About us / Subjects

Economics

Graphic element for the subject of EconomicsEconomics is the study of the social economy and deals with issues that we read or hear about every day in the media. Economists work with economic analysis in the private and public sectors.

The subject can be divided into specialist areas: the most general division is into microeconomics and macroeconomics, but within this there are specialisations such as financial economics, labour economics, environmental economics, international economics, public finance, property finance, innovation economics and development economics.

At B and C levels (undergraduate) and at Master's level, studies become more in-depth and there is a widening of the basic theories and social-economic analyses. At higher levels, mathematics becomes an increasingly important tool. From the B course onwards, the necessary mathematical elements are integrated in teaching.

 

Publications

Publications from the DiVA publications database are listed here on an ongoing basis.
Publications

In: Hunger and Malnutrition as major challenges of the 21st Century. : World Scientific, 2019. -.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Priya Rampal

Ranjula Bali Swain

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2019

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Journal of quantitative criminology 2018, : 1-26.

Objectives: The knowledge of the effects of white-collar crimes is incomplete. In the article, we operationalize white-collar crimes as bankruptcy frauds. Economic models maintain that interlinkages between firms may give ‘domino effects’: bankruptcy events could lead to ‘bankruptcy chains’ in which a bankruptcy spreads to other firms. Analogously, criminologists assert that social and economic networks can be a major source of fraud diffusion, with the potential to drive other firms bankrupt. Recent empirical results show that crimes may have detrimental and even asymmetric (nonlinear) effects on economic activity. We analyze the diffusion and the aggregate development of bankruptcy frauds in Sweden over nearly two hundred years, specifically focusing on the relationship between bankruptcy frauds and the bankruptcy volume. We also consider linkages between bankruptcy frauds, bankruptcies, and the macroeconomic cycle. Methods: We use long, aggregate time series, collected from several different historical and contemporary sources. Applying the recently developed cointegrating nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL) model, we investigate whether the bankruptcy volume reacts asymmetrically to increases and decreases in bankruptcy frauds, both in the short and the long run. Results: Bankruptcy frauds reveal a causal effect on bankruptcies, showing an asymmetric (nonlinear) diffusion effect from economic frauds to the bankruptcy volume. Increases in bankruptcy frauds have a positive and significant effect on the bankruptcy volume. However, decreases in bankruptcy frauds show no significant effect. No causal relationship between the macroeconomic cycle and bankruptcy frauds is found. Conclusions: Our data and research approach demonstrate how previously generated hypotheses in both criminology and economic research on the relationship between (economic) crimes, economic activity, and the diffusion of white-collar crime can be tested at an aggregate level. © 2018 The Author(s)

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Karl GratzerMarcus BoxXiang Lin

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

ENTER forumSchool of Social Sciences
Business AdministrationEconomics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Small Business Economics 2018, : 1-21.

Entrepreneurship will not always productive: Baumol (1990, 1993) distinguishes between productive, unproductive, and destructive entrepreneurial activities, and in the last two cases, new values are not created. Setting of from the notion of destructive entrepreneurship and the bankruptcy institute as framework for the empirical analysis, we use long aggregate series on bankruptcies and bankruptcy frauds in Sweden, 1830–2010. We operationalize destructive entrepreneurship with bankruptcy frauds. The bankruptcy institute is not a pure cleansing mechanism; assets can be redistributed by criminal procedure. Thus, a form of destructive entrepreneurship can be conducted within this system. We link bankruptcy frauds to the selection mechanism—the aggregate bankruptcy volume—over time. We cannot establish any direct linkages between the bankruptcy volume and institutional changes. However, and in line with research on bankruptcy diffusion and diffusion of economic crimes, we find that bankruptcy frauds have significant, positive impacts on the bankruptcy volume. Therefore, our results indicate that increases in bankruptcy frauds, destructive entrepreneurship, would affect the economic system. © 2018 The Author(s)

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Karl GratzerMarcus BoxXiang Lin

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Business AdministrationEconomics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Tourism Economics 2018, : -.

This study tests for a structural shift in the relationship between revenues of ski lift operators and natural snow conditions. The analysis is based on time series data for the Swedish ski lift industry spanning from 1980 to 2017. Since 1970, snow depth in winter sport destinations has decreased markedly by about 5 cm per decade. Estimations based on the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model show that revenues (in constant prices) of ski lift operators are significantly positively related to natural snow conditions, given the impact of relative prices and real GDP. However, ARDL estimations with rolling windows reveal that the sensitivity of revenues from ski lift ticket sales to variations in snow depth is declining over time. For the subsamples starting at the end of 1980s onward, revenues no longer significantly depend on natural snow depth. This is likely due to the implementation of adaptation measures such as investments in snowmaking facilities. © 2018, The Author(s) 2018.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

M. Falk

Xiang Lin

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Sustainable Development 2018, : -.

There is broad scientific consensus that increasing global emissions at current rates will result irreversible climate change. The global commitment to the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris agreement tries to address this concern with policy changes. But top-down approaches including voluntary emission cuts do not seem politically feasible in all countries. In this paper, we show that moderate voluntary emission cuts (policy) supplemented by technological developments and changes in consumption tastes and preferences induced by educating individuals (stakeholder engagement) could help achieve emission targets. We use a novel dynamical systems modeling approach based on economic theory to show the quantitative tradeoffs between these different approaches. Using this model, we also show how economic development may be balanced by global emissions reductions so that, initially, developing economies can continue along their current growth trajectories and eliminate poverty, and eventually bear more of the emissions reduction burden.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Shyam Ranganathan

Ranjula Bali Swain

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Corporate Governance 2018, 18 (2): 185-205.

Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate whether female leaders are more efficient in family firms than in non-family firms. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a unique database of ownership and leadership in private Swedish firms that makes it possible to analyze differences in firm performance due to female leadership in family and non-family firms. The analysis is based on survey data merged with micro-level data on Swedish firms. Only firms with five or more employees are included in the analysis. The sample contains more than 1,000 firms. Findings: The descriptive statistics show that there are many more male than female corporate leaders. However, the regression analysis indicates that female leadership has a much more positive impact on the performance of family firms than on that for non-family firms, where the effect is ambiguous. Originality/value: Comparative studies examining the impact of female leadership on firm-level performance in family and non-family firms are rare, and those that exist are most often either qualitative or focused on large, listed firms. By investigating the role of female directors in family and non-family firms, the study adds to the literature on management, corporate governance and family firms.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

P. -O Bjuggren

Johanna Palmberg

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Insolvensrättslig tidskrift 2018, 3 (1): 12-31.

Uppsatsen redogör för förklaringar till företagsdödlighet i såväl offentliga utredningar som inom ekonomisk och sociologisk forskning och teoribildning. Två fundamentalt olika föreställningar om hur och varför företag beter sig på ett visst sätt har dominerat de flesta studier. Ett perspektiv förutsätter en central roll för företagsledningens beslutsfattande och kompetens. Ett andra och motsatt perspektiv ser företags beteenden bestämda av externa krafter över vilka företagsledningen saknar kontroll. De olika föreställningarna påverkar resultat och slutsatser inom forskningen och har också betydelse för utformningen av den ekonomiska politiken.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Karl GratzerMarcus BoxXiang Lin

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2018

School/Centre

ENTER forumSchool of Social Sciences
Business AdministrationEconomics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

European Journal of Development Research 2018, : -.

