About us / Subjects

Sociology

Graphic element for the subject of SociologySociology is a subject that provides in-depth skills and knowledge in the understanding and analysis of society, with all its diversity and complexity: politics and economics, fashion and trends, the labour market and working life, wealth and poverty, sports and entertainment, ideology and religion, involvement or apathy, arts, culture and the media.

 

Publications

Publications from the DiVA publications database are listed here on an ongoing basis.
Publications

BMC Oral Health 2018, 18 (1): -.

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess trends and inequalities in dental care utilization in Estonia and Lithuania in relation to large-scale macroeconomic changes in 2004-2012.METHODS: Data on 22,784 individuals in the 20-64 age group were retrieved from nationally representative cross-sectional surveys in 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence estimates of past 12-month dental visits were calculated for each study year, stratified by gender, age group, ethnicity, educational level and economic activity. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the independent effect of study year and socioeconomic status on dental visits.RESULTS: The age- and sex-standardized prevalence of dental visits in the past 12 months was 46-52% in Estonia and 61-67% in Lithuania. In 2004-2008, the prevalence of dental visits increased by 5.9 percentage points in both countries and fell in 2008-2010 by 3.8 percentage points in Estonia and 4.6 percentage points in Lithuania. In both countries the prevalence of dental care utilization had increased slightly by 2012, although the increase was statistically insignificant. Results from a logistic regression analysis showed that these differences between study years were not explained by differences in socioeconomic status or oral health conditions. Women, the main ethnic group (only in Estonia), and higher educated and employed persons had significantly higher odds of dental visits in both countries, but the odds were lower for 50-64 year olds in Lithuania.CONCLUSIONS: In European Union countries with lower national wealth, the use of dental services is sensitive to macroeconomic changes regardless of the extent of public coverage, at the same time, higher public coverage may not relate to lower inequalities in dental care use.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Rainer Reile

Andrew Stickley

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

The Lancet 2018, 392 (10159): 2091-2138.

Background Efforts to establish the 2015 baseline and monitor early implementation of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) highlight both great potential for and threats to improving health by 2030. To fully deliver on the SDG aim of "leaving no one behind", it is increasingly important to examine the health-related SDGs beyond national-level estimates. As part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD 2017), we measured progress on 41 of 52 health -related SDG indicators and estimated the health-related SDG index for 195 countries and territories for the period 1990-2017, projected indicators to 2030, and analysed global attainment. Methods We measured progress on 41 health-related S DG indicators from 1990 to 2017, an increase of four indicators since GBD 2016 (new indicators were health worker density, sexual violence by non-intimate partners, population census status, and prevalence of physical and sexual violence [reported separately]). We also improved the measurement of several previously reported indicators. We constructed national-level estimates and, for a subset of health-related SDGs, examined indicator-level differences by sex and Socio-demographic Index (SDI) quintile. We also did subnational assessments of performance for selected countries. To construct the health related SDG index, we transformed the value for each indicator on a scale of 0-100, with 0 as the 2.5th percentile and 100 as the 97.5th percentile of 1000 draws calculated from 1990 to 2030, and took the geometric mean of the scaled indicators by target. To generate projections through 2030, we used a forecasting framework that drew estimates from the broader GBD study and used weighted averages of indicator-specific and country-specific annualised rates of change from 1990 to 2017 to inform future estimates. We assessed attainment of indicators with defined targets in two ways: first, using mean values projected for 2030, and then using the probability of attainment in 2030 calculated from 1000 draws. We also did a global attainment analysis of the feasibility of attaining SDG targets on the basis of past trends. Using 2015 global averages of indicators with defined SDG targets, we calculated the global annualised rates of change required from 2015 to 2030 to meet these targets, and then identified in what percentiles the required global annualised rates of change fell in the distribution of country-level rates of change from 1990 to 2015. We took the mean of these global percentile values across indicators and applied the past rate of change at this mean global percentile to all health-related SDG indicators, irrespective of target definition, to estimate the equivalent 2030 global average value and percentage change from 2015 to 2030 for each indicator. Findings The global median health-related SDG index in 2017 was 59.4 (IQR 35.4-67.3), ranging from a low of 11.6 (95% uncertainty interval 9.6-14.0) to a high of 84.9 (83.1-86.7). SDG index values in countries assessed at the subnational level varied substantially particularly in China and India, although scores in Japan and the UK were more homogeneous. Indicators also varied by SDI quintile and sex, with males having worse outcomes than females for non-communicable disease (NCD) mortality, alcohol use, and smoking, among others. Most countries were projected to have a higher health-related SDG index in 2030 than in 2017, while country-level probabilities of attainment by 2030 varied widely by indicator. Under-5 mortality, neonatal mortality, maternal mortality ratio, and malaria indicators had the most countries with at least 95% probability of target attainment. Other indicators, including NCD mortality and suicide mortality, had no countries projected to meet corresponding SDG targets on the basis of projected mean values for 2030 but showed some probability of attaimnent by 2030. For some indicators, including child malnutrition, several infectious diseases, and most violence measures, the annualised rates of change required to meet SDG targets far exceeded the pace of progress achieved by any country in the recent past. We found that applying the mean global annualised rate of change to indicators without defined targets would equate to about 19% and 22% reductions in global smoking and alcohol consumption, respectively; a 47% decline in adolescent birth rates; and a more than 85% increase in health worker density per 1000 population by 2030.Interpretation The GBD study offers a unique, robust platform for monitoring the health -related SDGs across demographic and geographic dimensions. Our findings underscore the importance of increased collection and analysis of disaggregated data and highlight where more deliberate design or targeting of interventions could accelerate progress in attaining the SDGs. Current projections show that many health -related SDG indicators, NCDs, NCD-related risks, and violence -related indicators will require a concerted shift away from what might have driven past gains curative interventions in the case of NCDs towards multisectoral, prevention -oriented policy action and investments to achieve SDG aims. Notably, several targets, if they are to be met by 2030, demand a pace of progress that no country has achieved in the recent past. The future is fundamentally uncertain, and no model can fully predict what breakthroughs or events might alter the course of the S DGs. What is clear is that our actions or inaction today will ultimately dictate how close the world, collectively, can get to leaving no one behind by 2030. 

