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Michael Gilek

Contact information

Michael Gilek
Professor
Alfred Nobels allé 7
Södertörns Högskola
Flemingsberg
Phone: +46 8 608 4862
Fax: +46 8 608 4510
MD 467 Moas Båge
Publications

Marine Policy 2018, 92 : 138-147.

Despite the increasing attention given to marine spatial planning and the widely acknowledged need for transnational policy coordination, regional coherence has not yet improved a great deal in the Baltic Sea region. Therefore, the main objectives in this article are: (a) to map existing governance structures at all levels that influence how domestic marine spatial planning policy strategies are formed, (b) to identify specific challenges to improved regional cooperation and coordination, and (c) to discuss possible remedies. Based on data from in-depth case studies carried out in the BONUS BALTSPACE research project, it is shown that, despite the shared goal of sustainability and efficient resource use in relevant EU Directives, action plans and other policy instruments, domestic plans are emerging in diverse ways, mainly reflecting varying domestic administrative structures, sectoral interests, political prioritisations, and handling of potentially conflicting policy objectives. A fruitful distinction can be made between, on the one hand, regulatory institutions and structures above the state level where decision-making mechanisms are typically grounded in consensual regimes and, on the other hand, bilateral, issue-specific collaboration, typically between adjacent countries. It is argued that, to improve overall marine spatial planning governance, these two governance components need to be brought together to improve consistency between regional alignment and to enhance opportunities for countries to collaborate at lower levels. Issue-specific transnational working groups or workshops can be one way to identify and act upon such potential synergies.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Kira Gee

Björn HasslerFred SaundersIgne StalmokaiteMichael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2018

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

Environmental Studies

In: Handbook on Marine Environment Protection. Dordrecht : Springer, 2018. 715-732.

While modern society is highly dependent on chemicals, numerous substances also turn out to be hazardous and many give rise to severe risks and problems in the marine environment. In response, national, regional and global chemical policies, often focusing on the land-based sources to marine pollution, have been developed, as outlined in the article. As a result, the levels of some pollutants have decreased, but the vast majority of substances are not controlled in line with the internationally stated objectives of sound management of chemicals. An environment-oriented development of present policies, implementing the precautionary principle, is considered needed in order to improve the situation, and the question is raised in the article whether the present main international chemicals agreements would not also gain from being merged into a global framework convention.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Mikael Karlsson

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2018

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

Environmental Studies

Gdansk : Marine Institute in Gdansk, 2017. ( ; )

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

J. Zaucha

Björn HasslerFred SaundersMichael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2017

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

Environmental Studies

Svenska dagbladet 2017, 20 september : -.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Mikael Karlsson

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2017

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Svenska dagbladet 2017, 6 september : -.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Mikael Karlsson

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2017

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2017. ( ; )

This report is part of the BONUS BALTSPACE project and is focused on challenges for policy and sector integration in Baltic Sea marine spatial planning (MSP). The main objectives have been to identify concrete coordination problems, to analyse why they have emerged and to discuss possible remedies. It is based on selected aspects extracted from case studies carried out in this project related to the development of regional MSP approaches in Denmark, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Sweden and on an additional case study on the HELCOM-VASAB Working Group on MSP. To facilitate the analysis of vertical policy interactions between institutions at different levels as well as of horizontal interactions over sector and country borders, an analytical framework was constructed. This framework consists of two main components; (a) institution-driven coordination where institutions such as global treaties, the EU, regional organisations, and state authorities provide boundaries for decisions taken at lower levels and (b) benefit-driven coordination capturing horizontal coordination across sector and country borders.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

N. Blažauskas

Björn HasslerFred SaundersIgne StalmokaiteMichael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2017

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

Environmental Studies

Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2017. ( ; )

Developing integrative decision-making underpinned by a diverse knowledge base is seen as essential to meet marine spatial planning’s (MSP) sustainable development aspirations. In contributing to a better understanding of how this might be achieved, this report considers knowledge integration challenges drawing on several MSP empirical cases across the Baltic Sea Region. Each case-study, involves Baltic Sea states at different stages of developing national marine spatial plans. At the Baltic-wide level, HELCOM-VASAB has interpreted the Ecosystem Approach in MSP as relying heavily on an evidence-base informed by natural scientific and expert knowledge. The results of the report show that challenges arise when trying to apply scientific knowledge to MSP events or processes for a number of reasons such as, incomplete data and associated substantial uncertainty or because stakeholders contest the policy interpretation of the data. This raises questions of how to assess or evaluate the quality and comprehensiveness/sufficiency of scientific and stakeholder knowledge or input into MSP decision-making, particularly in highly politicised, conflictual contexts, such as the integration of parts of the fishing sector in MSP in Poland. MSP in German territorial waters provides a positive example, where science and stakeholder knowledge input have been integrated in decision-making through informal and formal processes. This case exhibits evidence of social learning where authorities have reflected on previous experiences and invested in actively nurturing the meaningful participation of a wide variety of stakeholders (to form a community of practice) over an extended period of time. The key findings of the report call for more attention to be paid to ways that scientific and stakeholder knowledge can be fruitfully incorporated in MSP, through initiatives such as: the development of knowledge evaluation measures; drawing more actively on social science expertise to help facilitate processes of stakeholder engagement and knowledge inclusion; and paying more attention to how to include heterogeneous socio-cultural values and knowledge (placed-based) in a way that improves the salience of scientific knowledge and the legitimacy of MSP decision-making.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

K. Gee

Björn HasslerFred SaundersIgne StalmokaiteMichael GilekRalph Tafon

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2017

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

Environmental Studies

Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2017. ( ; )

This Deliverable elaborates an evaluation design for MSP that responds to a growing call for a more nuanced and critical conceptualisation and implementation of MSP as complex sites of governance. Here we posit that such an evaluation design should be based on 'sustainability of governance' in MSP. Furthermore, that such an evaluation approach should be built on good governance principles of participation, coordination, openness and collaboration in governance processes with the aim to strengthen MSP on both democratic and functionality grounds. To advance this position, we elaborate the relationship between integration as a concept that can be used to examine the sustainability of governance in practice. The conceptual framework is then used to structure a discussion of illustrative examples of the relationship between integration and sustainability of governance across several Baltic Sea case-studies. The results of these case studies are then framed in a discussion on aspects that need to be considered when designing an evaluation process for MSP. Points highlighted here are the need to adopt a deliberative and reflexive approach that draws on a wide body of evidence in evaluation. A set of clustered evaluative criteria (CEC), referring to practices deemed to be desirable for sustainability of MSP governance, are proposed to guide or direct an evaluation process. The CEC were derived through an assessment of what is deemed important in the relevant literature as well as through consideration of the experience of the Baltic cases. The CEC could be seen as indicators of integration that relate to aspects of sustainability of governance in MSP, as well as, in more instrumental terms to support problem-solving aimed at improving MSP coherence. The evaluation design outlined here would require to be tested and trialled in MSP settings to assess its saliency and refine its usability in practice.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

K. Gee

Björn HasslerFred SaundersMichael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2017

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

Environmental Studies

Journal of Cleaner Production 2017, 167 : 229-241.

Abstract Denial of scientific findings is neither a new nor an unexplored phenomenon. In the area of environmental science and policy though, the research on denial has not been systematically summarized and analyzed. This article reviews 161 scientific articles on environmental and climate science denial published in peer reviewed international journals in the last 25 years and aims to both identify research gaps and enable learning on the phenomenon. Such knowledge is needed for the increasingly important task to provide effective response to science denial, in order to put an end to its influence on environmental policy making. The review, which is based on articles found in the databases Web of Science, Scopus and Philosopher's Index, shows that denial by far is most studied in relation to climate change, with a focus on Anglo-American countries, where this form of denial is most common. Other environmental issues and other geographical areas have received much less scientific attention. While the actors behind climate science denial, their various motives and the characteristics of their operations have been thoroughly described, more comparative research between issues and countries is needed in order to draw reliable conclusions about the factors explaining the peculiarities of denial. This may in turn lay the ground for developing and actually testing the effectiveness and efficiency of strategies to counter environmental science denial. Irrespective of the ambitions of environmental goals, science-based policies are always preferable. The scientific community therefore needs to increase its efforts to dismantle false claims and to disclose the schemes of denialists.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Karin Edvardsson Björnberg

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 2017, 19 (6): 769-782.

How science and policy interact has been a major research focus in the International Relations (IR) tradition, using the epistemic community (EC) concept, as well as in the alternative perspective of Science and Technology Studies (STS). Should science be autonomous and as apolitical as possible in order to ‘speak truth to power’, as suggested by EC or should the inevitable entanglement of science and politics be accepted and embraced so as to make advice more conducive to negotiating the explicit travails of political decision-making as suggested by STS? With this point of departure, we compare similarities and differences between science–policy interactions in the issue areas of eutrophication and fisheries management of the Baltic Sea. To examine how knowledge is mobilised, the concepts of ‘uncertainty’ and ‘coherence’ are developed, drawing on both EC and STS thinking. We then reflect on the explanatory value of these approaches in both cases and discuss how a separation of science and policy-making in the pursuit of achieving scientific consensus leads to ineffectual policies. Drawing on STS thinking, we urge for a re-conceptualisation of coherence in order to accommodate a more reflexive practice of science–policy interactions.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Sebastian Linke

Fred SaundersMichael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2017

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

Environmental Studies

Stockholm : BONUS, 2016. ( ; )