Growing competition in microfinance has been blamed for multiple borrowing, over-indebtedness and loan repayment crisis in recent times. Using the Boone indicator as a proxy for competition, we investigate how competition impacts microfinance institutions’ (MFIs’) outreach, financial performance and quality of loan portfolio in this paper. The analysis is based on data from 568 MFIs in 10 vibrant microfinance markets (Bangladesh, Bolivia, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nepal, Nicaragua, Peru and Philippines) for the period 2003-2014. We control for potential endogeneity of MFI performance, competition and other covariates by employing the generalized methods of moments (GMM) estimation technique. We find that increased competition leads to higher profitability and better loan portfolio quality of the sampled MFIs, but worsens depth of outreach to the poor, which is an indication of mission drift.   

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ashim Kar

Ranjula Bali Swain

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Economic Modelling 2018, : -.

This paper provides new evidence on the impact of temperatures on tourism demand in the winter season. The analysis is based on time series data spanning from 1960 to 2015 for the South Tyrolean mountains in Italy. Since 1960, winter temperatures have increased by 0.4 degrees Celsius per decade, on average. A nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model is employed for the estimations. This model allows two separate coefficients to impact tourism demand, following temperature changes (decreases or increases). Results reveal that an increase in winter temperatures by one degree Celsius leads to a decline in the number of accommodation guests (arrivals) by eight per cent, while temperature decreases have no effect on the number of arrivals. However, sensitivity to temperature increases has been declining since the early 1990s, probably due to the widespread usage of snowmaking facilities. The number of these facilities has increased by almost 10 per cent per year on average over the same period. In recent years (1986-2015), and as a consequence of these measures, temperature increases no longer have an effect on winter tourism demand. Conversely, decreases in temperatures lead to small increases in arrivals (by four per cent increase due to a one degree Celsius decrease).

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Martin Falk

Xiang Lin

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Handbook of Sustainability Science and Research. Cham : Springer, 2018. 341-356.

The ambitious UN-adopted sustainable development goals (SDGs) have been criticized for being inconsistent, difficult to quantify, implement and monitor. Disparaging analysis suggests that there exists a potential inconsistency in the SDGs, particularly between the socio-economic development and the environmental sustainability goals. Critiques also raise questions on the measurability and monitoring of the broadly framed SDGs. The goals are non-binding, with each country being expected to create their own national or regional plans. Moreover, the source(s) and the extent of the financial resources and investments for the SDGs are ambiguous. This chapter quantifies and examines the inconsistencies of the SDGs. It further inspects which of the underlying social, economic or environmental pillars are that most effective for achieving sustainable development. Analyses of the data reveal that the developed countries need to remain focused on their social and environmental policies. The developing countries, on the other hand, are better off being focused on their economics and social policies in the short run, even though environmental policies remain significant for sustainable development.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Ranjula Bali Swain

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Applied Economics 2018, 58 (1): 1-14.

Do microfinance institutions (MFIs) operate in a monopoly, monopolistic competition environment or are their revenues derived under perfect competition markets? We employ the Panzar–Rosse revenue test on a global panel data to assess the competitive environment in which MFIs of five selected countries operate: Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Peru and Philippines, over the period 2005–2009. We estimate the static and the dynamic revenue tests, with analyses of the interest rate and the return on assets. We control for microfinance-specific variables such as capital-assets-ratio, loans-assets and the size of the MFI. The analyses also account for the endogeneity problem by employing the fixed-effects two-stage least squares and the fixed-effects system generalized method of moments. Our results suggest that MFIs in Peru and India operate in a monopolistic environment. We also find weak evidence that the microfinance industry in Ecuador, Indonesia and Philippines may operate under perfect competition.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ashim Kumar Kar

Ranjula Bali Swain

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Annat forskningsområde

In: . : .

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Thomas Marmefelt

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: . : .

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Thomas Marmefelt

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

International Reveiw of Entrepreneurship 2017, 4 : -.

We analyse firm survival and focus on several levels of analysis (both firm level and macro-level). We employ a unique longitudinal data set, recorded at the firm-level and covering nine complete entry cohorts of Swedish companies. The companies were founded between 1899 and 1992, and each firm is followed over nearly a decade. We adopt the semi-parametric complementary log-log (cloglog) model. The main novelty of our approach is that, unlike extant studies so far, we are able to distinguish between the impact on the hazard rate of founding conditions and contemporaneous, post-entry conditions. Using our new approach we test several hypotheses derived from the Industrial Organization and Organizational Ecology literatures.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Karl GratzerMarcus BoxXiang Lin

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2017

School/Centre

ENTER forumSchool of Social Sciences
Business AdministrationEconomics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Environmental Challenges in the Baltic Region. Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan, 2017. 173-199.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Stig Blomskog

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Mats Bergman

Anh Mai


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

International Journal of Public Sector Management 2017, 30 (4): 310-327.

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze how local and central authorities choose between lowest price and more complex scoring rules when they design supplier-selection mechanisms for public procurements. Five hypotheses are tested: a high level of cost uncertainty and highly non-verifiable quality makes the use of the lowest-price supplier-selection method less likely. Organizational habits and transaction-cost considerations influence the choice of mechanism. Strong quality concerns make complex rules more likely. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis departures from normative theory (rational choice) and is based on the regression analysis and survey data comprising a gross sample of 40 contracting authorities and detailed information about 651 procurements. Findings: More complex scoring rules are used more often when the authority is uncertain about costs and about delivered quality. Authority effects are also found to directly and indirectly influence the choice of supplier-selection method, suggesting that tendering design is partly driven by local habits and institutional inertia. Practical implications: The authors argue that, from a normative point of view, lowest price is an adequate method when the degree of uncertainty is low, for example, because the procured products are standardized and since quality can be verified. When there is significant cost uncertainty, it is better to use the so-called economically most advantageous tender (EMAT) method. (Preferably this should be done by assigning monetary values to different quality levels.) If there is significant uncertainty concerning delivered quality, the contracting authority should retain a degree of discretion, so as to be able to reward good-quality performance in observable but non-verifiable quality dimensions; options to extend the contract and subjective assessments of quality are two possibilities. The main findings are that EMAT and more complex scoring rules are used more often when the contracting authorities report that they experience substantial uncertainty concerning delivered quality and actual costs and that these factors tend to decrease the weight given to price, in line with the predictions. However, the authors also find that this result is mainly driven by variations between authorities, rather than by between-products variation for the same authority. This is from a training of professionals and regulation perspective of policy relevance. Social implications: Contract allocation based on habits rather than rational ground could implicate the waste of resources (tax payers money) as it adventures the matching of the preferences of the public sector (the objective, subject matter, of the procurement) and what the potential supplier offers in its tender. Originality/value: Although the principles for supplier selection are regulated by law they give the contracting authority substantial freedom in designing the scoring rule and in choosing what quality criteria to use. The tension between different objectives and the more general question whether the choices made by authorities reflect rational decision making or institutional inertia together motivate the current study. While the design of the supplier-selection mechanism is an important consideration in procurement practice, it has attracted relatively little attention from the academic community.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

S. Lundberg

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 2017, 79 (6): 969-996.

We study the effect of the degree of exclusivity for the lowest bidder on the average price of generic pharmaceuticals in the short and long terms. Our results indicate that a 1-percentage-point gain in market share of the lowest bidder reduces average costs by 0.2% in the short term and 0.8% in the long term, but also reduces the number of firms by 1%. We find that reducing the number of firms has a strong positive (and hence counteracting) effect on average prices, a 1% reduction raising prices by approximately 1%.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

D. Granlund

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Environmental Challenges in the Baltic Region. London : Palgrave Macmillan, 2017. 201-220.