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Rafael Lozano

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

PLAN 2018, 4-5 : 87-88.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Andrea Utas

Apostolis PapakostasSara FerlanderTanya Jukkala

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

The Lancet 2018, 392 (10152): 1015-1035.

Background: Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for death and disability, but its overall association with health remains complex given the possible protective effects of moderate alcohol consumption on some conditions. With our comprehensive approach to health accounting within the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we generated improved estimates of alcohol use and alcohol-attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 195 locations from 1990 to 2016, for both sexes and for 5-year age groups between the ages of 15 years and 95 years and older.Methods: Using 694 data sources of individual and population-level alcohol consumption, along with 592 prospective and retrospective studies on the risk of alcohol use, we produced estimates of the prevalence of current drinking, abstention, the distribution of alcohol consumption among current drinkers in standard drinks daily (defined as 10 g of pure ethyl alcohol), and alcohol-attributable deaths and DALYs. We made several methodological improvements compared with previous estimates: first, we adjusted alcohol sales estimates to take into account tourist and unrecorded consumption; second, we did a new meta-analysis of relative risks for 23 health outcomes associated with alcohol use; and third, we developed a new method to quantify the level of alcohol consumption that minimises the overall risk to individual health.Findings: Globally, alcohol use was the seventh leading risk factor for both deaths and DALYs in 2016, accounting for 2.2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1.5-3.0) of age-standardised female deaths and 6.8% (5.8-8.0) of age-standardised male deaths. Among the population aged 15-49 years, alcohol use was the leading risk factor globally in 2016, with 3.8% (95% UI 3.2-4-3) of female deaths and 12.2% (10.8-13-6) of male deaths attributable to alcohol use. For the population aged 15-49 years, female attributable DALYs were 2.3% (95% UI 2.0-2.6) and male attributable DALYs were 8.9% (7.8-9.9). The three leading causes of attributable deaths in this age group were tuberculosis (1.4% [95% UI 1. 0-1. 7] of total deaths), road injuries (1.2% [0.7-1.9]), and self-harm (1.1% [0.6-1.5]). For populations aged 50 years and older, cancers accounted for a large proportion of total alcohol-attributable deaths in 2016, constituting 27.1% (95% UI 21.2-33.3) of total alcohol-attributable female deaths and 18.9% (15.3-22.6) of male deaths. The level of alcohol consumption that minimised harm across health outcomes was zero (95% UI 0.0-0.8) standard drinks per week.Interpretation: Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for global disease burden and causes substantial health loss. We found that the risk of all-cause mortality, and of cancers specifically, rises with increasing levels of consumption, and the level of consumption that minimises health loss is zero. These results suggest that alcohol control policies might need to be revised worldwide, refocusing on efforts to lower overall population-level consumption.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Max G. Griswold

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Bureaucracy and Society in Transition. Bingley : Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018. 39-67.

Transition into modernity takes very different roads, depending on thesequencing of bureaucracy and democratic regime. This is demonstrated bycomparing Sweden and Greece. At an early stage of the long-term modernisationof Swedish society, due to early penetration of the internal territory andbefore the extension of suffrage and political modernisation, a number ofstate organisations were established at the interstices between state and society,creating direct relations between the state and society. The impressiveLantmäteriet, the organisation of tax authorities, the establishment ofauthorities for registering the population and the Tabellverket are typicalillustrations of such organisational structures. Such organisations functionedas social mechanisms that elucidated society making it legible and thusstrengthened the infrastructural capacity of the state. In Greece, where thestate was built after political modernisation, the establishment of similarorganisations proved to be more difficult. Although there is evidence thatsimilar Swedish practices were known in Greece to be possible paths, theywere not chosen. The establishment of a land registry system, for instance,was discussed in the decades prior to the 1871 land reform. On other issues,such choices could not be materialised given opposition or political countermobilisationto abolish the reforms after they were approved by parliament.These reform efforts were rather short-lived or countered by new reforms andexemptions, creating an ambiguous labyrinth of regulations of statesocietyrelations and a state without the capacity to intervene in society and implementlogistically political decisions throughout the realm. On the whole, thestate remained a distant entity, mostly a distrusted one, and relations between the state and society were mediated by parties and by social and kinshipbasednetworks.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Apostolis Papakostas

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: Relating Worlds of Racism. : Palgrave Macmillan, 2018. 113-139.