This report makes a case for examining the role of integration and its links to how sustainable development is variably expressed in different marine spatial planning (MSP) contexts. The aim of the report is to refine an analytical approach to examine integration in MSP in the Baltic Sea through consideration of preliminary empirical results from a broad range of case studies. MSP is conceptualised here as a governance platform for improving processes to enable political decision-making with the aim to achieve sustainable development of marine space. Integration is universally espoused as a means to address a variety of challenges closely related to MSP’s sustainable development ambitions, such as supporting inter-sectoral decision-making, stakeholder engagement and cross-border interaction, but its role, value and implementation in MSP has not been examined in any empirical detail. Although increased integration may well have positive effects on MSP processes and outcomes, in some instances, the contrary might also be the case. With these thoughts in mind, this report argues that we need to analyse integration as a multidimensional concept in MSP processes and outcomes. Based on understandings of integration derived from MSP experience and concepts in the broader social science literature, an analytical framework is developed to examine MSP practice in the Baltic Sea. Integration is conceptualised as including transboundary/cross-border, policy/sectoral, stakeholder and knowledge dimensions. Despite common requirements under the European Union MSP Directive and policies, national jurisdictions are likely to adopt MSP differently, which has implications for the role integration is likely to play in national and transnational MSP practice. Drawing on empirical data derived from national MSP studies, stakeholder dialogue forums and preliminary interviews with stakeholders the analytical framework is applied to examine how particular integration challenges play out in both national and transnational marine space across the Baltic Sea Region. The analytical framework is then used to structure an examination of several case studies from different parts of the Baltic Sea Region. Based on consideration of the empirical work and an analyses of previous experiences in science and practice we then propose some revisions to the initial analytical framework presented earlier. The revised analytical framework, while capturing the integration dimensions mentioned earlier, also includes consideration of the following aspects of integration: how ‘balance’ between sustainable development dimensions is exercised; the character of cross-boundary interactions; and temporal dynamics. Instead of a conclusion, short think-pieces are presented to capture the main insights of the report, which could be used to aid the examination of integration in MSP in other MSP contexts, beyond the Baltic Sea.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Kira Gee

Björn HasslerFred SaundersIgne StalmokaiteMichael Gilek

Paula Lenninger

Ralph Tafon

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2016

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

Environmental StudiesPolitics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea. : Springer, 2016. 229-246.

Governing marine environments is a highly complex and challenging enterprise. This applies particularly to the heavily exploited Baltic Sea for which despite extensive governance arrangements and a substantial scientific knowledge base, it is unlikely that the policy objective of ‘good environmental status’ is reached. Based on a review of governance arrangements linked to five large-scale environmental issues (eutrophication, overfishing, invasive alien species, chemical pollution and oil spills from shipping), this chapter aims to identify pathways and concrete ideas for institutional reform that may improve goal fulfilment. The results show that governance challenges differ substantially between environmental issues, implying a need for case-specific management reforms. For example, coping with extreme uncertainty is a key challenge in the chemical pollution case, whereas it seems more pertinent in the eutrophication case to address the complexity of nutrient pollution sources by adapting objectives and measures amongst sectoral policies to be in line with environmental ones. Furthermore, cross-case comparisons reveal a set of common vital functions (i.e. coordination, integration, interdisciplinarity, precaution, deliberation, communication and adaptability) that are needed in order to facilitate effective and efficient environmental governance in the long term. To promote these functions in Baltic Sea environmental governance, the chapter suggests pathways and institutional reforms aimed at improving multilevel and multisectoral integration, science-policy interactions and stakeholder participation. To further develop these ideas, it is proposed amongst other things that priority is given to setting up an international ‘Baltic Sea Policy Review Mechanism’, formed by cross-body and cross-stakeholder participation.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Michael Gilek

Mikael Karlsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2016

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

Environmental Studies

In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea. : Springer, 2016. 173-203.

This chapter investigates and compares the interactions between science and policy (risk assessments and risk management) in five cases of environmental governance of the Baltic Sea: eutrophication, fisheries, invasive alien species, chemical pollution and oil discharges. An efficient interplay between science and policy is important for successful environmental governance, which applies particularly to the Baltic Sea where all five risks pose serious threats to environmental, social and economic aspects of sustainability. We use science-policy theory and an analytical framework based on a categorisation of relevant management responses linked to different states of incomplete knowledge (risk, uncertainty, ambiguity, ignorance) to investigate two main characteristics of science-policy interfaces: (1) organisational structures and (2) procedural aspects of managing scientific uncertainties and stakeholder disagreements. The analyses reveal differences and similarities in institutional and organisational designs of the respective assessment-management interactions, as well as in terms of how scientific uncertainties, stakeholder disagreements and socio-political ambiguities are addressed. All the five science-policy interfaces expose science-based management approaches that commonly are not able to cope sufficiently well with the complexities, uncertainties and ambiguities at hand. Based on our cross-case analyses, we conclude by recommending five key aspects that need to be addressed to improve science-policy interactions in Baltic Sea environmental governance: (1) more adaptive organisational structures in terms of time, context and place dependency, (2) increased knowledge integrations, (3) a more careful consideration of stakeholder participation and deliberation, (4) better management of uncertainty and disagreements and (5) increased transparency and reflection in the communication of science-policy processes.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Sebastian Linke

Michael Gilek

Mikael Karlsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

Environmental Studies

In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea. : Springer, 2016. 97-123.

This study zooms in on public governance in the Baltic Sea region of three generations of notorious hazardous substances, namely, PCBs, PBDEs and PFOS/PFOA. Following regulation, PCB concentrations in the Baltic Sea have decreased substantially although they are still above pre-industrial levels. PBDE levels have also decreased in some places, but they too are well above targeted levels, whereas the situation for PFOS and in particular for PFOA has hardly improved at all. In the case of PCBs, while comprehensive measures took long to implement, initial preventive measures were taken early based on the precautionary principle. This contrasts with the cases of PBDEs, PFOS and PFOA, where the burden of proof on policy-makers has been high and hence caused severe delays in policymaking. There has, however, generally been a positive interplay in all three cases between the EU, which has legislated, and HELCOM, which has taken the role of concept and agenda setting. While environment-oriented policies, such as the Ecosystem Approach to Management under MSFD and BSAP, have grown in importance over time, polluter-oriented chemical legislation has been more important when it comes to final decision-making. Nevertheless, the general response has been reactive rather than proactive, and there is no indication that society responds faster today than in the past, at least not given the fact that awareness, experience and knowledge are greater today than a few decades back. Based on that insight, the article discusses various options for improving governance.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Michael Gilek

Mikael Karlsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2016

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

Environmental Studies

In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea. : Springer, 2016. 1-17.

The Baltic Sea ecosystem is subject to a wide array of societal pressures and associated environmental risks (e.g. eutrophication, oil discharges, chemical pollution, overfishing and invasive alien species). Despite several years of substantial efforts by state and non-state actors, it is still highly unlikely that the regionally agreed environmental objectives of reaching “good environmental status” by 2021 in the HELCOM BSAP (Baltic Sea Action Plan) and by 2020 in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) will be met. This chapter identifies key research topics, as well as presents analytical perspectives for analysing the gap between knowledge and action in Baltic Sea environmental governance. It does so by outlining important trends and key challenges associated with Baltic Sea environmental governance, as well as by summarising the scope and results of individual chapters of this interdisciplinary volume. The analysis reveals the development of increasingly complex governance arrangements and the ongoing implementation of the holistic Ecosystem Approach to Management, as two general trends that together contribute to three key challenges associated with (1) regional and cross - sectoral coordination and collaboration, (2) coping with complexity and uncertainty in science-policy interactions and (3) developing communication and knowledge sharing among stakeholder groups. Furthermore, to facilitate analysis of environmental governance opportunities and obstacles both within and across specific environmental issues, this chapter reviews the scientific literature to pinpoint key research issues and questions linked to the identified governance challenges.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Sebastian Linke

Michael Gilek

Mikael Karlsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2016

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

Environmental Studies

In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea. : Springer, 2016. 21-44.

This study investigates if and how present institutional structures and interactions between scientific assessment and environmental management are sufficient for implementing the ecosystem approach to management (EAM) in the case of Baltic Sea eutrophication. Concerning governance structures, a number of institutions and policies focus on issues relating to eutrophication. In many cases, the policies are mutually supportive rather than contradictory, as seen, for example, in the case of the mutually supportive BSAP and MSFD. The opposite is true, however, when it comes to the linkages with some other policy areas, in particular regarding agricultural policy, where the EU CAP subsidises intensive agriculture with at best minor consideration of environmental objectives, thereby undermining EAM. Enhanced policy coherence and stricter policies on concrete measures to combat eutrophication seem well needed in order to reach stated environmental objectives.  When it comes to assessment-management interactions, the science- policy interface has worked well in periods, but the more specific that policies have become, for example, in the BSAP case, the more question marks have been raised about science by affected stakeholders. At present, outright controversies exist, and EAM is far from realised in eutrophication policy in the Baltic Sea region. Besides coping with remaining uncertainties by improving the knowledge on problems and solutions– not least in terms of the socio-economic impacts of eutrophication – it may therefore be valuable to develop venues for improved stakeholder participation.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Cecilia Lundberg

Michael Gilek

Mikael Karlsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2016

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

Environmental Studies

: Springer, 2016.

This edited volume presents a comprehensive and coherent interdisciplinary analysis ofchallenges and possibilities for sustainable governance of the Baltic Sea ecosystem bycombining knowledge and approaches from natural and social sciences. Focusing onthe Ecosystem Approach to Management (EAM) and associated multi-level, multi-sectorand multi-actor challenges, the book provides up-to-date descriptions and analyses ofenvironmental governance structures and processes at the macro-regional Baltic Sealevel. Organised in two parts, Part 1 presents in-depth case studies of environmentalgovernance practices and challenges linked to five key environmental problems -eutrophication, chemical pollution, overfishing, oil discharges and invasive species.Part 2 analyses and compares governance challenges and opportunities across the fivecase studies, focusing on governance structures and EAM implementation, knowledgeintegration and science support, as well as stakeholder communication and participation.Based on these cross-case comparisons, this book also draws a set of general conclusionson possible ways of improving the governance of the Baltic Sea by promoting what areidentified as vital functions of environmental governance: coordination, integration,interdisciplinarity, precaution, deliberation, communication and adaptability.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Sebastian Linke

Michael Gilek

Mikael Karlsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

Environmental Studies

Interdisciplinary Environmental Review 2016, 17 (1): 1-19.