This chapter compares public attitudes to environmental protection in Estonia with those in neighbouring Baltic states. Data from the Estonian Environmental Survey (The Chair of Environmental Economics. Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, 2010) and ISSP Environment III are compared and analysed using an ordered logit. Support for environmental protection is measured in the form of willingness of individuals to make financial sacrifices through higher prices and higher taxes or accepting a cut in their standard of living, in order to protect the environment. Results show that the demand for the protection of the environment tends to increase with income. There are some differences between public attitudes in terms of willingness to accept cuts in the standard of living and willingness to pay higher taxes and prices. Higher education is another determinant of support for environmental protection, particularly in Estonia.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Sirje Pädam

Ranjula Bali Swain

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Environmental Challenges in the Baltic Region. Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan, 2017. 1-3.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Ranjula Bali Swain

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

London : Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Ranjula Bali Swain

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

PLoS ONE 2017, 12 (2): -.

The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) programme was an ambitious attempt to encourage a globalised solution to important but often-overlooked development problems. The programme led to wide-ranging development but it has also been criticised for unrealistic and arbitrary targets. In this paper, we show how country-specific development targets can be set using stochastic, dynamical system models built from historical data. In particular, we show that the MDG target of two-thirds reduction of child mortality from 1990 levels was infeasible for most countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. At the same time, the MDG targets were not ambitious enough for fast-developing countries such as Brazil and China. We suggest that model-based setting of country-specific targets is essential for the success of global development programmes such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). This approach should provide clear, quantifiable targets for policymakers.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Shyam Ranganathan

Ranjula Bali Swain

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 2017, 24 (6): 457-470.

In 2015, the UN adopted a new set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to eradicate poverty, establish socioeconomic inclusion and protect the environment. Critical voices such as the International Council for Science (ICSU), however, have expressed concerns about the potential incompatibility of the SDGs, specifically the incompatibility of socio-economic development and environmental sustainability. In this paper, we test, quantify and model the alleged inconsistency of SDGs. Our analyses show which SDGs are consistent and which are conflicting. We measure the extent of inconsistency and conclude that the SDG agenda will fail as a whole if we continue with business as usual. We further explore the nature of the inconsistencies using dynamical systems models, which reveal that the focus on economic growth and consumption as a means for development underlies the inconsistency. Our models also show that there are factors which can contribute to development (health programmes, government investment) on the one hand and ecological sustainability (renewable energy) on the other, without triggering the conflict between incompatible SDGs. © 2016 The Author(s).

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

V. Spaiser

Ranjula Bali Swain

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

The World Economy 2017, 40 (4): 764-787.

For more than three decades, China has managed to combine rapid economic growth with a strictly regulated financial sector. The discrepancy between economic and financial development has raised the question of whether China might be an exception to the so-called finance-growth nexus. This study examines the relationship between finance and growth at the provincial level in China using a new set of measures of capital freedom and financial development. The results indicate that capital freedom and financial development are associated with both higher income and growth rates. In particular, we find that the marketisation of financial institutions and strengthening of legal and government institutions have a particularly strong impact on income and growth in low-income provinces.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

B. Söderlund

Patrik Tingvall

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Journal of Technology Transfer 2017, 42 (5): 1143-1169.

This study investigates the effect of evaluating the most economically advantageous tender (MEAT) in public procurement rather than lowest price. According to the European Union (EU), evaluations based on MEAT, rather than lowest price, give an advantage to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in winning public procurement contracts because such firms are viewed as sources of innovation. Thus, MEAT as an evaluation criterion is recommended throughout the EU. Using procurement data from Sweden, I find no significant effect on SME participation in procurement calls for tender as a result of the use of MEAT in firm evaluations. However, large firms significantly increase their participation when MEAT is evaluated. Even more importantly, micro, small and medium-sized firms' probability of winning procurement contracts significantly decreases when MEAT rather than lowest price is used as an evaluative criterion. Thus, evaluation in terms of MEAT increases large firms' bids and success rates; hence, this policy is counterproductive. The reasons SMEs are disadvantaged as a result of evaluations based on MEAT are, however, not examined in this paper and require further research.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Johan Y. Stake


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Journal of Development Studies 2017, 53 (5): 684-699.

We examine how the impact on women empowerment varies with respect to the location and type of group linkage of the respondent. Using household survey data from five states in India, we correct for selection bias to estimate a structural equation model. Our results reveal that in the southern states of India empowerment of women takes place through economic factors. For the other states, we find a significant correlation between women empowerment and autonomy in women’s decision-making and network, communication and political participation respectively. We do not however find any differential causal impact of different delivery methods (linkage models).

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Fan Yang Wallentin

Ranjula Bali Swain

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: . : .

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Thomas Marmefelt

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Insolvensrättslig Tidskrift 2016, 1 : 20-36.

Ekonomer betraktar vanligtvis konkursutvecklingen som en konjunkturindikator och därmed beroende av förändringar på ekonomins efterfrågesida: konkurserna förväntas öka i tider av ekonomisk nedgång och minska under högkonjunkturer. Flertalet analyser är emellertid kortsiktiga. I denna uppsats presenterar vi ny och unik empiri där vi ana­lyserar det långsiktiga sambandet mellan konjunkturväxlingar och konkurser i Sverige mellan år 1830 och år 2010. I uppsatsen diskuteras också problem som kan uppstå i tolk­ningen av konkursstatistiken, både historiskt och i vår samtid. Den statistiska analysen visar att det delvis går att fastställa ett samband mellan makroekonomiska svängningar och förändringar i konkursmängden.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Karl GratzerMarcus BoxXiang Lin

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

ENTER forumSchool of Social Sciences
Business AdministrationEconomics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

International Journal of Health Economics and Management 2016, 16 (3): 201-214.

In 2009 and 2010, the Swedish pharmaceuticals market was reformed. One of the stated policy goals was to achieve low costs for pharmaceutical products dispensed in Sweden. We use price and sales data for off-patent brand-name and generic pharmaceuticals to estimate a log-linear regression model, allowing us to assess how the policy changes affected the cost per defined daily dose. The estimated effect is an 18 % cost reduction per defined daily dose at the retail level and a 34 % reduction in the prices at the wholesale level (pharmacies’ purchase prices). The empirical results suggest that the cost reductions were caused by the introduction of a price cap, an obligation to dispense the lowest-cost generic substitute available in the whole Swedish market, and the introduction of well-defined exchange groups. The reforms thus reduced the cost per defined daily dose for consumers while being advantageous also for the pharmacies, who saw their retail margins increase. However, pharmaceutical firms supplying off-patent pharmaceuticals experienced a clear reduction in the price received for their products.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

D. Granlund

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Journal of Health Economics 2016, 49 : 109-119.

Non-contractible quality dimensions are at risk of degradation when the provision of public services is privatized. However, privatization may increase quality by fostering performance-improving innovation, particularly if combined with increased competition. We assemble a large data set on elderly care services in Sweden between 1990 and 2009 and estimate how opening to private provision affected mortality rates – an important and not easily contractible quality dimension – using a difference-in-difference-in-difference approach. The results indicate that privatization and the associated increase in competition significantly improved non-contractible quality as measured by mortality rates. © 2016

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

P. Johansson

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Contemporary Entrepreneurship. Cham : Springer, 2016. 31-49.