Law and Zakharov examine the formation and legacy of Russian racialisation and anti-Roma racism in a number of states including Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Romania. They then examine racialisation in a variety of post-Soviet regimes including the Baltic states, Ukraine, Moldova, Belarus and the Southern Caucasus. The East European ‘search for race’ and the striving to ‘attain whiteness’, can be understood as attempts to rediscover the privileged whiteness that has been partly lost during the socialist past. Finally, they confirm the need to recognise polyracism, and give a less one-sided account of the process of racial Europeanisation which privileges Western Europe and denies the agency of Eastern European states in this process.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ian Law

Nikolay Zakharov

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2018

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

VOLUNTAS - International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 2018, 29 (5): 962-975.

Nonprofit organizations in Russia are introducing for-profit activities as a means of gaining autonomy from external donors, and as instruments of strategic planning and sustainable development. This study focuses on organizations that work with welfare provision and explores how they reconcile entrepreneurial activities with their social mission. More specifically, we interrogate how two institutional logics, business and nonprofit, are defined and reconciled in organizational identities, structures and hierarchies. Socially oriented nonprofits define their mission through service to beneficiaries, through personal and professional dedication to beneficiaries’ well-being, and through making an impact on public policies and the society at large. They mimic a business approach in strategic planning and meticulous reporting, but subordinate profit-seeking to social mission by integrating entrepreneurial activities into already existing organizational structures, or by separating them into independent entities.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

A. Moskvina

Zhanna Kravchenko

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2018

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Sociologisk forskning 2018, 55 (2-3): 317-339.

Ethnic hierarchies and (non)representation. Party candidates with migration background in the general election of 2014.This paper analyses the extent to which individuals with migration background were appointed and elected into different levels of public decision-making bodies in the latest Swedish general election (2014). Individuals of ”migration background” refers in this study to those born abroad or born in Sweden with two foreign-born parents. Data for this study is taken from Statistics Sweden’s register of candidates elected in municipal, county and national parliamentary elections in 2014, supplemented by information from other Statistics Sweden’s registers. The results demonstrate that: (a) individuals with a migration background are severely underrepresented in the Swedish decision-making bodies; (b) even in cases when individuals with a migration background are nominated on the party lists, they have less of a chance of being elected compared to native candidates. (c) The dominant ”resource theory” cannot explain the underrepresentation of the stigmatized migrant groups and their descendants, and finally; (d) the results indicate some support to the hypothesis about the importance of access to social networks in order to be nominated and elected.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Alireza Behtoui

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Sociologisk forskning 2018, 55 (2-3): 365-387.

From chatter to organized networks. How think tanks work to enrol othersThink tanks, both inside and outside the Swedish context, appear as something of a conundrum. Definitions and conceptual understandings of what think tanks actually do have not been adequately developed. One of the most urgent and unanswered questions regards how we understand the ability of think tanks to get other actors in the political landscape to use their ideas? Drawing on insights from 13 think thanks in Stockholm, the intention of this paper is to provide an empirically based and theoretically informed answer to this question. The results show that the activities colloquially termed ”networking” and ”agenda setting”, can be understood from an organisational perspective. These activities come across as intangible with uncertain outcomes but cannot be seen as random attempts to bridge think tankers and policy actors, but as decided actions designed to make other actors use their ideas in the future. At the same time, the organized relationships to other actors are ambiguous, as too close relationships may risk the think tank’s appearance of independency.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Adrienne Sörbom

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Sociologisk forskning 2018, 55 (2-3): 139-154.

The political landscape in Sweden has undergone considerable changes in recent decades The number of political parties in the Swedish parliament has increased from five to eight, and the socio-economic issues of the traditional political right–left scale has been challenged by socio-cultural issues relating to lifestyle and identity. Notably, the notion of Swedish exceptionalism and the particularities of its welfare state is lingering despite findings pointing in the opposite direction e.g. with the increased electoral support for the radical right, and its ethno-nationalist and anti-immigrant rhetoric. The corporatist model has been challenged by new forms of political authority, participation and representation. New political actors, such as social movements and civil society actors, think tanks and policy professionals, are becoming increasingly engaged in political processes. The long-term trend suggests that traditionally marginalised groups, such as the young, women and groups of migrant background, are represented in decision-making forums to a higher degree than before. Yet, current conditions need further analysis. In this article, we provide a background to Sociologisk Forskning’s special issue on the political landscape of the parliamentary election in 2018.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Gabriella Elgenius

Magnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Sociologisk forskning 2018, 55 (2-3): 121-138.

Change and continuity in the political landscape. Politico-sociological perspectives on the general election in Sweden 2018The political landscape in Sweden has undergone considerable changes in recent decades. The number of political parties in the Swedish parliament has increased from five to eight, and the socio-economic issues of the traditional political right–left scale has been challenged by socio-cultural issues relating to lifestyle and identity. Notably, the radical right has had significant electoral success in Sweden based on an ethno-nationalist and anti-immigrant rhetoric. The corporatist model has increasingly been challenged by new forms of political authority, participation and representation. Yet, new political actors such as social movements and civil society actors, think tanks and policy professionals, are becoming increasingly engaged in the political processes. Moreover, traditionally marginalised groups including the young, women and individuals of migrant background are represented to a higher degree in political bodies than before. In this article, we introduce the articles of Sociologisk Forskning’s special issue on the Swedish political landscape and give an overview of the main developments of politics and society in the country.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Gabriella Elgenius

Magnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Journal of Contemporary European Research 2018, 14 (2): 68-86.