Based on a literature review of over 160 journal articles and books, this paper examines the ecosystem management and environmental governance approaches, and looks for common topics and integrated research agendas. While scientific articles on environmental governance stem primarily from social science research, the ecosystem management approach is more natural-science-oriented. A review of journal articles from the ISI Web of Knowledge (Web of Science) reveals that the two research communities hardly interact. The paper discusses two thematic linkages between the two approaches: the debates dealing with the scale and level of environmental policy; and the discussions surrounding multi-stakeholder participation. Moreover, the article identifies areas with a high potential for the establishment of common ground, such as the current discussion on science-policy interfaces. We argue for more interaction, claim that the two research approaches can learn from each other, and discuss the potential for the development of interdisciplinary research agendas

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Kristine Kern

Michael Gilek

Magnus Boström

Sara Söderström

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

-

HavsUtsikt 2015, 1 : 8-9.

Gapet är stort mellan miljömål och miljötillstånd i Östersjön. De omfattande insatser som görs av offentliga institutioner, näringsliv och allmänhet räcker inte. Samtidigt finns ett stort och växande engagemang från många politiker, företagare och enskilda för att stärka havsmiljöarbetet. När vi nu summerar ett större treårigt forskningsprojekt finner vi viktiga ledtrådar till vägar som kan leda till en förbättrad situation.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Michael Gilek

Mikael Karlsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

Environmental Studies

Sustainability 2015, 11 (1): 21-31.

Departing from previous theoretical and empirical studies on sustainable supply-chain management, we investigate organizational commitment (drivers and motivations) and capabilities (resources, structures, and policy instruments) in sustainable procurement of “noncore” products. By focusing on chemicals in textiles, the article explores the activi-ties of differently sized organizations and discusses the potentials and limitations of sustainable procurement measures. The study is based on a qualitative and comparative approach, with empirical findings from 26 case stud-ies of Swedish public and private procurement organizations. These organizations operate in the sectors of hotels/ conference venues, transport, cinema, interior design, and hospitals/daycare. While this work demonstrates major challenges for buyers to take into account peripheral items in sustainable procurement, it also identifies constructive measures for moving forward. A general sustainability/environmental focus can, as an effect, spill over to areas per-ceived as peripheral. © 2014 Boström et al.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Anna Maria Jönsson

Eva Hedenström

Michael Gilek

Magnus Boström


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

School of Culture and EducationSchool of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental ScienceMedia and Communication Studies

Research area for doctoral studies

Environmental Studies

In: Governing Europe’s Marine Environment. Farnham : Ashgate, 2015. 141-160.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Sebastian Linke

Michael Gilek

Mikael Karlsson

Oksana Udovyk


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

Environmental Studies

In: Governing Europe’s Marine Environment. Farnham, England : Ashgate, 2015. 1-12.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Kristine Kern

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

Environmental Studies

In: Governing Europe's Marine Environment. Farnham : Ashgate, 2015. 249-264.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Svein Jentoft

Björn HasslerMichael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

Environmental Studies

Journal of Cleaner Production 2015, 107 : 130-136.

A great number of chemicals - many of which are hazardous to human health and the environment - are used along the complex supply chains of textiles. These complexities and hazards make knowledge for understanding chemical properties and management practices at multiple nodes central to the responsible management of textile supply chains. This study investigates the knowledge requirements of, and the knowledge strategies used by, textile procuring organisations in response to both external stakeholders and internal pressure. Based on a qualitative study of small and medium-sized Swedish textile procuring organisations, the paper describes these knowledge challenges and analyses how efforts to meet them relate to expressed commitments and capabilities for responsible supply chain management (RSCM), as well as to organisational characteristics (i.e. whether the organisation is private or public, small or large, and whether textiles is a core or peripheral activity). It was found that several textile procuring organisations expressed commitment towards achieving RSCM. However, most organisations felt that they lacked capacity to rise to the challenge. There was a poor state of knowledge regarding many chemical substances and inherent difficulties in gaining knowledge of chemical risks and how to manage these. Moreover, the input of knowledge was limited and based on only a few key sources. Such factors proved to be obstacles for procuring organisations when attempting to facilitate responsible management upstream in complex supply chains.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Michael Gilek

Mikael Karlsson

Natasja Börjeson

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Futures 2014, 63 : 15-25.

This study analyses whether science-policy interactions linked to the management of hazardous chemicals in the European marine environment have developed in accordance with general theories on public involvement in policymaking in general and post-normal science (PNS) in particular. Special attention is given to a comparison between key EU policy frameworks, namely the "polluter-oriented" registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals (REACH) and the "environment-oriented" Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), based on in-depth analysis of key policy-related documents and interviews with scientists and policy actors. The results outline that in spite of a substantial amount of rhetoric in EU sources about recommending wide and ambitious public involvement, current participation and deliberation practices are rather undeveloped in the studied EU policy frameworks. Furthermore, it can be concluded that the introduction of more radical approaches to knowledge co-production and participation (like PNS) would require epistemological, institutional and constitutional changes that are not feasible in the foreseeable future, at least not in respect to chemicals management. This study generates empirical data with regard to the management of chemicals in the European marine environment, specifically data on participation, the role of science, and uncertainty treatment at the science-policy interface. These data provide empirical information that can be used by environmental managers involved in the development of EU marine policy. At the same time, the results can be used theoretically to reflect on and problematise the current state of wider public participation in EU environmental policies and PNS development in particular cases.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Michael Gilek

Oksana Udovyk


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2014

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Journal of Risk Research 2014, 17 (4): 505-523.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Michael Gilek

Mikael Karlsson

Oksana Udovyk

Sebastian Linke


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2014

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Clean Shipping Currents 2013, 2 (5): -33.

This report presents the results of a web survey distributed to stakeholders in the Baltic Sea marine sector regarding environmental communication on air pollution from shipping. The survey was carried out in the spring and summer of 2012. Drawing on the literature on risk communication and environmental governance, the main focus was placed on so-called communication barriers, that is, possible hindrances to effective communication among stakeholders on how to reduce air pollution without threatening sector competitiveness. The results show that although there is a dense networking among stakeholders in this sector, there is a demand for improvements in communication in (a) exploratory phases among broad groups of stakeholders and (b) operational phases among selected groups of e.g. business and research teams. To facilitate the emergence of such improved communication, regional organizations such as HELCOM and EU could play important roles. Furthermore, it is shown that there is a perceived need among many stakehold­ers to step up the involvement of certain stakeholders, for example fuel companies, in collabora­tion on how to reduce pollution from shipping in cost-efficient ways. Finally, the results show that although continuous improvements of international regulation is a vital part of the governance of the marine sector, compliance will suffer if operators’ incentives are too strong in favor of not con­tributing to reduced pollution levels. Therefore, there is a strong need for innovative thinking on how to design such incentive schemes, not the least in relation to the continued implementation of Baltic Sea SECA and NECA as well as of the Baltic Sea Action Plan.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Anna Maria JönssonBjörn Hassler

Erika Lockne

Linn Rabe

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2013

School/Centre

School of Culture and EducationSchool of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental ScienceMedia and Communication Studies

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Pan-Baltic Manual of Best Practices on Clean Shipping and Port Operations. Turku : Union of the Baltic Cities, 2013. 98-102.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Anna Maria JönssonBjörn Hassler

Erika Lockne

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2013

School/Centre

School of Culture and EducationSchool of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental ScienceMedia and Communication Studies

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Political State of the Region Report 2013. Copenhagen : Baltic Development Forum, 2013. 58-61.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Björn Hassler

Fanny Engkvist

Kristine Kern

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2013

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
BiologyEnvironmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2013. (Working Paper ; 2013:1)

This report focuses on IKEA’s management and communication surrounding sustainability in general and chemical risks specifically. IKEA’s work is analysed in relation to theoretical concepts around responsibility, supply chain, and governance . The report focuses on IKEA’s visions and organizational structures, its policy instruments to deal with chemical risks, supplier-relations and communication and learning. The study is based on previous scholarly literature, analyses of relevant documents, a field visit at a few of IKEA’s suppliers in southern India, as well as interviews with staff working at IKEA in Sweden. The report focuses on IKEA’s systems and processes for dealing with chemical risks, and not on the implementation of such measures in quantitative terms.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Anna Maria JönssonMichael Gilek

Mikael Karlsson

Magnus Boström


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Culture and EducationSchool of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental ScienceMedia and Communication Studies

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Environmental Science and Policy 2013, 29 : 12-23.

Managing uncertainty is a main challenge for sustainable management of complex socioecological systems, such as marine ecosystems. Today, a growing number of scientific publications address decision-making practices under conditions of high uncertainty. However, very few studies have analyzed how science treats uncertainty before it reaches decision-makers, especially for various marine environmental issues. This study aims to fill these research gaps by identifying the main theoretical approaches to science-based uncertainty management proposed in the scientific literature. Furthermore, by scrutinizing advisory documents, current approaches and methods to assess and treat uncertainty in science-based advice are analyzed and compared for five significant environmental issues in the Baltic Sea (eutrophication, fisheries, invasive species, chemical pollution, and oil spills). Specifically, the study analyzes the types of uncertainties acknowledged, how strategies and practices present and address uncertainties, and whether new theoretical proposals identified in the scientific literature affect existing practices. The study's results reveal that current scientific practices do not adequately address uncertainty in advice formulation. First, no common guideline is in use, resulting in significant differences among studied environmental issues and a common lack of structure, clarity, established terminology, and transparency in the assessment and treatment of uncertainty. Furthermore, new theoretical developments connected with uncertainty appraisal (such as theoretical typologies) and new tools and methods for handling uncertainty (such as precautionary and participatory approaches) are hardly utilized in practice in the management of the Baltic ecosystem. Consequently, although theoretical approaches for coping with uncertainty in complex socio-ecological systems are ample, the challenge for the future is to implement these approaches more effectively in assessment and management frameworks. The study discusses possible improvements to current practices in environmental management of large-scale socio-ecological systems such as the Baltic Sea and other regional seas, acknowledging that these measures will not reduce all existing uncertainty but rather contribute to a more comprehensive treatment of uncertainties.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Michael Gilek

Oksana Udovyk


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Biology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

HavsUtsikt 2012, 2 : 8-9.