Recent developments in entrepreneurship suggest a causal link between entrepreneurial activity and economic growth: entrepreneurship precedes economic growth. A positive effect from entrepreneurship on economic development in advanced, innovation-driven economies in the most recent decades is often maintained. Self-employment is one of the most common indicators of entrepreneurship. The present study uses very long series of non-interrupted data on self-employment in Sweden (1850–2000). It analyzes the relationship between variations in self-employment and economic growth. For the entire period, variations in self-employment had a significant, instantaneous positive correlation with GDP growth. However, no causal relationship could be discovered: variations in self-employment did not (Granger) cause GDP growth. We discovered a structural break in GDP growth as early as in the year of 1948. Up until 1948, (Granger) causality between self-employment and GDP could not be established for any direction. For the other segment (1949–2000), GDP growth (Granger) caused self-employment growth, but not the other way around. For the period 1949–2000, but not for the previous period, selfemployment lagged with respect to GDP growth.  Consequently, GDP growth preceded self-employment growth, but self-employment growth did not precede GDP growth. Given that self-employment is a suitable indicator, the empirical results in this study are, in several respects, in disagreement with dominating assumptions in mainstream research.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Karl GratzerMarcus BoxXiang Lin

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

ENTER forumSchool of Social Sciences
Business AdministrationEconomics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Water Economics and Policy 2016, 2 (4): -.

In this paper, we analyze a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model on how water resilience affects economic growth and dynamic welfare with special reference to South Africa. While water may become a limiting factor for future development in general, as a drought prone and water poor country with rapid population growth, South Africa may face more serious challenges for sustainable development. Using the model, we conduct numerical simulations for di¤erent parameter con…gurations with varying discount rate, climate change scenario, and the degree of uncertainty in future precipitation. We fi…nd that with sufficient capital accumulation, development may still be sustainable despite increased future water scarcity and decreased long-run sustainable welfare; While stochastic variation in precipitation has a negative effect on water resilience and the expected dynamic welfare, the e¤ect is mitigated by persistence in the precipitation pattern. With heavier time discounting and lower capital formation, however, the current welfare may not be sustained

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Chuan-Zhong Li

Ranjula Bali Swain

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2016. (PESO Working Papers ; 2016:1)

The paper studies how the 2004 merger policy reform affected the probability of a merger being challenged by the European Commission. I use a probit model to assess how economic factors drive decisions and to isolate differences between policies before and after the reform. The net sample consists of 341 horizontal mergers from 1990 to 2012. Overall, I find robust evidence of policy shifts due to the reform. By some measures, the policy appears to have slightly softened. There is also an indication that mergers reviewed under the unilateral-effects theory are more likely to be challenged than are those reviewed under the coordinated-effects theory. Market shares and entry barriers are found to influence decisions before and after the reform. However, market shares appear to play a somewhat smaller role after the reform.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Anh Mai Thi Van


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Ekonomisk Debatt 2016, 44 (1): 6-19.

Vi har under de senaste åren sett ett allt större intresse för innovationsdriven tillväxt. Några exempel på denna trend utgörs av EU:s tillväxtstrategi för perioden 2012-2020 (the Europe 2020 Strategy) där innovationer identifieras som nyckeln till framtida hållbar tillväxt. Ökade insatser på FoU förväntas leda till fler innovationer, stärkt konkurrenskraft, grönare tillväxt och även stärkt tålighet mot problemen som orsakats av finanskrisen (European Commission, 2013). Tanken på innovationsdriven tillväxt finns även i Sverige och det blir alltmer vanligt att beslutsfattare och forskare föreslår en mer aktiv roll för staten när det gäller att stimulera innovationer och företagstillväxt och ett vanligt förekoomande instrument är olika typer av direkt stöd riktat mot innovativ verksamhet.I syfte att studera om denna inriktning har ett empiriskt stöd analyserar vi effekterna av två selektiva företagsstöd, VINN NU och Forska & Väx, som båda riktas mot innovativa små och medelstora företag i Sverige. Den kontrafaktiska effektutvärderingen är möjlig genom tillgång till en unik mikrodatabas över utbetalda företagsstöd. Resultaten indikerar inga statistiskt säkerställda effekter av stöden på antal anställda, arbetskraftsproduktiviteten, omsättningstillväxten, andelen högutbildade arbetstagare eller andelen forskare efter det att stödperioden upphört. Vi finner således inget stöd för att riktade stöd till innovationsbenägna små – och mellanstora företag är en effektiv politik för att få fler växande företag.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Sven-Olof Daunfeldt

Patrik Tingvall

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: . : .

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Thomas Marmefelt

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Klagenfurt : Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt, 2015. (IfS Discussion Paper ; 2015:5)

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Karl GratzerMarcus BoxXiang Lin

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

ENTER forumSchool of Social Sciences
Business AdministrationEconomics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Stockholm : Norstedts Juridik AB, 2015.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Kenny Carlsson

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Economics 2015, 9 : -.

In this paper the authors conduct a meta-analysis to examine the link between R&D spending and economic growth in the EU and other regions. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R&D in the EU15 countries does not differ from that in other countries in general, but it is less significant than that for other industrialized countries. A closer inspection of the data reveals that the weak results for the EU15 stem from comparisons with the US – the US has been able to generate a stronger growth response from its R&D spending. Possible explanations for the US advantage include higher private sector investment in R&D and stronger public-private sector linkages than in the EU. Hence, to reduce the “innovation gap” vis-à-vis the US, it may not be enough for the EU to raise the share of R&D expenditures in GDP: continuous improvements in the European innovation system will also be needed, with focus on areas like private sector R&D and public-private sector linkages.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ari Kokko

Patrik Tingvall

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In this dissertation, I investigate how different aspects of the procurement process and evaluation affect bidding behavior.In essay 1, we attempt to map public procurements in Sweden by gathering a representative sample of procurements. We find that framework agreements and multiple-contract procurements represent a very large share of total government spending. The total value procured by government authorities, municipalities and counties accounts to 215 BSEK yearly, which we believe is an underestimate due to data issues.Essay 2 suggests a simple method for of estimating bidding costs in public procurement, and are empirically estimated to be approximately 2 percent of the procurement value using a comprehensive dataset and approximately 0.5 percent for a more homogeneous road re-pavement dataset. Our method provides reasonable estimates with, compared to other methods, relatively low data requirements.Essay 3 investigates the effect of quality evaluation on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Contrary to common belief, SMEs’ participation does not increase when evaluating quality, and their probability to win procurements decreases compared with that of large firms.In essay 4, the bidders’ decision to apply for a procurement review “appeal” is investigated. Contrary to procurers’ beliefs, evaluating quality is found not to have any statistically significant effect on the probability of appeals. Instead, I empirically confirm theoretical prediction of the 1st runner-up’s decision to claim the evaluation to be redone, as well as free-riding in appealing.In essay 5, we test whether spatial econometrics can be used to test for collusion in procurement data. We apply this method on a known cartel and test during and after the period the cartel was active. Our estimates support the proposition that spatial econometrics can be used to test for collusive behavior.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Mats Bergman

Johan Y. Stake


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

China economic review 2015, 36 : 272-278.

In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R&D spending in China has been significantly weaker than that of other countries. It is thus unlikely that R&D spending has been successful as a key contributing factor to economic growth in China.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Christer Ljungwall

Patrik Tingvall

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade 2015, 15 (4): 363-381.

We analyze how service offshoring by Swedish firms is affected by corruption in source countries. The results suggest that firms avoid corrupt countries and that corruption reduces the volume of service offshoring. Analyzing firm heterogeneity, we find that large and internationalized firms are the ones that are the most sensitive to corruption. In addition, sensitivity to corruption tends to increase with falling income in source countries. These results suggest that the gains from reduced corruption may be the greatest for poor countries. 