This article addresses domestic civil society organisations (CSOs) and their multilevel strategies for gaining political influence in the European Union. Drawing on a theoretical framework identifying different ‘routes’ that CSOs can take in a multilevel system of EU governance, this article analyses which routes or combination of routes CSOs take and investigates what organisational factors can explain similarities and differences among domestic CSOs’ multilevel strategies for political influence. Factors like type of organisation, organisational resources, level of activity and perceived relevance of national and EU political levels are combined. The article shows that CSOs tend to choose a combination of routes and that most of them also participate at the national level when trying to influence EU policy. The article furthermore finds that domestic CSOs seek to influence EU policies above all when they organise around issues that face potential conflicts between national and EU policies, illustrating the analytical significance of how CSOs perceive different political levels.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Håkan Johansson

Magnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

The American journal of geriatric psychiatry 2018, 26 (10): 1070-1078.

Objective There is little research on the effects of childhood hunger on adult mental health. This study examined the association between childhood hunger and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide in older adults. Design Data were analyzed from adults aged 60 and above collected during the Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006 (N=2455). Retrospective information was obtained on the frequency (never, seldom, sometimes, often) of going to bed hungry in childhood, and on the presence of recurrent thoughts of death or suicide in the past 4 weeks. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables. Results Experiencing hunger in childhood was common (37.6%) with 14.3% of the respondents stating that they often went to bed hungry. In a univariate analysis going to bed hungry either sometimes or often more than doubled the odds for thoughts of death or suicide. Although adjustment for a range of covariates (including physical diseases and depressive episode) attenuated the associations, in the fully adjusted model going to bed hungry sometimes continued to be associated with significantly increased odds for thoughts of death or suicide in older adults (OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.10–2.74; Wald χ2 = 5.7, df = 1, p = 0.017). Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that the effects of childhood hunger may be long lasting and associated with mental health and well-being even in older adults.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ai Koyanagi

Andrew Stickley

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2018

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2018, 115 (25): 6440-6445.

Unfavorable health trends among the lowly educated have recently been reported from the United States. We analyzed health trends by education in European countries, paying particular attention to the possibility of recent trend interruptions, including interruptions related to the impact of the 2008 financial crisis. We collected and harmonized data on mortality from <i>ca</i> 1980 to <i>ca</i> 2014 for 17 countries covering 9.8 million deaths and data on self-reported morbidity from <i>ca</i> 2002 to <i>ca</i> 2014 for 27 countries covering 350,000 survey respondents. We used interrupted time-series analyses to study changes over time and country-fixed effects analyses to study the impact of crisis-related economic conditions on health outcomes. Recent trends were more favorable than in previous decades, particularly in Eastern Europe, where mortality started to decline among lowly educated men and where the decline in less-than-good self-assessed health accelerated, resulting in some narrowing of health inequalities. In Western Europe, mortality has continued to decline among the lowly and highly educated, and although the decline of less-than-good self-assessed health slowed in countries severely hit by the financial crisis, this affected lowly and highly educated equally. Crisis-related economic conditions were not associated with widening health inequalities. Our results show that the unfavorable trends observed in the United States are not found in Europe. There has also been no discernible short-term impact of the crisis on health inequalities at the population level. Both findings suggest that European countries have been successful in avoiding an aggravation of health inequalities.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Johan P Mackenbach

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

New York : Routledge, 2018.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Abby Peterson

Magnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Comparative Perspectives on Early School Leaving in the European Union. London : Routledge, 2018. 102-116.

A great deal of previous studies on early school leavers have concentrated on the individual characteristics of young people and neglecting the social relations that cause them to drop out. This chapter highlights the importance of and the way in which the social relations between young people with significant people in their immediate social environment, e.g. relationships with family members, the school staff and their friends, affect their educational expectations. In line with earlier research, we have assumed that the educational expectations of students are a crucial predicator of early school leaving (failure, frustration and, ultimately, disengagement and dropout), i.e. having fewer educational expectations predicts a higher risk of ESL. The data used in this study were collected in schools in marginalized urban areas of Sweden during the period 2014-2016 as a part of the RESL.eu project in Sweden. By using a mixed-methods approach with both survey material, in-depth interviews and participant observation in a selected group of schools, we have tried to highlight these complex relationships between social relations and educational expectations. As our results demonstrate, these relationships and the social capital they provide play an important role in forming the educational expectations of young people.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

M. Björklöf

Alireza Behtoui

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Comparative Perspectives on Early School Leaving in the European Union. London : Routledge, 2018. 47-60.

This chapter focuses on education policies in Portugal, Poland and Sweden, exploring links between the political construction of ESL and the fight against it. Portugal still has one of the highest rates in Europe, even with great progress; Sweden is and has been in quite a comfortable position very close to the European average; and the rate of ESL in Poland is significantly below. We take into consideration the relationships of education with Europeanization, including the assertion of new roles for the state that interacts in a multiple scale governance - the dispersion of decision-making from the states to European institutions in line with Roger Dale (2007). We argue that these processes bring to the fore difficulties and opportunities that are explored in national interpretations of the educational policy and phenomena. Taking into account the specific educational structures, policies and practices in the three countries, the chapter highlights that the educational debate varies in areas of concentration and there are tensions in the discussion of vocational tracks; that the socio-political and economic crisis has reshaped the ways different countries address ESL and try to make the best of EU funding; that tensions remain in varying degrees between the social and educational goals and the needs of the labour market; and that social concerns about equality of opportunities and educational development are not as common as they should be in light of the EU concern about social inclusion.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

H. C. Araújo

Alireza Behtoui

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Samhällsarbete. Lund : Studentlitteratur AB, 2018. 299-319.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Lisa KingsZhanna Kravchenko

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Social WorkSociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

British Journal of Psychiatry 2018, 212 (6): 356-361.