Miljöproblemen i Östersjön är allvarliga, och kunskapen om exakt vilka risker de innebär är omdebatterad. I ett forskningsprojekt har vi kartlagt hur miljöriskerna bedöms och hanteras idag, och konstaterar att det finns ett behov av att den traditionella riskbedömningen kompletteras med ett större mått av försiktighet och ett ökat deltagande av samhällets olika aktörer.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Johanna Sandahl

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

Environmental Studies

: , 2012. ( ; )

Environmental risk governance in the Baltic Sea area is still unable to fully support implementation of the ecosystem approach to management. Hence, the aims of the international RISKGOV project were: 1) to improve our understanding of environmental risk governance and its challenges in the Baltic Sea; 2) to suggest possible avenues for improvement.These aims were addressed by integrating social and natural science approaches on five strategically selected environmental risks (eutrophication, overfishing, invasive species, chemical pollution and oil discharges).The findings, recommendations and dissemination products of RISKGOV are described in detail in the Final report (http://www.sh.se/riskgov). Researchers from Södertörn University were involved in all case studies and cross-case comparisons. In summary, RISKGOV concludes that it is necessary to improve the robustness and responsiveness of governance practices to achieve sustainable ecosystem management. Specifically, RISKGOV recommends that: (i) Governance structures need to move towards more reflexive governance by improving regulatory coordination, cross sector collaboration, and interaction space for reflexivity. This is, for example, exemplified by increased interactions between HELCOM and the EU aiming at the combination of mandatory regulation and voluntary agreements; (ii) Assessment-management interactions require improvements e.g. relating to the regional and interdisciplinary knowledge-base, stakeholder participation and coping with scientific uncertainty and disagreement; (iii) Stakeholder participation and communication require improvements in terms of a more integrated system of stakeholder input possibly via an expansion of HELCOM’s stakeholder involvement policy and enhanced efforts to communicate environmental issues to the general public. Implications of these general recommendations for specific actors and stakeholders were analysed and developed through thematic roundtable discussions.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

Environmental Studies

: , 2012. ( ; )

Moving towards sustainable ecosystem governance practices is potentially a complex and time consuming endeavour. The RISKGOV project identified three main governance challenges linked to implementing an ecosystem approach to management in the medium to long term time span (i.e. years to decades), that, if adequately addressed by actors and stakeholders, could help improve the governance of environmental problems and risks in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Firstly, fostering a move towards reflexive and adaptive governance structures and processes by improving regulatory coordination, cross sector collaboration and forming spaces for interaction and dialogue. Secondly, strengthening the regional and ecosystem basis of knowledge generation and management is needed, including integration of various forms of scientific knowledge, stakeholder input, and increased attention to interdependencies among environmental problems and risks to better address uncertainties and disagreements. Thirdly, to develop a more integrated system of stakeholder input and communication, e.g. in the form of a “regional marine advisory council”, to face issues of inclusiveness, create a common concern for the Baltic ecosystem, improve the motivation and capacity, and improve coordination across scales and sectors.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Monica HammerMichael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

Environmental Studies

Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 2012, 55 (1): 95-111.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Anna Maria JönssonMichael Gilek

Mikael Karlsson

Magnus Boström

Natasja Börjeson

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

School of Culture and EducationSchool of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental ScienceMedia and Communication Studies

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Ambio 2011, 40 (2): 109-110.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Anna Maria JönssonBjörn HasslerMichael Gilek

Mikael Karlsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2011

School/Centre

School of Culture and EducationSchool of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental ScienceMedia and Communication Studies

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Political State of the Region Report 2011. Köpenhamn : Baltic Development Forum, 2011. 68-71.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Kristine Kern

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2011

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

Environmental Studies

Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2011. ( ; )

This report has been produced within the interdisciplinary RISKGOV project with the overall aim of comparing risk assessment – risk management interactions connected with five severe Baltic Sea environmental risks (eutrophication, overfishing, invasive species, chemical pollution and oil discharges linked to marine transports).Specifically, we compare three major aspects connected with assessment  – management interactions and, based on this analysis, suggest possible routes for improving interaction between science-based advice and environmental (risk) management:Organisational structure of the risk assessment activities and the generation, selection and implementation of management options.The management of scientific uncertainties and disagreements.Implementation of the ecosystem approach to management (EAM) and modes of ‘good governance’.In order to understand these aspects we started by describing and analysing the characteristics of the five risk cases. This revealed substantial differences in terms of sources, effects and complexities (in terms of scientific uncertainty and socio-political ambiguity). For example, chemical risks are associated with great uncertainty and oil spill with much lower; fisheries relate to very high socio-political ambiguity, whereas invasive species show the opposite nature and oil spill fit with more traditional risk parameters. Our analysis also revealed a great variation in the societal risk responses, which far from always seems rational in relation to the risk characteristics.When it comes to the organisational structures, we can conclude that different forms of institutions and institutional arrangements and relations have evolved over time in the various cases, for instance relatively well-formalised in the overfishing case, and rather informal for combating eutrophication. Similarly, we see different forms of expert dependencies. In the overfishing case there are institutionalised formal links between e.g. ICES and the EU Commission and the historic path-dependency is quite strong, thereby causing institutional inertia, even though the development of Regional Advisory Councils (RACs) such as the Baltic RAC are gradually changing the picture. In relation to many other environmental risk cases (e.g. eutrophication and chemicals) HELCOM provides a regional basis for assessment and management (although implementation of management recommendations have often proved complex). Still, assessment-management interactions seem more developed and better organised in the overfishing case, even though it is obvious that the last link, the political decision-making on quotas, has deviated substantially from the science-based advice, thereby opening for continued overfishing. Similarly, well-developed institutions seem to allow for improved deliberative processes for fisheries, including improved analysis of socio-economic dimensions, which we cannot find to the same extent for e.g. chemicals, eutrophication and invasive species.The assessment and management responses we see to the studied risks do not seem to be based on any thorough analysis of the specific risk characteristics, or on the suitability of different overall strategies (e.g. traditional science-based assessment, precautionary, deliberative). Instead, all studied assessment-management interactions can be classified as being built primarily on traditional science-based assessment of risks. Of course, we see elements of for example precaution in e.g. the chemicals case, and deliberation in the fish case, and the inclusion of the EAM as a starting point for assessment exercises and management decisions is becoming more common, but overall this happens only partially and infrequently.Thus, to summarise, we conclude that there are substantial differences among environmental risks in relation to, for example, complexity, uncertainty and ambiguity, and we argue that it is important to maintain a balance between ideals of holistic approaches such as EAM and context dependent requirements of various management objectives, environmental risks and sectors. For example, high levels of uncertainty (e.g. chemical pollution) and ambiguity (e.g. overfishing) can be assumed to require assessment-management approaches focussed on precaution and participatory deliberation, respectively.Furthermore, our analysis identifies six key issues and challenges that, if adequately addressed, may improve assessment-management interactions and facilitate the implementation of the ecosystem approach to management.1. We see a need to further develop the regional and ecosystem basis of assessment-management interactions in terms of addressing prioritised knowledge gaps, as well as developing regional knowledge management and monitoring to strengthen regionally-based scientific advice.2. Integration of various forms of scientific knowledge is currently rather undeveloped in assessment and scientific advice, which reduces possibilities of addressing also the social dimension of sustainable development as well as possibilities of identifying and reducing ‘blind spots’.3. Stakeholder participation requires more consideration since incorporation of practitioner and local knowledge in risk assessments as well as stakeholder deliberation in risk management often are vital for the successful implementation of the ecosystem approach to management.4. We identify substantial room for improvements linked to coping with scientific uncertainty and disagreement in both risk assessment and risk management. We conclude that there in fact are examples of science-based precautionary approaches and methods, but that a comprehensive and coherent strategy for addressing uncertainty is often lacking.5. Interdependencies among environmental risk issues need to be more specifically addressed than today. Climate change will, for example, influence both the outcome of risk assessments as well as the possibilities for successful management in all the studied environmental risk cases.6. Despite a commonly expressed idea of a clear separation between assessment and management, the studied science-policy interactions are in general rather diffuse and politicised. This lack of transparency about how these interactions evolve and are constructed may mislead political decision makers and the public and thus potentially hamper management progress.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Cecilia Lundberg

Katarzyna Smolarz

Michael Gilek

Mikael Karlsson

Oksana Udovyk

Sebastian Linke


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2011

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

Environmental Studies

Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2011. (Working Paper ; 2011:2)

In the present study, we ask whether and how different organizations work with sustainable procurement and how this work relates to the complexity of the product chain. We have chosen to focus on chemical risks in relation to textiles – an issue that increasingly is becoming part of the public discourse and a target for journalists. In the case of textiles, the product chain from raw material to consumption often involves a great number of production steps, sub-contractors and users, often on a global scale. Sustainable management of the supply chain would improve health, quality of life, and labour conditions, for instance in the areas and factories in developing countries where production and processing often take place. However, such management faces great difficulties and challenges in terms of capabilities, knowledge, communication, and policy instruments. These difficulties are related to high uncertainties and other problems that in turn are related to the high complexity of global product chains. The objective of the present report is to gain insights into the opportunities and challenges that private and public organizations face regarding the development of responsible procurement in relation to a complex and uncertain issue. The report focuses on chemicals in textiles and uses a qualitative methodology with semi-structured interviews. Key elements of a pro-active, responsible procurement strategy are defined in the report and include criteria such as using a preventive, systematic, responsive, integrative, and reflective approach. The analysis includes the following topics: (i) priorities and knowledge, (ii) communicative strategies, (iii) policy instruments, (iv) monitoring and trust in relation to suppliers. The results show a fairly modest level of organizational responsibility, although it is possible to observe an initial positive development among the cases investigated. The report ends by suggesting a number of topics that require further investigation.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Anna Maria JönssonMichael Gilek

Mikael Karlsson

Magnus Boström

Natasja Börjeson

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2011

School/Centre

School of Culture and EducationSchool of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental ScienceMedia and Communication Studies

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Ambio 2011, 40 (2): 144-157.