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Patrik Karpaty

Patrik Tingvall

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

The B.E. Journals in Economic Analysis & Policy 2015, 15 (4): 1975-2016.

Previous research has found that weak institutions can hamper investment and alter patterns of trade. However, little is known about the impact of institutional quality on offshoring. This lack of knowledge is surprising, given that offshoring has become an important part of many firms’ internationalization strategies. This study uses detailed firm-level data for the period 1997-2005 to examine the relationship between institutional quality in 113 source countries and offshoring by Swedish firms. The results suggest that weak institutions are negatively related to offshoring in general and to offshoring of R&D- and relationship specificity-intensive inputs in particular. Analysis of learning effects suggests that the impact of weak institutions on offshoring of relationship specificity-intensive inputs vanish when firms return to countries from which they have previous market experience. Our results are robust to various measures of institutional quality.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Fredrik Heyman

Patrik Tingvall

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: On conference website. : .

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Thomas Marmefelt

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: EAEPE 2015 Online proceedings. : .

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Thomas Marmefelt

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2015. (PESO Research Reports ; 3)

Gender-neutral job evaluation has become a key method for confirming the presence of value discrimination when accounting for job-related factors such as required skills, responsibility levels, effort and working conditions, and for correcting for a gender-biased pay setting. However, this extensive use of gender-neutral job evaluation tools makes it important to examine the validity of these tools.The purpose of this report is to evaluate the validity of a weighting method stated in a gender-neutral job evaluation tool that is recommended by the International Labor Office (ILO). The purpose of the ILO tool is to function as a general and worldwide guideline for gender-neutral job evaluations. The evaluation starts from the basic validity requirement that a weighting method has to be based on a correct interpretation of the weights in additive value models, which are used as “measures” of the value of jobs. The conclusion of the evaluation is that the ILO weighting method does not fulfill this basic validity requirement. The conclusion is reached in the following way:First, I show that the meaning of the weights in additive value models is to determine so-called compensatory relations between job-related factors, which have an important impact on the results of job evaluations.Second, by analyzing the weighting instructions in the ILO tool, I find that this weighting method is based on so-called direct rating of the relative importance of the job-related factors.Third, I show that direct rating is based on an incorrect interpretation of the weights. Thus, users of the ILO tool will probably misinterpret the consequences of their weighting decisions. This, in turn, might give rise to a biased weighting, i.e. a weighting that the users would reject when they come to know the correct meaning of the weights.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Stig Blomskog

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Stockholm : Ratio instiute, 2015. (Ratio Working Paper ; 254)

In this paper we conduct a meta-analysis to examine the link between R&D spending and economic growth in the EU and other regions. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R&D in the EU15 countries does not differ from that in other countries in general, but it is less significant than that for other industrialized countries. A closer inspection of the data reveals that the weak results for the EU15 stem from comparisons with the US – the US has been able to generate a stronger growth response from its R&D spending. Possible explanations for the US advantage include higher private sector investment in R&D and stronger public-private sector linkages than in the EU. Hence, to reduce the “innovation gap” vis-à-vis the US, it may not be enough for the EU to raise the share of R&D expenditures in GDP: continuous improvements in the European innovation system will also be needed, with focus on areas like private sector R&D and public-private sector linkages.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ari Kokko

Patrik Tingvall

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Marknad och politik. Lund : Studentlitteratur, 2014. 253-289.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2014

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Stockholm : HUI Research, 2014. (HUI Working Papers ; 105)

In 2009, the Swedish pharmaceuticals market was reformed. One of the stated policygoals was to achieve low costs for pharmaceutical products dispensed in Sweden.Prices and sales data for off-patent brand-name and generic pharmaceuticals have beencollected, and a log-linear regression model was used to estimate how the policy changes affected thecost per defined daily dose.The estimated effect is a 19 percent cost reduction per defined daily dose at the retail leveland a 35 percent reduction in the prices at the wholesale level (pharmacies' purchase prices). Theempirical results suggest that half of the retail-level price reduction is due to the introduction of a pricecap for products going off patent and half is due to other components of the reform. Measured at thewholesale level the latter effect is larger than the former.The reforms reduced the cost per defined daily dose for consumers while beingadvantageous also for the pharmacies, who saw their retail margins increase due to the reform.However, pharmaceutical firms supplying off-patent pharmaceuticals experienced a clear reduction inthe price received for their products.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Niklas Rudholm

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2014

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Umeå : Umeå universitet, 2014. (Umeå Economic Studies ; 895)

Departing from a simple normative theory for the choice between lowest price, highest quality (beauty contest) and more complex scoring rules, we empirically investigate the behavior of local and central authorities. We survey a gross sample of 40 contracting entities about perceived key characteristics of products bought in 651 public procurements and collect data on supplier selection methods for these procurements. We compare actual scoring rules with theoretical norms and analyze what product characteristics make deviation from the norm more or less likely. In addition, a control group of 275 authorities was surveyed about similar but hypothetical procurements. We find that more complex scoring rules are used more often when the authority is uncertain about costs and about delivered quality, in accordance with our hypotheses. However, authority effects are also found to directly and indirectly influence the choice of supplier-selection method, suggesting that tendering design is partially driven by local habits or institutional inertia.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Sofia Lundberg

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2014

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Stockholm : Finansdepartementet, Regeringskansliet, 2014. (Rapport till Expertgruppen för studier i offentlig ekonomi ; 2014:1)

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Henrik Jordahl

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2014

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

: , 2014. (Ratio Working Paper ; 233)

In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R&D spending in China has been significantly weaker than that of other countries. It is thus unlikely that R&D spending has been successful as a key contributing factor to economic growth in China.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Christer Ljungwall

Patrik Tingvall

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2014

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2014. (PESO Working Papers ; 2014:1)

Entrepreneurship has gained increasing support from governments in recent decades. Entrepreneurship is considered to generate new jobs, innovations, and economic growth. In current research, a causal link between entrepreneurial activity and economic growth is maintained, where variations in entrepreneurship precede variations in economic output. Various models identify a positive effect entrepreneurship on economic development in advanced, innovation-driven economies in the most recent decades – a time when several Western countries transformed from ‘managed’ to ‘entrepreneurial’ economies.Self-employment is one of the most common indicators of entrepreneurship in both policy and research. The present study analyzes the relationship between growth in self-employment and economic growth in Sweden between 1850 and 2000. For the entire period (1851–2000), variations in self-employment had a significant, instantaneous positive correlation with GDP growth. Using Granger causality tests, the results in this study show that variations in self-employment did not granger-cause GDP growth. We discovered a structural break in GDP growth as early as in the year of 1948, which gives two different periods: 1851–1948 and 1949–2000.Between 1851 and 1948, Granger causality between self-employment and GDP in either (Granger) direction could not be established. For the other segment (1949–2000), GDP growth granger-caused self-employment growth, but not the other way around. Granger causality tests in the frequency domain show that for the period 1949–2000, but for no other periods, variations in self-employment lagged with GDP growth. Consequently, GDP growth preceded self-employment growth, but self-employment growth did not precede GDP growth.Given that self-employment is a suitable indicator for entrepreneurship, the empirical results in this study are, in several respects, in disagreement with dominating assumptions in mainstream entrepreneurship research.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Karl GratzerMarcus BoxXiang Lin

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2014

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Business AdministrationEconomics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: The 25th EAEPE annual Conference Website [online]. : .