BACKGROUND: Suicide has been decreasing over the past decade. However, we do not know whether socioeconomic inequality in suicide has been decreasing as well.AimsWe assessed recent trends in socioeconomic inequalities in suicide in 15 European populations.METHOD: The DEMETRIQ study collected and harmonised register-based data on suicide mortality follow-up of population censuses, from 1991 and 2001, in European populations aged 35-79. Absolute and relative inequalities of suicide according to education were computed on more than 300 million person-years.RESULTS: In the 1990s, people in the lowest educational group had 1.82 times more suicides than those in the highest group. In the 2000s, this ratio increased to 2.12. Among men, absolute and relative inequalities were substantial in both periods and generally did not decrease over time, whereas among women inequalities were absent in the first period and emerged in the second.CONCLUSIONS: The World Health Organization (WHO) plan for 'Fair opportunity of mental wellbeing' is not likely to be met.Declaration of interestNone.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Vincent Lorant

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Higher Education 2018, : 1-16.

This article deals with individuals of immigrant background in Swedish higher education—i.e., those who have a PhD and work in Swedish universities. The aim of the study is to examine whether and how factors other than academic qualifications—such as gender and migrant background—may affect the individual’s ability to find employment and pursue a successful career in a Swedish institution of higher education. The data used in the first section are Swedish registry data (LISA database and population), administered by Statistics Sweden. The second part of the paper is based on semi-structured interviews with 19 academics of migrant background. The results show that, given the same work experience and compared to the reference group (born in Sweden with at least one Swedish-born parent), individuals born in Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, and South America are, firstly, more likely to be unemployed and, secondly, if they are employed, to have a lower income (lower position). The ways in which such gaps arises are also examined. © 2018 The Author(s)

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

H. H. Leivestad

Alireza Behtoui

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Sexualities 2018, 21 (7): 1146-1169.

Based on quantitative survey data collected during Pride parades in six European countries – the Czech Republic, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland – we analyse who participates in Pride parades. Engaging with the so-called protest normalization thesis we ask: are Pride parade participants, aside from sexual orientation, representative of the wider populace? In none of the countries could we find indications that Pride participants mirror the general populations. The parades remain dominated by well-educated, middle strata youth, rich in political resources. However, we find variation between countries, which we link to differences in elite and public support for LGBT rights. © 2017, The Author(s) 2017.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

A. Peterson

Magnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Mobilization 2018, 23 (1): 83-100.

Foundation stones in the resource mobilization theory of social movements are the notions of "conscience adherents" and "conscience constituents," first introduced by McCarthy and Zald in 1977. In this article, we revisit the concept of conscience adherent, by applying it to individuals and groups that are direct supporters of an LGBT movement, but who do not stand to directly benefit from the success should the movement accomplish its goals. Using quantitative data collected during Pride parades in Stockholm, Haarlem, London, and Warsaw, we analyze the group of participants who reported that they were lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender and compare them to heterosexual and gender-conforming participants, identifying factors that explain why people in the latter category participate in Pride parades. We argue that experiences of discrimination, knowing people from the beneficiary group, and/or subscribing to general principles of justice, contribute to conscience adherent participation. Furthermore, based on interviews with Pride parade organizers, we argue that mobilizations based on a more inclusive political strategy will attract more non-LGBT participants.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Mattias Wahlström

Magnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

The European Journal of Women's Studies 2018, 25 (4): 470-483.

Intimacy, shared experiences and evening out the power relations between researcher and the participants play an important role in feminist methodology. However, as highlighted in previous research on studying ‘up’, such methods might not be appropriate when studying privileged groups. Therefore, studying privileged women challenges fundamental assumptions in feminist methodology. When researching privileged women, the assumption that the researcher is almost always in a superior position within the research process becomes more complicated. The article seeks to contribute to the feminist methodological literature on how to study privileged groups by exploring how class, gender and whiteness are produced in three fieldwork situations with women who hold privileges in a postcolonial and capitalist landscape. Drawing on interviews and participant observations with white Swedish migrant women, the article argues that researchers need to turn the problems, fears and feelings of being uncomfortable into important data, in order to study privileged groups of women.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Lena Sohl

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

New energy sources emerge and others are phased out. At the same time global energy demand remains. The siting of the physical structures that generate and distribute energy has an impact in the physical environment as well as in the social landscape before, during and after completion of such projects. It is relevant to investigate how the siting of new energy infrastructures is received. The overall aim of this PhD thesis in sociology is to contribute to an increased understanding of local handling of global energy dilemmas.In the thesis, controversial energy infrastructural siting is analysed. More specifically, how two such cases are understood and interpreted by different actors. The analysis is carried out through a theoretical framework based on frame analysis and social practice-theory. The study offers a sociologically based understanding of place and shows the importance of this understanding for attitudes towards the siting of energy infrastructures.The study includes two empirical cases from north-eastern Gotland, Sweden: The logistical work around the construction of a large-scale natural gas pipeline, and a planned, but never realized, siting of a wind power facility. The study was carried out through interviews, observations and text analysis.How do different actors combine and weigh different aspects against each other in their constructed frame? The results show that aspects beyond the local area are included in the frames and that they include relationships between different actors as well as change over time. The understanding is presented through an analysis of four aspects: place-related, transcending place, position and process. Together they capture the multi-dimensionality and complexity that characterize the siting of controversial facilities. The most successful framing strategy was “decoupling”, highlighting several different aspects, but keeping them separate.One of the strengths of the study is the inclusion of both strategic framings and framings made by those who are not an active part of the formal process. This offers a complex picture going beyond the policy level and shows that there is no single understanding within the “local community”. The thesis thus contributes to an extended understanding of how controversial facility siting is framed.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Adrienne Sörbom

Karin Edberg

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2018

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Fronesis 2018, 58-59 : 46-50.