Complex socio-environmental risks challenge society. In response to scientific uncertainty and socio-political controversies, environmental governance, precaution, and the ecosystem approach to management are held forward as complements to governmental risk-based sector-restricted regulation. We analyze this development for hazardous substances in the Baltic Sea. Based on interviews and policy analysis, we study informal governance and, in particular, four central EU and international policies, and investigate how present governance relates to risks and objectives at hand. While showing emergence of broader governance approaches, we conclude that central objectives will not likely be met. Furthermore, we question the quest for broad environmental governance and emphasize the value of command and control regulation, if it implements precaution. These findings contribute to the theorizing on environmental (risk) governance. Finally, we provide some ideas that could help development and implementation of risk policies for hazardous chemicals in the Baltic Sea as well as other complex risks.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Michael Gilek

Mikael Karlsson

Oksana Udovyk


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2011

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

-

: Springer, 2011.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Anna Maria JönssonBjörn HasslerMichael Gilek

Mikael Karlsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2011

School/Centre

School of Culture and EducationSchool of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental ScienceMedia and Communication Studies

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2010. ( ; )

This report aims to describe and analyse the structures and processes that shape risk governance of hazardous chemicals in the Baltic Sea area and, based on this, discuss conditions and opportunities that could improve chemical risk governance. With this purpose in mind we have analysed the risk governance of hazardous chemicals along three dimensions and Work Packages (WP): governance structures (WP 1), risk assessment-risk management interactions (WP 2) and stakeholder communication (WP 3). The report is an initial outcome of the RISKGOV project, in which risk governance in various areas eventually will be compared in order to gain new insights on environmental risk governance and to extract policy-relevant advise on how to better deal with environmental risks in the Baltic Sea context. The report is based on a study of key documents treating policies and risks, 22 semi-structured in-depth interviews with stakeholders conducted in the period February–October 2010, as well as participatory observations at scientific conferences and stakeholder meetings.WP 1 identifies the most important risk governance structures, and maps actors and regulations. In particular, it is concluded that development at the EU and HELCOM level are of main importance for the management of chemicals in the Baltic Sea region. Thus, actors within the EU and HELCOM, as well as regulations within EU – most notably the Water Framework Directive (WFD), the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), and the REACH regulation – and regulations and recommendations dealt with by HELCOM – in particular the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) – were identified as crucial for further analyses in WP 2 and WP 3. Although we recognise the importance and the substantial improvements that have been made in chemical regulation within the EU and HELCOM, these developments are not sufficient in order to meet key objective at hand, nor do they adequately manage relations with Russia. WP 1 concludes that, although there are numerous of national and international regulations creating a massive web of regulations, existing chemical regulation and informal governance structures are very far from covering all existing chemical risks (especially new chemicals and mixtures of chemicals) and to allow for a sufficient extent of safety. Care must be taken in the development of new regulations to promote synergies and data exchange rather than causing further barriers, overlaps and conflicts that could reduce the efficiency. Innovative policy developments, as well as improved international collaboration, are therefore needed, which will be placed in focus in further studies within the RISKGOV project.WP 2 focuses on an in-depth understanding of the interactions between risk assessment and risk management of chemicals. The main assessment and management activities in the Baltic Sea region are identified and analysed. It is concluded that assessments commonly are based on a rather technocratic separation of assessment and management activities (with often unclear strategies for bringing these activities together in decision-making). Assessments also generally suffer from lack of data, insufficient harmonisation of methodology, as well as unclear strategies for assessing uncertainties and adjusted communication of assessment results. Consequently, assessments would benefit greatly from more harmonised assessment methodologies, not least for chemical mixtures, ecological effects as well as methods for integrating various lines of evidence. Both assessment and management might benefit from increased stakeholder participation. Furthermore, we have analysed risk assessment and management interactions through the prisms of uncertainty and the Ecosystem Approach to Management (EAM). These aspects have become top challenges for the assessment and management of chemical risks as well as for coping with science-policy interactions connected with the governance of chemical risks. We conclude that the enormous knowledge gap (for most chemicals, for the risks of chemical mixtures, for ecosystem-specific risks etc) need to be addressed by combining increased efforts on data and knowledge production with better ways of assessing, communicating and managing uncertainty. Hence, a main question is how much evidence is needed for motivating decision-making on risk reduction. This is a policy-related issue, not a scientific one. However, science does need to develop and implement improved methodology for assessing and communicating uncertainty to relevant stakeholders. On the management side, the precautionary principle is increasingly stipulated for coping with uncertainty. In spite of that, there is no consensus on the exact implementation of the principle in practice, and regulations such as REACH, the WFD, the MSFD and the BSAP ought to be developed on this point. Risk reduction is needed and motivated even, or even particularly, under uncertainty. Looking at the EAM, the approach is clearly receiving increase attention (e.g. in the BSAP and the MSFD), but only partially in the field of chemical regulation and concrete measures. So far, it is therefore not certain that the EAM will substantially improve risk management in cases of high uncertainty. On the contrary, requirements on implementation of the EAM may stall measures and increase complexity. These initial insights will be further developed in coming RISKGOV publications.WP 3 describes and analyses how risks of hazardous chemicals are framed by key actors and stakeholders in the Baltic Sea region, such as governments, agencies, regionally inter-governmental agencies such as HELCOM, economic actors, academia, and civil society. It is shown that different actors have different ways of framing the risk of chemicals in the Baltic Sea. For example, differences were observed along a gradient spanning from framing chemicals and chemical products as basically useful for society, to framing chemicals as substantial threats to the environment and human health. Most interviewed stakeholders could be placed somewhere in the middle of this gradient between benefit and cost. This is reflected in the dominant opinions expressed on required general management approaches, which do not fundamentally question abundant production of chemicals, but rather suggest a focus on managing chemicals with proven hazardous properties, thus tilting towards a market rather than an environmental starting point. This view on chemical risk management is rather surprising given the major uncertainties and lack of data described in WP 2. In light of this we propose that the management of chemicals might benefit from a shift towards seeing quality of life as based on sufficiency of chemicals rather than on (over)-abundance of them. Many of the interviewed stakeholders (e.g. politicians, journalists and NGO staff) also expressed a surprising lack of interest in the environmental risks of hazardous chemicals in the Baltic Sea region. If concern mostly expressed was health risks of chemicals. It is also clear that besides some NGOs and other stakeholders, quite few have a primary focus on taking initiatives for improving the management of chemicals, something that is a problem given the common political ambitions to increase participation in connection with implementation of the EAM. WP 3 also analyses existing institutional arrangements for and procedures of risk communication at the regional Baltic Sea level. Clearly, communication between the EU and Russia is still in need of improvement, as is two-way communications and cooperation between stakeholders, as well as between actors connected with risk assessment and risk management and the general public. For example, in those (rare) cases when scientific information about chemicals does exist, it is not well communicated among knowledge producers and stakeholders, and current scientific assessment activities seldom relate directly to concerns of stakeholders or the public. In conclusion our initial analysis and conclusions show that risks of chemicals are rather dealt with by traditional risk-based governmental strategies, than by broad environmental governance, based on precaution and the ecosystem approach to management. Furthermore, there are no clear strategies or guidelines on how to cope with uncertainty in assessment and management. As a result, even though there is a growing scientific capacity to develop new chemicals, there is at present no well functioning system for their safe management. We will address these challenges further in future RISKGOV publications.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Louise Rabilloud

Michael Gilek

Mikael Karlsson

Oksana Udovyk


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

Environmental Studies

In: Regulating chemical risks. Dordrecht : Springer Netherlands, 2010. 151-162.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Christina Rudén

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Dordrecht : Springer, 2010.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Christina Rudén

Johan ErikssonMichael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental StudiesSchool of Social Sciences
Environmental SciencePolitical Science

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Miljöforskning 2009, 3/4 : -.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Anna Maria JönssonBjörn HasslerMichael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2009

School/Centre

School of Culture and Education
Media and Communication Studies

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Stockholm : Naturvårdsverket, 2009. (Rapport / Naturvårdsverket ; 5983)

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Celia Jones

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2009

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Stockholm : Naturvårdsverket, 2009. (Rapport / Naturvårdsverket ; 5928)

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Celia Jones

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2009

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies
Environmental Science

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Miljöforskning 2009, 3-4 : 30-31.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Anna Maria JönssonBjörn HasslerMichael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2009

School/Centre

School of Culture and Education
Media and Communication Studies

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Toxicology Letters 2008, 180 : S74-S74.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Sven Ove Hansson

Christina Ruden

Linda Schenk

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2008

School/Centre

-

-


Research area for doctoral studies

-

Marine Environmental Research 2008, 65 (3): 264-281.

Settling organic matter (OM) is the major food source for heterotrophic benthic fauna. The high sorption affinity of many contaminants for OM implies that OM can influence both the distribution and bioavailability of contaminants. Here, we experimentally examine the role of settling OM of various nutritional qualities on the bioaccumulation of cadmium and the flame retardant BDE-99 by three benthic invertebrates; Macoma balthica, Monoporeia affinis and Marenzelleria sp. Contaminants were associated with three types of OM; a microalgae (Tetraselmis spp.), lignin and sediment. Bioaccumulation of Cd was proportional to OM nutritional quality for all three species, and was species-specific in the order Marenzelleria > M. balthica > M. affinis. BDE-99 bioaccumulation was highest in the treatment with the most nutritious OM (Tetraselmis). Consequently, both benthic species composition and the nutritive value of organic matter settling to the seafloor can have a substantial effect on the bioaccurnulation of both metals and organic contaminants.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Jenny E. Hedman

Clare Bradshaw

Maria H. Thorsson

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2008

School/Centre

-

-


Research area for doctoral studies

-

Marine Ecology Progress Series 2008, 356 : 25-38.