In order to theoretically analyze, from the perspective of new monetary economics andsociallearning,theevolution of monetary arrangementswith functional separation of money,thispaperanalyzes the history of Hanseatic monetary arrangements and the functional separationof money in the Baltic and North Seas region, that is, the evolution of units of account andmedia of exchangealong the East-West trade routes of the Hanseatic League. Focusing on thecognitive aspect of money as social institution, the evolution of units of account and media ofexchange are studied as adaptive responses by human minds. The emphasis will be on theheuristics of long-distance traders in the Baltic and North Seas region, considering theexchange of commodities and of monies.Going beyond the emergence of money as mediumof exchange, this paper studies the emergence of unitsof account and of media of exchange,that is, the emergence of monetary arrangements as co-evolution of units of account, in theMiddle Ages called monies of account, and media of exchange, in which the value of moneyis given by its purchasing power, be it money of account or money as medium of exchange.This paper views institutions as having both a cognitive and a behavioral component. Associal institution, money has a cognitive dimension, which represents the way traders thinkabout money as unit of account and medium of exchange, respectively, in the form ofmonetary heuristics, translating the unit of account to a particular worth, using a social scriptto which market agents attribute a specific worth.When the value of the underlyingcommodity bundle changes from the original worth, market agents observe a script deviationof that bundle, attributing that to changes in the commodity space, and adjust the bundleaccordingly. As social institution, money also has a behavioral dimension, which is expressedin the purchasing power of money; what commodity bundle could be bought for a certainamount of one currency, a medium of account with its associated media of exchange, foranother currency, thus establishing exchange rates. Exchange rates between currencies wereestablished according to relative perceived purchasing power, some kind of classifier system.Along the cognitive dimension, long-distance tradersformed beliefs about the relativepurchasing power of their currencycompared with the foreign one; along the behavioral onethey exchanged money at the rates so specified.The Hanseatictrade was organized along theline Novgorod-Reval-Lübeck-Hamburg-Bruges-London, whereBruges is of particularinterest as meeting place between Italian and Hanseaticmerchants, an interface ofMediterranean and Baltic commerce.In Bruges,Italianmerchant-bankers operated, usingbillsof exchange to meet the requirements of trade by correspondence, while Hanseatic traderelied on the exchange contract adopted to traveling trade. Hanseatic merchants openedtransitory accounts with Flemish money-changers to be used as means of settlement.Amonetary market orderevolved through the exchange of money and of commodities.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Thomas Marmefelt

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2013

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Stockholm : Uppdrag Välfärd, 2013.

Upphandling och kundval av välfärdstjänster och hur dessa bör utformas diskuteras utifrån ett teoretiskt och generellt ekonomiskt perspektiv, med fokus på entreprenader. Insikter ger den nationalekonomiska forskningen om hur upphandling och kundval kan förväntas fungera på marknader som dessa sammanfattas. Metoder för val av leverantör och kontraktsmodeller som är mer ändamålsenliga än andra beskrivs. Valet mellan upphandling och kundval diskuteras.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: Charting a Course in Public Procurement Innovation and Knowledge Sharing. Boca Raton, Florida : PrAcademics Press, 2013. -.

Departing from a simple normative theory for the choice between lowest price, highest quality (beauty contest) and more complex scoring rules, we empirically investigate the behavior of cities and authorities. We survey a gross sample of 40 procuring entities about perceived key characteristics of products bought in 650 public procurements and collect data on award methods for these procurements. We compare actual scoring rules against the theoretical norms and analyze what product characteristics make deviation from the norm more or less likely. In addition, a control group of 100 authorities was surveyed about similar but hypothetical procurements. We find that more complex scoring rules are used more often when framework agreements are procured and less so when the procuring authority reports that they experience significant uncertainty about the delivered quality. Low weight given to price in the bid award process is associated with low perceived uncertainty concerning delivered quality.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Sofia Lundberg

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: Interdisciplinary Economics. London & New York : Routledge, 2013. 88-109.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Thomas Marmefelt

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management 2013, 19 (2): 73-83.

The EU procurement directives stipulate that public contracts be awarded to the lowest bidder or to the bidder with the economically most advantageous tender; the latter requiring that a scoring rule be specified. We provide a simple theoretical framework, based on standard microeconomic theory, for tender evaluation (scoring and weighing) and discuss the pros and cons of methods such as highest quality (beauty contest), lowest price and price-and-quality-based evaluations. We argue that the most common method, price-to-quality scoring, is inappropriate for several reasons. It is non-transparent, making accurate representation of the procurer's preferences difficult. It is often open to strategic manipulation, due to dependence on irrelevant alternatives, and it tends to impose particular and unjustified non-linearity in bid prices. The alternative quality-to-price scoring method, where money values are assigned to different quality levels, is a better alternative. However, when the cost of quality is relatively well-known and several providers can offer optimal quality, lowest price is the preferable supplier selection method, while beauty contests may be preferred when purchasing budgets are inflexible.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Sofia Lundberg

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Östersund : Tillväxtanalys, 2012. (Working paper/PM ; 2012:19)

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

David Granlund

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Linköping : VTI, 2012. (VTI rapport ; 757)

Regeringen har högt ställda ambitioner vad gäller produktivitetsutveckling och nytänkande i offentlig sektor. Man vill bland annat stärka innovationsbenägenheten för att få ut mer av de resurser som idag förbrukas och den vägen möta en del av de krav på ökade resurser som ställs. Genom att granska styrningen i offentlig sektor visar vi i denna uppsats att dagens myndigheter har mycket svaga incitament att bidra till en sådan vidareutveckling av verksamheten. Den omvandling som offentlig sektor genomgått under de senaste 30 åren, med en successivt ökad användning av kommersiella företag för tjänsteleverans, ger emellertid goda möjligheter att förändra detta förhållande. Eftersom det av flera skäl är svårt att tro att sådana förändringar kan tillkomma i en nerifrån-och-uppprocess menar vi att man måste ta politiskt ansvar för att få till stånd en förändring. En central komponent i detta är att komplettera dagens ekonomiska uppföljning, som i stor utsträckning säkerställer att aggregerade anslag används på det sätt som riksdagen avsett, med en uppföljning baserad på de projekt och andra verksamheter som upphandlas. De avtal som tecknas och de utbetalningar som görs mot dessa avtal ger mycket goda förutsättningar för att förbättra förståelsen av kostnadsutvecklingen och att förbättra styrningen i riktning mot att pröva nya lösningar

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Jan-Eric Nilsson

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Umeå : Umeå universitet, 2012. (Umeå Economic Studies ; 846)

Many quality dimensions are hard to contract upon and are at risk of degradation when the service is procured rather than produced in-house. On the other hand, procurement may foster performance-improving innovation. We assemble a large data set on elderly care services in Sweden for the 1990-2009 period, including survival rates, our measure of non-contractible quality, and indicators of subjectively perceived quality of service. We estimate the effects of municipalities’ decision to procure rather than produce in-house on non-contractible quality using a difference-in-difference approach and controlling for a number of other potential determinants. The results indicate that procurement significantly increases non-contractible quality as measured by survival rate, reduces the cost per resident but does not affect subjectively perceived quality.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Sofia Lundberg

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: . : .