I detta avsnitt vill vi kasta ljus över de intellektuella och politiska sammanhang som format solidaritetsbegreppet och lyfta fram några samhällsteoretiska diskussioner om solidaritetens förändrade förutsättningar. Avsnittets tre texter belyser hur solidaritetsbegreppet växt fram och diskuterar dess relevans för förståelsen av vår egen tids dominerande utvecklingstendenser och motsättningar.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Johan Lindgren

Magnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Fronesis 2018, 58-59 : 8-15.

Både vetenskapliga teorier om hur samhället hålls samman och politiska förslag syftande till att öka sammanhållningen kretsar ofta kring begreppet solidaritet. Vad innebär samhällssolidaritet i en tid präglad avojämlikhet, ekonomisk globalisering och framväxande nationalism? Vilka former tar sig solidariteten inom välfärdsstaten – och vilka är vi egentligen solidariska med?

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Johan Lindgren

Magnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: Social Mobility for the 21st Century. London : Routledge, 2018. 93-104.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Lena Sohl

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Socio-Economic Review 2018, 16 (3): 685-.

In this article, we analyse the striking resilience of for-profit care and service provisionin what has often been seen as the archetypical social democratic welfare state:Sweden. We focus on the strategic discursive activities of private companies andtheir business organizations as they try to influence perceptions, organize actorsand facilitate communication to defend profit-making in the welfare sector in theface of increasing conflict and opposition. We argue that taking such organized actioninto account changes dominant perceptions about the characteristics of theSwedish political economy, and carries important lessons for analyses of changesin the organization of the welfare state in general.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Anna Tyllström

Stefan Svallfors

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Journal of Affective Disorders 2018, 226 : 332-338.

Background: Several studies have linked childhood hunger to an increased risk for later depression. However, as yet, there has been little research on this relation in adults of all ages or whether there are sex differences in this association. The current study examined these issues using data from a national population-based sample.Methods: Data were analyzed from 5095 adults aged 25–84 collected during the Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006. Information was obtained on the frequency of going to bed hungry in childhood and on depressive symptoms using the Emotional State Questionnaire (EST-Q). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between hunger and depression while controlling for other demographic, socioeconomic and health-related variables.Results: In a fully adjusted model, going to bed hungry in childhood either sometimes or often was associated with significantly increased odds for adult depressive symptoms. When the analysis was stratified by sex the association was more evident in men where any frequency of childhood hunger was linked to adult depression while only women who had experienced hunger often had higher odds for depressive symptoms in the final model.Limitations: Data on childhood hunger were retrospectively reported and may have been affected by recall bias. We also lacked information on potentially relevant variables such as other childhood adversities that might have been important for the observed associations.Conclusion: Childhood hunger is associated with an increased risk for depressive symptoms among adults. Preventing hunger in childhood may be important for mental health across the life course.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Andrew Stickley

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2018

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Identities 2018, : -.

Migration literature has traditionally distinguished between different motivations of migration, such as labour, family and newly also lifestyle migration, never fully exploring the background of these motivations. This article suggests that these different motivations may be explained by different modes of reflexivity as distinguished by Margaret Archer. Linking modes of reflexivity with migration motivations addresses two problems in current migration literature. First, it provides for practical application of reflexivity in explaining migration motivations, which has been missing so far. Second, the article advocates using psycho-social approach as opposed to more commonly adapted ethnical or class based explanations in understanding migration behavior, hence avoiding the potential trap of falling into the trap of methodological nationalism or classism. Through the interview with highly-skilled Estonian migrants it is shown that the reasons of migration among highly skilled are versatile and cannot be explained solely by their class background.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Maarja Saar

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2018

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Social Identities 2018, 24 (1): 120-133.

Whereas migration research has been heavily influenced by the individualization paradigm, studies on return migration have been more inspired by theories on attachment and belonging. It is common for this kind of research to assert that the main motivations for returning are social contacts and a homing desire. Although this article does not question the importance of such motivations for some, it does argue that return migration needs to be more problematized, not least by studying people who have decided not to return. Based on interviews with highly skilled Estonians, this article suggests that return decisions are influenced by three types of comparisons: social, temporal, and intra-subjective. The first two comparisons have been discussed to some degree in migration literature; however, a focus on intra-subjective comparisons – in which people compare different parts of their identity in order to decide on a potential return – has been scarce. This article suggests that, in line with the individualization of social relationships, but also with the introduction of a new EU mobility space, it is the latter type of comparison that is becoming increasingly widespread.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Maarja Saar

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2018

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Autism 2018, 22 (3): 291-298.