This experimental study examined the interactive effects of bioturbation and settling organic matter (OM) on the fate (burial and remobilisation) of 2 surface-deposited contaminants in Baltic Sea sediment: the metal Cd and a hydrophobic organic pollutant, the flame retardant BDE-99. Three macrofaunal species with diverse feeding and bioturbation strategies were used: the amphipod Monoporeia affinis, the clam Macoma balthica and the polychaete Marenzelleria spp. Radiolabelled contaminants were added to the sediment surface in association with 3 different OM types: (1) phytoplankton, (2) terrestrial lignin and (3) Baltic sediment. Bioturbation by all species increased the retention of both contaminants in the sediment, most effectively M affinis and M balthica. A decoupled transport of Cd and BDE-99 by Marenzelleria was observed. Generally, Marenzelleria buried the highest amount of Cd into the sediment but also caused the highest remobilisation to the water, indicating an effective transport of (soluble) Cd over the sediment-water interface via bioirrigation. Lack of the highly hydrophobic and mainly particle-associated BDE-99 below the sediment surface suggests that Marenzelleria caused no significant particle mixing. The addition of various OM types significantly affected the distribution of Cd, but not of BDE-99. There was an interactive effect between bioturbation (species) and OM type, generally showing an increased burial and release of Cd when associated with phytoplankton in the presence of Marenzelleria. Our results emphasise the importance of understanding the complex interactions between ecological (e.g. infaunal feeding and bioturbation activities) and physiochemical processes (contaminant speciation and sorption kinetics) when assessing the fate of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Jenny E. Hedman

Clare Bradshaw

Maria H. Thorsson

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2008

School/Centre

-

-


Research area for doctoral studies

-

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 2008, 99 (9): 1464-1473.

This study evaluated the potential effect of ionising radiation on population growth using simple population models and parameter values derived from chronic exposure experiments in two invertebrate species with contrasting life-history strategies. In the earthworm Eisenia fetida, models predicted increasing delay in population growth with increasing gamma dose rate (up to 0.6 generation times at 11 mGy h(-1)). Population extinction was predicted at 43 mGy h(-1). In the microcrustacean Daphnia magna, models predicted increasing delay in population growth with increasing alpha dose rate (up to 0.8 generation times at 15.0 mGy h(-1)), only after two successive generations were exposed. The study examined population effects of changes in different individual endpoints (including survival, number of offspring produced and time to first reproduction). Models showed that the two species did not respond equally to equivalent levels of change, the fast growing daphnids being more susceptible to reduction in fecundity or delay in reproduction than the slow growing earthworms. This suggested that susceptibility of a population to ionising radiation cannot be considered independent of the species' life history.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Frederic Alonzo

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2008

School/Centre

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Research area for doctoral studies

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Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 2008, 99 (9): 1474-1483.

The ERICA Integrated Approach requires that a risk assessment screening dose rate is defined for the risk characterisation within Tiers 1 and 2. At Tier 3, no numerical screening dose rate is used, and the risk characterisation is driven by methods that can evaluate the possible effects of ionising radiation on reproduction, mortality and morbidity. Species sensitivity distribution has been used to derive the ERICA risk assessment predicted no-effect dose rate (PNEDR). The method used was based on the mathematical processing of data from FRED (FASSET radiation effects database merged with the EPIC database to form FREDERICA) and resulted in a PNEDR of 10 mu Gy/h. This rate was assumed to ascribe sufficient protection of all ecosystems from detrimental effects on structure and function under chronic exposure. The value was weighed against a number of points of comparison: (i) PNEDR values obtained by application of the safety factor method, (ii) background levels, (iii) dose rates triggering effects on radioactively contaminated sites and (iv) former guidelines from literature reviews. In Tier 3, the effects analysis must be driven by the problem formulation and is thus highly case specific. Instead of specific recommendations on numeric values, guidance on the sorts of methods that may be applied for refined effect analysis is Provided and illustrated.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

J. Garnier-Laplace

Mikael Björk

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2008

School/Centre

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Research area for doctoral studies

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Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 2008, 99 (9): 1384-1392.

Like any complex environmental problem, ecological risk assessment of the impacts of ionising radiation is confounded by uncertainty. At all stages, from problem formulation through to risk characterisation, the assessment is dependent on models, scenarios, assumptions and extrapolations. These include technical uncertainties related to the data used, conceptual uncertainties associated with models and scenarios, as well as social uncertainties such as economic impacts, the interpretation of legislation, and the acceptability of the assessment results to stakeholders. The ERICA Integrated Approach has been developed to allow an assessment of the risks of ionising radiation, and includes a number of methods that are intended to make the uncertainties and assumptions inherent in the assessment more transparent to users and stakeholders. Throughout its development, ERICA has recommended that assessors deal openly with the deeper dimensions of uncertainty and acknowledge that uncertainty is intrinsic to complex systems. Since the tool is based on a tiered approach, the approaches to dealing with uncertainty vary between the tiers, ranging from a simple, but highly conservative screening to a full probabilistic risk assessment including sensitivity analysis. This paper gives on overview of types of uncertainty that are manifest in ecological risk assessment and the ERICA Integrated Approach to dealing with some of these uncertainties.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

D. H. Oughton

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2008

School/Centre

-

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Research area for doctoral studies

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Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology 2008, 50 (2): 261-270.

Occupational exposure limits (OELs) are used as an important regulatory instrument to protect workers' health from adverse effects of chemical exposures. The OELs mirror the outcome of the risk assessment and risk management performed by the standard setting actor. In this study we compared the OELs established by 18 different organisations or national regulatory agencies. The OELs were compared with respect to: (1) what chemicals have been selected and (2) the average level of exposure limits for all chemicals. Our database contains OELs for a total of 1341 substances; of these 25 substances have OELs from all 18 organisations while more than one-third of the substances are only regulated by one organisation. The average level of the exposure limits has declined during the past 10 years for 6 of the 8 organisations in our study for which historical data were available; it has increased for Poland and remained nearly unchanged for Sweden. The average level of OELs differs substantially between organisations; the US OSHA exposure limits are (on average) nearly 40 % higher than those of Poland. The scientific or policy-related motivations for these differences remain to be analysed.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Sven Ove Hansson

Christina Ruden

Linda Schenk

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2008

School/Centre

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Research area for doctoral studies

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Journal of Applied Toxicology 2008, 28 (7): 858-866.

The occupational exposure limits (OELs) established by seven different national regulatory agencies of EU member states are compared with those of the European Commission (EC). The comparison concerned: (1) what chemicals have been selected, (2) the average level of exposure limits for all chemicals, and (3) the similarity between the OELs of different EU member states and the OELs recommended by the European Commission. The average level of the exposure limits has declined during the past 10 years in four of the live countries in our study for which historical data were available to us. Poland has not changed its level noticeably and Germany has increased it. Since the first list of indicative OELs was established by the EC, a few of the EU exposure limits have been lowered. The similarity index indicates that the exposure limits of EU member states are converging towards the European Commission's recommended OELs. Still, the average level of OELs differs between organizations - the Estonian OELs are on average 35% higher than the Polish OELs.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Sven Ove Hansson

Christina Ruden

Linda Schenk

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2008

School/Centre

-

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Research area for doctoral studies

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Toxicology Letters 2007, 172 : S123-S124.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Sven Ove Hansson

Christina Ruden

Linda Schenk

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2007

School/Centre

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Research area for doctoral studies

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Stockholm : Naturvårdsverket, 2006. (Rapport / Naturvårdsverket ; 5538)

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Celia Jones

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2006

School/Centre

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Research area for doctoral studies

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Science of the Total Environment 2006, 367 (1): 418-432.

Pesticides used in banana production may enter watercourses and pose ecological risks for aquatic ecosystems. The occurrence and effects of pesticides in a stream draining a banana plantation was evaluated using chemical characterization, toxicity testing and macrobenthic community composition. All nematicides studied were detected in the surface waters of the banana plantation during application periods, with peak concentrations following applications. Toxicity tests were limited to the carbofuran application and no toxicity was observed with the acute tests used. However, since pesticide concentrations were generally below the lowest LC50 value for crustaceans but above calculated aquatic quality criteria, there remains a risk of chronic toxicity. Accurate ecological assessments of pesticide use in banana plantations are currently limited by the lack of local short-term chronic toxicity tests and tests using sensitive native species. Relatively constant levels of four pesticides (imazalil, thiabendazole, chlorpyrifos and propiconazole), which had toxic effects according to the 96h hydra and 21d daphnia chronic test, were recorded in the effluent of the packing plant throughout the study, indicating that the solid waste trap used in this facility was not effective in eliminating toxic chemicals. Certain taxa, such as Heterelmis sp. (Elmidae), Heteragrion sp. (Megapodagrionidae, Odonata), Caenis sp. (Caenidae, Ephemerotera), and Smicridea sp. (Hidropsychidae, Trichoptera), were more abundant at reference sites than in the banana farm waters, and may be good candidates for toxicity testing. Multivariate analyses of the macroinvertebrate communities clearly showed that the banana plantation sites were significantly different from the reference sites. Moreover, following the pesticide applications, all the banana plantation sites showed significant changes in community composition, with the same genera being affected at all sites and for all pesticides (terbufas, cadusafos and carbofuran). Consequently, the results presented here show that multivariate analysis of community composition was more sensitive in distinguishing pesticide effects than the toxicity tests and richness and composition measures used. We conclude that monitoring macroinvertebrate communities can be a powerful tool in the assessment of ecological effects of banana production.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Luisa Eugenia Castillo

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2006

School/Centre

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Research area for doctoral studies

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Aquatic Toxicology 2006, 79 (1): 41-48.

One of the goals of environmental risk assessment (ERA) is to understand effects of toxicant exposure on individual organisms and populations. We hypothesized that toxicant exposure can reduce genetic diversity and alter genotype composition, which may ultimately lead to a reduction in the average fitness of the exposed population. To test this hypothesis, we exposed a copepod, Nitocra psammophila, to a toxic reference compound and assayed resulting alterations in genetic structure, i.e. expected heterozygosity and percent polymorphic loci, as well as other population- and fitness-related measures, i.e. population abundance, demographic structure and juvenile growth. The copepods were exposed to 0.11-1.1 mu g of the pentabromo-substituted diphenyl ether (BDE-47) mg(-1) freeze-dried algae for 24 days (i.e. > 1 generation). There was no significant decline in total population abundance. However, there were significant alterations in population structure, manifested as diminished proportion of nauplii and increased proportion of copepodites. In addition, individual RNA content in copepodites decreased significantly in exposed individuals, indicating declined growth. Finally, in the exposed populations, heterozygosity was lower and genotype composition was altered compared to the controls. These results therefore confirm the hypothesized reduction in overall genetic variability resulting from toxicant exposure. Multilevel approaches, such as the one used in the present study, may help unravel subtle effects on the population level, thus increasing the predictive capacity of future ERA.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Johanna Gardeström

Michael GilekMats Grahn

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2006

School/Centre

-

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Research area for doctoral studies

-

: European Commission, 2005. ( ; )

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

David Coppelstone

Mikael Björk

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2005

School/Centre

-

-


Research area for doctoral studies

-

: European Comission, 2005. ( ; )

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Mikael Björk

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2005

School/Centre

-

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Research area for doctoral studies

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Environmental Pollution 2005, 134 (1): 45-56.