In order to theoretically analyze, from the perspective of new monetary economics and social learning, the evolution of monetary arrangements with functional separation of money, this paper develops a method to study this phenomenon in the history of monetary arrangements of the North and Baltic Seas region, from the Hanseatic League onwards. The aim is to do historical economics, analyzing history from the perspective of the economic theorist, while the approach is topic-oriented rather than discipline-oriented, involving economics, history, and cognitive science. The focus will be on the cognitive aspect of money as social institution. This implies multiple methods. The evolution of units of account and media of exchange are adaptive responses by human minds. The focus will be on the heuristics of long-distance traders in the Baltic and North Seas region, expressed in the form of units of account and media of exchange they used and their success in the contemporary trading environments. Lessons for monetary separation with an abstract unit of account compared with one based on a commodity bundle will be developed. This involves the identification of the unit of account in which contracts and calculations were made and what media of exchange were used to make the payments. From a cognitive perspective, the medium of account provides a script that translates the unit of account into a particular worth. When the value of the underlying commodity bundle changes from the original worth, market agents observe a script deviation of that bundle, attributing thatto changes in the commodity space, and adjust the bundle accordingly. This method will be developed to be able to study four historical cases: Hanseatic monetary arrangements, seventeenth century banking, the gold standard and the unification of monetary functionsand nineteenth century monetary unions,and interwar monetary fragmentation.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Thomas Marmefelt

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2012

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: Theoretical and Methodological Approaches to Social Sciences and Knowledge Management. Rijeka : InTech, 2012. 375-392.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Thomas Marmefelt

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: Progress in Economics Research. New York : Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2012. 31-57.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Thomas Marmefelt

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Journal of Economic Asymmetries 2011, 8 (2): 61-72.

Some well-known two-sector models of industrial countries exhibit a crowding out effect between the main sectors of the economy. This is true of the Small Open Economy, traded-non-traded good model without nominal wage rigidity, and for the model of the Dutch Disease. In contrast, important models of semi-industrialized countries, or even emerging markets, such as the Bose Model, portray a complementary relation between the various sectors. This paper discusses a possible synthesis between these differing model specifications, and tests the applicability of these models for a large sample of industrial countries, emerging markets and developing economies by analyzing the inter-linkages in their sector growth patterns.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Bala Batavia

Parameswar Nandakumar


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2011

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Östersund : Tillväxtanalys, 2011. (Working paper/PM ; 2011:50)

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Niklas Rudholm

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2011

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: På jakt efter den goda affären. Stockholm : Regeringskansliet, 2011. 367-375.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Jan-Eric Nilsson

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2011

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: . : .

According to Schumpeter, money is a clearing device, a social institution rather than a commodity, and money supply constitutes a critical figure that determines the price level.Schumpeter argues that the value of money is independent of its metal content, but also finds a legally defined ticket inappropriate.He pointsout that the purchasing power of money cannot bea matter of exchange value, nor of use value, butthe purchasing power of a unit of income.According to Mises, Schumpeter tries to build a catallactic ticket theory, which requires a comparison of available tickets and opportunity space, using the sum of money incomes and the product of prices and consumption goods. He finds that the commodities relate only to circulating money, while money relates to production goods as well as consumption goods, more commonly tothe turnover of production goods to production goodsthan to the exchange of production goods for consumption goods. For Mises, the value of money must be based upon utility, but the objective exchange value of money reflects subjective individual valuations. Money is an emergent order and the intangible money emerging today represents an institutional form of money with an accounting system of exchange, moving towards Wicksell’s pure credit economy, in itself making monetary separation suitable. According to Wicksell, a pure credit economy requires that the value of money is made independent of its commodity function. Credit is a remedy to scarcity of money, while bills of exchange increase virtual velocity. He argues that the unit of value should be independent of material thingsand thatthe inconvertible paper coinis used as credit medium, implying an abstract medium of account. The New Monetary Economics involves a functional separation of monetary functions making units and media of account distinct from media of exchange. In the Black-Fama-Hall (BFH) system, developed by Yeager and Greenfield, the unit of account is physically defined by the state as a non-convertible nearly comprehensive commodity bundle, which constitutes the critical figure in such a system, while the media of exchange are privately issued.This is contrasted to separation of the functions of media of account from media of exchange, where the media of account are abstract, such as Meulen’s banknote pound.These two approachesto the media of account are analyzed from the perspective of Schumpeter, Wicksell, and Mises.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Thomas Marmefelt

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2011

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Review of World Economics 2011, 147 (4): 621-642.

Using an international panel data set of the European pulp and paper industry, we address the issue of a possible home-bias effect for real investments in plants with foreign and domestic locations. We find that there is no effect after controlling for firm effects and plant and firm size. These findings are rubust to a number of different econometric specifications, including a difference-in-difference approach. Our findings appear to be relevant for the debate on the effect of foreign takeovers. As far as we are aware, home-bias effects in real investments within multinational firms have not been studied previously.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Per Johansson

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2011

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Lund : Studentlitteratur, 2011.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Tobias Idén

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2011

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Umeå : Umeå University, 2011. (Umeå Economic Studies ; 821)

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Sofia Lundberg

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2011

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

European Competition Journal 2011, 7 (1): 89-125.

Using a combination of public and internal information, this paper compares and contrasts European Union (EU) and United States (US) merger policies. Common economic analysis leads both authorities to subject remarkably comparable portfolios of mergers to close scrutiny. Vertical mergers account for less than 10%, and potential competition matters for around 5%, of in-depth merger investigations in both jurisdictions, while purely conglomerate mergers are extremely rare or non-existent. The share of collusion investigations falls over time in both jurisdictions. However, the US relies on collusion theory more than three times as often as the EU, where over 80% of the horizontal cases address dominance. Across both regimes, roughly one eighth of all recent horizontal investigations have been analysed as non-dominance unilateral-effects cases. Only minor differences in the average probability of a merger being challenged are observed when controlling for market share. The 2004 EU reforms seem to be leading towards at least some convergence of enforcement policy.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Malcolm B. Coate

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2011

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Marknad och politik. Stockholm : SNS förlag, 2011. 256-290.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2011

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Stockholm : Konkurrensverket, 2010. (Uppdragsforskningsrapport ; 2010:5)

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Hans Christian Sundelin

Johan Y. Stake

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Förberedelsearbetet i apoteksreformen. Stockholm : Riksrevisionen, 2010. -126.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Johan Stennek

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Review of Industrial Organization 2010, 36 (4): 305-331.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Malcolm Coate

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Handbook of social interactions in the 21st century. New York : Nova Science Publishers, 2009. 21-49.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Thomas Marmefelt

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2009

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: International Encyclopedia of Public Policy. Perth : GPERU, 2009. 360-371.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Thomas Marmefelt

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2009

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: International Encyclopedia of Public Policy. Perth : GPERU, 2009. 620-631.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Thomas Marmefelt

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2009

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 2009, 71 (1): 62-74.

In the social sciences, the label Darwinian often means a biological explanation of social phenomena. Both Hayek and Boulding adopt a Lamarckian approach to social evolution. Hayek shows that coordination of groups larger than hunting and gathering bands requires a cultural evolution of learnt rules. Boulding uses the notion of noosphere of human knowledge, where learning transmits the noogenetic structure. Hayek's and Boulding's Lamarckian theories are compared with Darwin's theory of social evolution to explore how the latter may be extended to explain the links between human knowledge, rules, and evolution of society, outlining a Darwinian social/cultural approach.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Thomas Marmefelt

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2009

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Uppsala : IFAU, 2009. (IFAU Rapport ; 2009:19)

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Johan Bring

Stig Blomskog

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2009

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Evolving payment habits. Helsinki : Suomen Pankk.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Gabriela Guibourg

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2009

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Stockholm : Konkurrensverket, 2009. (Uppdragsforskningsrapport ; 2009:10)

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Sofia Lundberg

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2009

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Stockholm : Fritze, 2009. (Statens offentliga utredningar ; 2009:69)

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Lars Henriksson

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2009

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Stockholm : Fritze, 2009. (Statens offentliga utredningar ; 2009:3)

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Lars Henriksson

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2009

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

The World Economy 2008, 31 (3): 437-460.