The objective of this study was to investigate relationships between caregiver-reported sensory processing abnormalities, and the physiological index of auditory over-responsiveness evaluated using acoustic startle response measures, in children with autism spectrum disorders and typical development. Mean acoustic startle response magnitudes in response to 65-105 dB stimuli, in increments of 10 dB, were analyzed in children with autism spectrum disorders and with typical development. Average peak startle latency was also examined. We examined the relationship of these acoustic startle response measures to parent-reported behavioral sensory processing patterns in everyday situations, assessed using the Sensory Profile for all participants. Low-threshold scores on the Sensory Profile auditory section were related to acoustic startle response magnitudes at 75 and 85 dB, but not to the lower intensities of 65 dB. The peak startle latency and acoustic startle response magnitudes at low-stimuli intensities of 65 and 75 dB were significantly related to the low-threshold quadrants (sensory sensitivity and sensation avoiding) scores and to the high-threshold quadrant of sensation seeking. Our results suggest that physiological assessment provides further information regarding auditory over-responsiveness to less-intense stimuli and its relationship to caregiver-observed sensory processing abnormalities in everyday situations.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Hidetoshi Takahashi

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2018

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Understanding Central Europe. London : Routledge, 2017. 311-317.

During the 1980s, the “civil society” concept made a comeback into the main discourse of the social sciences – after in principle being out of use since the mid-19th century – mainly as a consequence of the emergence of pro-democratic movements in Eastern European and Latin American authoritarian states (Kocka 2004: 67). Civil society in Central Europe is not only seen as one of the main forces behind the overthrow of the communist regimes in the region; it was also one of the core concepts of the transformation of 1989. The changes within the structure and form of the civil society in post-communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe reflect, to a large extent, the processes of the post-1989 transformation and the transfiguration of the political. This paper examines the tensions and conflicts within the broadly understood civil society sphere through the perspective of social mobilization and the function of the civil society. It also shows the dynamics of the changes within the sector and compares it with other forms of civic engagement such as grassroots social mobilizations. Finally, this papers deals with few myths about the civil society in post-communist Central Europe that shape the academic and the popular thinking about civil society sector in the region.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Grzegorz Piotrowski

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

ARKIV. Tidskrift för samhällsanalys 2017, 7 : 7-26.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Zhanna Kravchenko

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: ЗДОРОВЬЕ НАСЕЛЕНИЯ: ПРОБЛЕМЫ И ПУТИ РЕШЕНИЯ [Health of the population: Problems and solutions]. Minsk : Institute of Sociology of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 2017. 193-206.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Violetta Shukhatovich

Sara Ferlander

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Radical Left Movements in Europe. Abingdon, Oxon : Routledge, 2017. 248-267.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Jan Jämte


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Radical Left Movements in Europe. Abingdon, Oxon : Routledge, 2017. 1-21.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Magnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Sociologisk forskning 2017, 54 (4): 393-395.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Stefan Svallfors

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: På väg. Lund : Arkiv förlag & tidskrift, 2017. 217-228.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Stefan Svallfors

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Sociologisk forskning 2017, 54 (4): 347-351.

since the late 1960s, participation in political protests has become more common in sweden. Today, a large majority of swedes have at one point joined a demonstration or would be willing to join a demonstration, and around six percent of the population participates in a demonstra- tion at least once a year. This article uses survey data to discuss the changing protest patterns in relation to the country’s traditional corporatist political culture, with a focus on which groups participate in contemporary political protests. 

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Magnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: Ras och vithet. Lund : Studentlitteratur AB, 2017. 183-198.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Lena Sohl

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: På väg. Lund : Arkiv förlag & tidskrift, 2017. 261-268.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Apostolis Papakostas

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Våldsbejakande extremism. Stockholm : Wolters Kluwer, 2017. 291-322.

Den samtida forskningen om sociala rörelser erbjuder en rad insikter om politiskt motiverat våld: varför det uppkommer, vad som gör att våldsanvändning kan eskalera, men även vad som bidrar till att grupper inom en rörelse undviker eller slutar att använda våld. När man inom forskningen om sociala rörelser talar om radikalisering avser man vanligen de processer som leder till att grupper av aktivister inom en rörelse börjar använda våld eller trappar upp sitt användande av våld.Inom andra forskningsfält brukar radikalisering ofta relateras till sociala bakgrundsfaktorer, individuella omständigheter eller personlighetsdrag, vilka antas bidra till att enskilda individer börjar använda politiskt motiverat våld eller ansluter sig till grupper där våld används. En sådan förståelse av radikalisering har inte sällan legat till grund för myndighetsåtgärder för att förebygga eller bekämpa politiskt motiverad våldsbrottslighet.Utgångspunkten inom forskningen om sociala rörelser är i stället att de flesta individer som utför politiskt motiverade våldshandlingar redan är en del av en social rörelse. Det blir därmed relevant att undersöka de sociala processer inom en rörelse som kan leda till att vissa grupper inom en rörelse använder våld, samt hur dessa processer påverkas av interaktion med aktörer utanför rörelsen. Detta innebär också att forskningen inom detta fält mer sällan intresserar sig för de enskilda utövare av politiskt våld som agerar på egen hand och inte är knutna till en rörelse.Samtidigt har forskningen om sociala rörelser länge undersökt vilka individer som ansluter sig till rörelser och varför de gör det. I vissa studier har det även undersökts vilka individuella omständigheter som påverkar att rörelseaktivister börjar använda olagliga eller våldsamma metoder. Därmed kan den empiriska forskningen inom detta fält kasta nytt ljus över den förståelse av radikalisering som dominerat annan forskning och myndighetsåtgärder.I detta kapitel ges inledningsvis en övergripande bild av forskningsfältets framväxt och huvudsakliga kunskapsintressen. Därefter introduceras hur man inom detta fält har betraktat och undersökt fenomenet politiskt våld. Detta följs av en översikt över de faktorer som forskningen kunnat visa är betydelsefulla för att individer ansluter sig till sociala rörelser, samt för att vissa rörelseaktivister börjar använda våldsamma metoder. Därefter diskuteras forskningen om radikaliseringsprocesser, vilket här förstås som när grupper inom en social rörelse börjar använda politiskt motiverat våld. I fokus står de mekanismer på gruppnivå som vanligen är centrala för att grupper inom en social rörelse radikaliseras, något som även möjliggör insikter om hur dessa processer kan avbrytas. 

