tanke och känsla är sammanvävda i livet med sjukdomen. Sjukdomar är berättelser på samma gång som de är fysiologiska tillstånd. Utifrån fenomenologin och hermeneutiken, två besläktade filosofiska tanketraditioner, tillhandahåller författaren teorier om sjukdomars natur och mötet med den sjuka människan som kastar nytt ljus över den medicinska praktiken. De förankras i den kliniska vardagen genom fallbeskrivningar om personer med ett vitt spektrum av vanliga tillstånd och sjukdomar: utmattningsdepression, influensa, diabetes, huvudvärk, prostatacancer, ryggproblem, posttraumatiskt stressyndrom och hjärnblödning. Boken är framför allt avsedd att användas på läkarutbildningen i kurser i patientkommunikation och i medicinens filosofi och etik. Den är även av intresse inom andra vårdutbildningar och för alla som vill veta mer om sjukdomars mening, ett ämne som blir mer och mer aktuellt i vår samhällsdebatt.
[Recension av] Geoffrey Roberts (ed.), The history and narrative reader, Routledge, London& New Yor... Mer info
Erfarenhetens rum och vägar - 24 texter om kunskap och arbete : en vänbok till Ingela JosefsonMer info
"Den som ej äger en lätt gång måste öva sig" - om kroppens och dräktens retorik i sjuksköterskeyrket 1850-1950Mer info
Den socialdemokratiska "mönsterkommunen" - föreställningar om kommunens roll och ansvar i välfärdssamhället 1940-1960Mer info