We examine the effects of foreign entry on productive efficiency during the Polish investment liberalisation. The performance of foreign acquisitions is compared to foreign firms entering the market through greenfield entry, as well as domestic acquisitions of privatised firms, domestic greenfields and remaining state-owned (non-privatised) firms during the period 1995-2000. We find that foreign privatised firms have realised larger productivity gains than all types of domestic firms and that this is not due to higher price-cost margins, which is consistent with the idea that foreign firms bring in firm-specific knowledge. Foreign greenfields have the highest average labour productivity, while foreign privatisations show the largest productivity increase.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Pehr-Johan Norbäck

Karl-Markus Modén

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2008

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

The Review of Austrian Economics 2008, 21 (1): 103-106.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Thomas Marmefelt

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2008

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Stockholm : Konkurrensverket, 2008. ( ; )

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2008

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Infrastructure versus service-based competition. Paris : Quantifica publishing, 2008. 17-32.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2008

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Economic review 2008, 2 : 42-59.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Gabriela Guibourg

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2008

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

De Economist 2008, 156 (4): 387-409.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2008

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Review of social economy 2007, 65 (4): 496-502.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Thomas Marmefelt

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2007

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Indian Journal of Economics and Business 2007, : 109-127.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Thomas Marmefelt

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2007

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Stockholm : Sveriges riksbank, 2007. (Sveriges Riksbank working paper series ; 212)

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Gabriela Guibourg

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2007

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Stockholm : Konkurrensverket, 2007. ( ; )

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Johan Stennek

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2007

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2007. (Working Paper ; 2007:5)

In this paper we analyze the use of numerical information in the context of job evaluation. The analysis is based on the job evaluation system Steps to Pay Equity, which is recommended by the European Project on Equal Pay supported by the European commission. The main findings can be summarized as follows. Firstly, in Steps to Pay Equity no method is suggested that can be used in order to construct stronger scales than ordinal scales. This implies that rankings of jobs are based on the addition of ordinal scales, which means that the rankings are very unstable for admissible transformations. Secondly, there is no explicit definition or explanation how the weights should be interpreted, something that hampers an assessment about the reasonability of the assigned weights. Thirdly, the convention to classify jobs on predefined levels can give rise to heavy deformations of relevant differences between jobs, which means that received rankings of jobs are unjustified guidance for impartial pay setting. We suggest a possible remedy by illustrating the use of a specific multi-attribute evaluation model.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Stig Blomskog

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2007

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2007. (Working Paper ; 2007:4)

In this paper we analyze a number of assumptions and conceptual issues that arise in applications of conventional job evaluations, which are used in order to implement the principle “Equal Pay for Jobs of Equal Value” according to the Equal Pay Acts.The main findings of the analysis can be summarized as follows: 1) A lack of a distinction between subjective and objective criteria as well as between descriptive and evaluative criteria, 2) A defective interpretation of independency conditions that are necessary in order to represent evaluation of jobs by weighted sums of scores, 3) An incorrect diagnosis and subsequently incorrect remedies of defects in job evaluation methods, 4) An incorrect interpretation of the meaning of key concepts such as “Jobs of Equal Value”, 5) Unwarranted assumptions about formal features of relations defined by the concept “Jobs of Equal Value”.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Stig Blomskog

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2007

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2007. (Working Paper ; 2007:3)

Resultatet av en arbetsvärdering är att varje arbete tillordnas en viktad summa av poäng. Poängsumman kan tolkas som ett mått på en sammantagen värdering av krav och svårigheter som förknippas med arbetenas utförande. Måttet används för att bedöma vilka arbeten som är likvärdiga. En viktig fråga är i vilken mån detta mått utgör en tillförlitlig grund för att bedöma vilka arbeten som är likvärdiga. I arbetsvärderingssystemet Analys Lönelots, som rekommenderas av JämO, finns ett förslag på hur måttet kan användas på ett tillförlitligt sätt. I uppsatsen visas att förslaget har uppenbara brister. Vidare visas att problemet med tillförlitlighet hos måttet kan överföras på problemet med tillförlitlighet av precist angivna vikter och skalor, som avser att representera en beslutsfattares värderingar av relevanta egenskaper hos arbeten. Det finns uppenbara skäl att betvivla att en beslutsfattare kan motivera sådana precisa värderingar som följer av en precist angiven numerisk representation. I uppsatsen presenteras också ett alternativt sätt att numeriskt representera en beslutsfattares värderingar av arbeten. Denna typ av numeriska representation kan beakta att värderingar av arbeten är osäkra.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Stig Blomskog

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2007

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2007. (Working Paper ; 2007:2)

In this paper we test the usefulness of imprecise value judgments in evaluating employee performance. The test is based on two experiments which evaluate the performance of college lecturers. The experiments are carried out by applying the PRIME model (Preference Ratios in Multi-attribute Evaluation), a specific multi-attribute value model that supports the use of imprecise value judgments. The test shows that the use of imprecise value judgments, as synthesized by the PRIME model, can remedy a number of defects that are identified in conventional evaluation models in regard to job requirements and employee performance.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Stig Blomskog

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2007

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Tidskrift för politisk filosofi 2006, 10 (2): 19-44.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Stig Blomskog

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2006

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

The Review of Austrian Economics 2005, 18 (1): 117-119.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Thomas Marmefelt

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2005

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Dagens industri 2005, 19 november : -.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2005

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Dagens industri 2005, 2 mars : -.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2005

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Stockholm : Sveriges riksbank, 2005. (Sveriges Riksbank working paper series ; 185)

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2005

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Stockholm : SNS förlag, 2005.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Jan-Eric Nilsson

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2005

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade 2005, 5 (1): 5-26.

According to the essential-facilities doctrine, competition law requires an infrastructural monopoly to provide access. Under the "Bronner criterion", proposed by the EC Court, the doctrine is only applicable when a symmetric infrastructural duopoly is non-viable. This paper uses a simple model to illustrate that, from a welfare point-of-view, the Bronner criterion may provide too little monopoly protection for the incumbent in high-risk new markets, while requiring too much investments from the entrant in low-risk mature markets.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2005

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Review of Austrian Economics 2004, 17 (1): 87-113.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Thomas Marmefelt

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2004

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2003. (Working Paper ; 2003:5)

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Stig Blomskog

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2003

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Research in Labor Economics 2000, 19 : 345-381.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Karsten Albæk

Stig Blomskog

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2000

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Copenhagen : Nordic Council of Ministers, 1999. (TemaNord ; 1999:597)

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Karsten Albæk

Stig Blomskog

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
1999

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Anh Mai


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No


School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Anh Mai

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No


School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Anh Mai

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No


School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Malcom B. Coate

Anh Mai Thi Van

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No


School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Journal of Applied Economics , : -.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Johan Y. Stake

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No


School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Johan Y. Stake


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No


School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Johan Y. Stake

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No


School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Johan Lundberg

Johan Y. Stake

Mats Bergman

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No


School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Economics

Research area for doctoral studies

-