The Baltic Sea is a species-poor, semi-enclosed, brackish sea, whose sediments contain a wide range of contaminants, including sediment-associated metals and radionuclides. In this study, we have examined and compared bioaccumulation kinetics and assimilation efficiencies of sediment-associated Cr-51 Ni-63 and C-14 in three key benthic invertebrates (the deposit-feeding Monoporeia affinis, the facultative deposit-feeding Macoma baltica, and the omnivorous Halicryptus spinulosus). Our results demonstrate that (i) all radionuclides were accumulated, (ii) the different radionuclides were accumulated to various extents, (iii) small changes in organic carbon concentration can influence the accumulation, and (iv) the degree of accumulation differed only slightly between species. These processes, together with sediment resuspension and bioturbation, may remobilise trace metals from the sediment to the water and to higher trophic levels, and therefore should be taken into account in exposure models and ERAs.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Linda Kumblad

Clare Bradshaw

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2005

School/Centre

-

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Research area for doctoral studies

-

: European Commission, 2004. ( ; )

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Carl-Magnus Larsson

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2004

School/Centre

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Research area for doctoral studies

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Hydrobiologia 2004, 514 (1-3): 15-27.

Stress responses in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis. L.) exposed to organic pollutants were measured using several physiological measures and as changes in protein expression. Blue mussels from the Baltic Sea were exposed for 6 days in a flow-through system to two fractions of extracted Baltic sediments (containing primarily PAHs or PCBs) from one industrially impacted site and one off-shore site. Exposure to Aroclor1248 (a commercial PCB mixture) was included as a reference treatment. Physiological response was measured as changes in respiration, excretion, clearance rates and scope for growth. Of the physiological responses, only clearance rate and scope for growth in the Aroclor and impacted site PCB treatments differed significantly (p < 0.05) from control organisms, perhaps due to a large variation among individuals. Seven proteins were observed, presumed to be from stress protein families (hsp60, hsp70 and hsp90) on one-dimensional electrophoresis gels. All protein levels, except three proteins, 62, 73 and 90 kDa, in response to PCB exposure from the industrial site, were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in treated than in control organisms, suggesting the use of stress-inducible proteins as diagnostics in risk assessment. A wider sample of proteins was observed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The presence or absence of protein spots compared to control organisms was used as an indication of stress. Between 23 and 76 proteins or spots were present and 15 to 23 absent compared to controls, and the results supported the physiological and one-dimensional gel results, suggesting that the mussels were indeed suffering from stress. The methods used here represent stress monitoring at two different levels of biological organization; the cellular- and the level of individual organisms. In this experiment the protein response showed less variation among individuals compared to the physiological parameters. The protein response, however, still suffers from the lack of interpretation into commonly used monitoring terms, which emphasizes the need for more knowledge of whether the response is a momentary reflection of exposure or an early warning of higher order effects.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Björne Olsson

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2004

School/Centre

-

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Research area for doctoral studies

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Journal of Radiological Protection 2004, 24 (4A): A139-A155.

By inspection of the FASSET database on radiation effects on non-human biota, one of the major difficulties in the implementation of ecological risk assessments for radioactive pollutants is found to be the lack of data for chronic low-level exposure. A critical review is provided of a number of extrapolation issues that arise in undertaking an ecological risk assessment: acute versus chronic exposure regime; radiation quality including relative biological effectiveness and radiation weighting factors; biological effects from an individual to a population level, including radiosensitivity and lifestyle variations throughout the life cycle; single radionuclide versus multi-contaminants. The specificities of the environmental situations of interest (mainly chronic low-level exposure regimes) emphasise the importance of reproductive parameters governing the demography of the population within a given ecosystem and, as a consequence, the structure and functioning of that ecosystem. As an operational conclusion to keep in mind for any site-specific risk assessment, the present state-of-the-art on extrapolation issues allows us to grade the magnitude of the uncertainties as follows: one species to another > acute to chronic = external to internal = mixture of stressors > individual to population > ecosystem structure to function.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Jacqueline Garnier-Laplace

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2004

School/Centre

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Research area for doctoral studies

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Journal of Radiological Protection 2004, 24 (4A): A157-A177.

Within the FASSET project, a review of existing programmes for the assessment of environmental risks from radioactive or hazardous substances was carried out in order to identify appropriate aspects that could be incorporated into the FASSET framework. The review revealed a number of different approaches, arising from the need to balance the information value of the assessment against the availability of data and the need to keep the assessment manageable. Most of the existing assessment programmes fit into a three-phase approach to environmental risk assessment: problem formulation, assessment and risk characterisation. However, the emphasis on particular assessment phases varies between programmes. The main differences between the different programmes are: the degree of specificity to a particular site, the level of detail of the assessment, the point at which a comparison is made between a criterion intended to represent 'what is acceptable' and a measured or predicted quantity, the choice of end-point for the assessment and the relationship between measurement end-points and assessment end-points. The existing assessment programmes are based on a similar general structure, which is suitable for use as a basis for the FASSET framework. However, certain aspects of the assessment of exposure and effects of ionising contaminants, e.g. dosimetry, require further development before incorporation into such a framework.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Celia Jones

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2004

School/Centre

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Research area for doctoral studies

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In: Radiation Effects on Plants and Animals. : European Commission, 2003. 163-178.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2003

School/Centre

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Research area for doctoral studies

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Ecological Modelling 2003, 166 (3): 193-210.

The environmental transport and fate of a hypothetical discharge of radioactive C-14 from the Swedish final repository for radioactive operational waste (SFR) was investigated using an ecosystem modelling approach. It involved identification, quantification and dynamic modelling of the main flows and storages of carbon both in the physical environment and in the food web of a bay in the Baltic Sea. In the model, C-14 was introduced into the food web via photosynthesising organisms. Contamination of the modelled ecosystem was assessed assuming a release of 51.3 MBq per year for 1000 years. The implications of changes of two parameters on the C-14 fate were examined: route of C-14 entry in the food web and water exchange. Modelling results were also used to estimate steady-state C-14-concentrations in biota, to investigate the time needed to reach steady-state and to calculate the ecological half-life of the radionuclide for the modelled compartments and the ecosystem. Since the modelled area is characterised by a fast water exchange, most of the discharged C-14 was flushed out of the system (99.8%), and diluted in a much larger recipient. However, a small fraction of the discharge was assimilated by primary producers, which enabled subsequent transfer of C-14 to organisms at higher trophic levels (e.g. fish, seals and humans). In general, the highest C-14-concentrations were observed in benthic plants and benthic macrograzers followed by fish and other organisms. An assumption of C-14 entry into the food web via benthic primary producers was found to lead to increased concentrations in-biota (especially benthic organisms) and reduced rates of water exchange were also observed to significantly increase the C-14 exposure of the organisms.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Linda Kumblad

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2003

School/Centre

-

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Research area for doctoral studies

-

Aquatic Toxicology 2003, 62 (2): 165-177.

Baltic Sea blue mussels Mytilus edulis) were experimentally exposed to the genotoxic model substance benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) to study DNA adduct formation. The specific aims were (a) to examine where in the mussels the DNA adducts were formed, in gills or digestive glands (b) to study the dose-response relationship between B[a]P exposure and DNA adduct formations and (c) to examine the persistence of the formed adducts. A Scope for growth (SFG) study was also run to compare physiological responses of the mussels with the degree of DNA adduct formation. In an initial dose-response experiment, the mussels were exposed to 0.5, 50, and 100 mug/l of tritium labelled B[a]P under semi-static conditions for 4 days, and thereafter the bioaccumulation of B[a]P and DNA adduct formation in different tissues was determined using liquid scintillation counting and P-32-postlabelling analysis. respectively. In a following exposure-depuration experiment, mussels were exposed to 17 mug/l of radiolabelled B[a]P under semi-static conditions for 6 days. B[a]P accumulation and DNA adduct formation were determined during the exposure, and B[a]P elimination and persistence of DNA adducts were studied during 28 days of depuration in uncontaminated water, The results revealed large tissue differences in DNA adduct formation. DNA adduct levels were not elevated in the digestive gland of the mussels at any exposure concentration (0-100 mug/l). even though the highest B[a]P tissue concentrations were found in the digestive gland (1.0+/-0.1 mg B[a]P/g tissue dry wt at 100 mug/l, mean+/-SE. n = 12). DNA adducts were on the other hand formed in the gills, with the highest levels found in mussels exposed to 50 and 100 mug B[a]P/l. and a dose dependent increase in adduct levels (from 1.6 to 5.9 nmol adducts/mol nucleotides) from 0 to 50 mug B[a]P/l, In gills, DNA adduct levels increased with time during the 6-day exposure period in the exposure-depuration experiment, and then persisted for at least 2 weeks after exposure cessation while B[a]P tissue levels exhibited a rapid decrease (half-life of 8 days). No significant differences were observed in SFG between the control and exposed groups. Since DNA adducts exhibited a relatively high persistence in gills compared to B[a]P tissue concentrations, they seem to be a more integrated measure of genotoxic exposure than only chemical analysis of the contaminant bioaccumulation. The results also suggest that if using analysis of DNA adducts in H. edulis for monitoring purposes. analysis of gills in addition to the more commonly used digestive gland should be taken into consideration.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

H Skarpheoinsdottir

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2003

School/Centre

-

-


Research area for doctoral studies

-

: European Commission, 2002. ( ; )

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Carl-Magnus Larsson

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2002

School/Centre

-

-


Research area for doctoral studies

-

: European Commission, 2002. ( ; )

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Carl-Magnus Larsson

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2002

School/Centre

-

-


Research area for doctoral studies

-

: European Commission, 2001. ( ; )

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Per Strand

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2001

School/Centre

-

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Research area for doctoral studies

-

Hydrobiologia 2001, 452 (1-3): 59-68.

Small scale spatial patterns of abundance, growth and condition of the mussel Mytilus edulis on sub-littoral boulders (approx. 1-2 m high) were investigated at the island of Asko in the northern Baltic proper. The effect of side (exposed/sheltered with respect to wave action and sunlight) of boulder and position (up/down) on boulder was investigated. A large spatial variability in abundance of M. edulis between boulders and between various sites within boulders were found. The highest numbers of mussels were found on the wave exposed side, near the top of boulders. Shell growth was favoured by a sheltered side and a down position. The body condition (meat weight/shell weight) of mussels was, on the other hand, affected only by position, the condition of mussels being better at the up position. Consequently, there seems to be temporal differences in the condition for growth within a spatial position. The body condition of the mussels was best near the top of boulders in the spring, but long-term shell growth was favoured by a sheltered side and a down position. This may reflect changes in the composition and availability of food during the year with phytoplankton as the major food source during the spring bloom and resuspension of benthic production and detritus as relatively more important during the rest of the year.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Bengt Littorin

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2001

School/Centre

-

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Research area for doctoral studies

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Marine Ecology Progress Series 2000, 194 : 193-201.

Biodeposits of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and pelagic and near-bed settling particulate matter were collected in situ over a 1 yr period in a coastal area of the Northern Baltic proper. The amounts of carbon and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) in the collected biodeposits were compared to those in pelagic and near-bed settling material and rates of carbon and PCB biodeposition by mussels were estimated. The filter-feeding activity and subsequent release of faecal matter by the mussels increased gross sedimentation of carbon to benthos by 45 % if compared to areas with no mussels. By selectively feeding on particles rich in organic carbon the mussels also concentrated associated contaminants and thereby increased gross sedimentation of PCBs by 50 %. This suggests that mussel biodeposition will enhance the availability of PCBs to benthic deposit feeders living in or in the vicinity of mussel beds. Extrapolation of the experimental results to the total Swedish coastal zone of the Baltic proper indicates that mussel biodeposition is responsible for a significant part of PCB net sedimentation, i.e. 17 % or 96 kg yr(-1). Consequently, even when seen from a large geographical scale, mussels are important modifiers of PCB cycling by directing considerable amounts of PCBs towards the benthic food web and thereby influencing the retention time of these and probably many other contaminants in the coastal zone. It is also Likely that changes in mussel biomass, for example owing to shifts in primary production or salinity, will markedly affect the transport and fate of contaminants in the Baltic Sea.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Nils Kautsky

Mikael Björk

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2000

School/Centre

-

-


Research area for doctoral studies

-

Ambio 2000, 29 (4-5): 252-259.

Effects of inputs of organic matter were studied on bioavailability and cycling of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in benthic ecosystems of the Baltic and Kattegat Seas. In laboratory experiments, effects of microalgae additions were studied on the bioaccumulation of HOCs (PCBs and PAHs) by the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, the brittle star Amphiura filiformis, and the polychaete Nereis diversicolor. Contrary to the equilibrium partitioning theory, bioaccumulation was proportional to the concentrations of algae and organic carbon. This was attributed to the high nutritional quality of the algal organic carbon and suggests that feeding rather than equilibrium partitioning governed bioaccumulation in these species. In the field, annual mass fluxes of PCBs in blue mussels and in brittle stars were estimated, as well as contaminant transfer to higher trophic levels. Our results suggest that: I) Eutrophication processes may contribute to increase HOC accumulation in benthic species. ii) Temporal variation in the quantity and quality of organic carbon needs to be considered when assessing contamination of benthic systems. ill) Macrofaunal feeding activities are important for the benthic-pelagic coupling of HOCs. iv) Bioturbation enhances the release of HOCs from sediment to overlying water.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Jonas Gunnarsson

Mikael Björk

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2000

School/Centre

-

-


Research area for doctoral studies

-

Hydrobiologia 1999, 393 : 211-219.

Recolonisation of cleared patches (15 x 15 cm) on a Mytilus edulis-dominated rocky bottom was followed by photography from June 1992 to October 1994. An experiment was also performed to study movement of newly recruited mussels on ropes in cleared areas. Mussels recolonised the rock surfaces by moving in from the perimeter of the clearings. Juvenile recruitment directly to the cleared surfaces was insignificant for the recolonisation process. However, a large number of juvenile mussels was observed in filamentous algae over and around the cleared patches. The speed of recolonisation was 4.5 cm(2) of cleared surface per month. The rate of recolonisation was somewhat higher at 6 m than at 12 m water depth. On ropes, downward movement of newly recruited mussels (from 3 up to 12 months old) was small but significantly larger than upward or horizontal movement. There was a positive correlation between movement of mussels to cleared parts of the ropes and the density of mussels on uncleared rope parts. These findings indicate that the recolonisation of disturbed patches by M. edulis in the northern Baltic proper is a relatively slow process driven primarily by a redistribution of already established mussel individuals.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Bengt Littorin

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
1999

School/Centre

-

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Research area for doctoral studies

-

Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 1999, 18 (6): 1218-1224.

Baltic Sea blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, were exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, IUPAC congeners 47, 99, and 153) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners 31, 52, 77, 118, and 153) in a flow-through experimental setup for 44 d. After the exposure phase, the mussels were allowed to depurate in natural brackish water for 26 d. After analyses, uptake clearance rate coefficients (k(u)), depuration rate coefficients (k(d)), and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) were calculated. A rapid uptake of all PBDEs and PCBs was observed, especially for PBDE congeners 47 and 99 (k(a) 120 and 170 L/day/g dry weight, respectively). The depuration rare decreased with increasing hydrophobicity as expected for the PCBs, bur for the PBDEs, depuration rate coefficients appeared to be of the same magnitude for all three congeners independently of log K-ow. The BAFs obtained for PBDE 47 and PBDE 99 (1.3 x 10(6) and 1.4 x 10(6) ml/g dry weight, respectively) were higher than for all other substances in the study, severalfold higher than for PCBs of similar hydrophobicity. The presented data indicate that the bioaccumulation potential of PBDEs, extensively used as flame retardants, is similar or higher than that of PCBs for filter feeding organisms such as blue mussels.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Kerstin Gustafsson

Mikael Björk

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
1999

School/Centre

-

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Research area for doctoral studies

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Ophelia 1999, 50 (2): 93-112.

Although dwarfed by the low saline conditions, the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) is a biomass dominant in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea proper, owing to the lack of invertebrate predators and competitors for space. In the present study patterns of distribution of blue mussels on relatively smooth, moderately sloping rocky surfaces in the Asko area, northern Baltic proper, are described and interpreted. Biomass, growth rate, maximum shell length and recruitment of mussels decreased with water depths (from 3 to 15 m). No consistent differences in total abundance were, however, detected among depths. Shell growth, as measured by annual growth rings, was linear between about 2-8 yr. of age. Within this linear interval the estimated rate of shell growth was significantly faster (3.4 mm yr.(-1)) at 5 m than at 10 m depth (2.7 mm yr.(-1)) Although the observed vertical patterns in biomass distribution correlated both with recruitment and growth, the year round presence of large numbers of small mussel individuals (less than or equal to 2 mm) at all depths indicates that differences in somatic growth may explain the observed variability in biomass among depths. Potentially important processes such as intraspecific competition, food availability and food quality, which may generate the observed patterns in growth and biomass are discussed.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Bengt Littorin

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
1999

School/Centre

-

-


Research area for doctoral studies

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Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 1999, 18 (4): 765-771.

A novel method was used to estimate assimilation efficiencies (AEs) of dissolved and food associated PCBs (IUPAC 31, 49, and 153) by the Baltic Sea blue mussel (Mytilus edulis). Mussels were exposed to radiolabeled PCBs in a series of shortterm toxicokinetic experiments at different algal food concentrations, both at apparent steady-state (ASS) and non-steady-state (NSS) conditions in respect to PCB partitioning between water and algae. The PCB AEs were calculated using a physiologically based bioaccumulation model where experimentally determined uptake and exposure rates at ASS and NSS conditions were combined into linear equation systems, which were solved for PCB AE from water and food. A positive relationship between PCB uptake and algae clearance by the mussels was observed for all three PCBs. The PCB AEs from both water and food increased with congener hydrophobicity (octanol/water partition coefficient [K-ow]), but AEs decreased with increases in water pumping and filtration rate of the mussels, respectively. The average contribution of food-associated PCB to the total uptake also increased with K-ow from approximately 30% for PCB 31 and PCB 49 to 50% for PCB 153, mainly as a consequence of increased sorption to the algal food.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Mikael Björk

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
1999

School/Centre

-

-


Research area for doctoral studies

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Netherlands Journal of Sea Research 1992, 30 : 11-21.

A physiological approach has been proposed for studying the ecological consequences of diseases and parasitism in bivalve molluscs. We investigated effects of some naturally occurring non-lethal parasites and histological changes in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L., on some commonly used bivalve condition indices, viz the oxygen:nitrogen ratio, the scope for growth and the body condition index. We found no correlation between these physiological condition indices, which implies that an individual can be classified as in 'good condition' according to e.g. the O:N ratio and the body condition index, while at the same time this mussel may have a low scope for growth indicating a stressed status. This is probably because the O:N ratio, the scope for growth and the body condition index integrate metabolic processes over different periods of time. No general deleterious effects on these condition indices could be detected either due to parasitic infestation or general histological changes. Hence, it was not possible to translate detrimental effects of histological conditions directly into energy equivalents.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Michael Tedengren

Michael Gilek

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
1992

School/Centre

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Research area for doctoral studies

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