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Magnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Abingdon, Oxon : Routledge, 2017.

When the Iron Curtain lifted in 1989, it was seen by some as proof of the final demise of the ideas and aspirations of the radical left. Not many years passed, however, before the critique of capitalism and social inequalities were once again the main protest themes of social movements. This book provides an account of radical left movements in today’s Europe and how they are trying to accomplish social and political change.The book’s international group of leading experts provide detailed analysis on social movement organizations, activist groups, and networks that are rooted in the left-wing ideologies of anarchism, Marxism, socialism, and communism in both newly democratized post-communist and longstanding liberal-democratic polities. Through a range of case studies, the authors explore how radical left movements are influenced by their situated political and social contexts, and how contemporary radical left activism differs from both new and old social movements on one hand, and the activities of radical left parliamentary parties on the other. Ultimately, this volume investigates what it means to be ‘radical left’ in current day liberal-democratic and capi- talist societies after the fall of European state socialism.This is valuable reading for students and researchers interested in European politics, contemporary social movements and political sociology.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Christian Fröhlich

Grzegorz PiotrowskiMagnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2017

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Stockholm : , 2017. ( ; )

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ulrika Gunnarsson-Östling

Erika ÖhlundPaul Fuehrer

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental StudiesSchool of Social Sciences
Environmental ScienceSociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Environmental Studies

This thesis focuses on issues around reflexivity and highly skilled migration. Reflexivity has been an underused concept in migration studies and incurporating it has been long overdue. By reflexivity this thesis understands the capacity of an actor to evaluate his or her position in relation to social structures, to take action in managing those structures and, finally, to critically revise both the position and action taken.There are multiple reasons as to why incorporating reflexivity is a useful endeavor to migration studies. On one hand, using reflexive types in order to understand different migration motivations offers an alternative to otherwise mainly class based explanations behind migration objectives. Migration research has long relied on the idea that migration motivations can be coupled with societal and class background. Similarly, return migration has been described almost unanimously as a result of a homing desire. Both positions, as claimed in this thesis, are oversimplifications. On the other hand, I argue that, reflexivity helps to analyze the importance of class or even society on migration in 21th century. This is why I suggest to analyze all three in concurrence – migration, reflexivity and class.In the following pages I analyze how reflexivity can be operationalized for studying migration. So far, reflexivity has been either used as background concept – mobility studies or for explaining particular kind of migration – lifestyle migration. I argue, that with careful operationalization reflexivity could be useful tool for explaining wide-variety of migrations – family, labour, lifestyle etc. Three articles in this thesis focus on providing such operationalizations, analyzing the relationship between migration motivations and reflexivity. Finally, the first article in this thesis analyzes the background of my particular group of migrants – Estonian highly skilled migrants and positions them in relation to other groups in Estonian society. Moreover, the article also underlines that self-development and lifestyle, if you will, is an important motivation for Eastern European migrants as well.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Adrienne Sörbom

Maarja Saar

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2017

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Psychological Trauma 2017, 9 (Suppl 1): 93-97.

OBJECTIVE: To assess, at a clinical level, the mental health of former Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia by comparing them with same-age controls.METHOD: The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was administered during 2011-2012 to 99 cleanup workers and 100 population-based controls previously screened for mental health symptoms.RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis showed that cleanup workers had higher odds of current depressive disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 3.07, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.34, 7.01]), alcohol dependence (OR = 3.47, 95% CI [1.29, 9.34]), and suicide ideation (OR = 3.44, 95% CI [1.28, 9.21]) than did controls. Except for suicide ideation, associations with Chernobyl exposure became statistically nonsignificant when adjusted for education and ethnicity.CONCLUSION: A quarter of a century after the Chernobyl accident, Estonian cleanup workers were still at increased risk of mental disorders, which was partly attributable to sociodemographic factors. (PsycINFO Database Record

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Kaia Laidra

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2017

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

PLoS ONE 2017, 12 (8): -.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to empirically evaluate whether widening educational inequalities in mortality are related to the substantive shifts that have occurred in the educational distribution.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on education and mortality from 18 European populations across several decades were collected and harmonized as part of the Demetriq project. Using a fixed-effects approach to account for time trends and national variation in mortality, we formally test whether the magnitude of relative inequalities in mortality by education is associated with the gender and age-group specific proportion of high and low educated respectively.RESULTS: The results suggest that in populations with larger proportions of high educated and smaller proportions of low educated, the excess mortality among intermediate and low educated is larger, all other things being equal.CONCLUSION: We conclude that the widening educational inequalities in mortality being observed in recent decades may in part be attributed to educational expansion.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Olof Östergren

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

European psychiatry 2017, 45 : 227-234.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ai Koyanagi

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Journal of autism and developmental disorders 2017, 47 (11): 3333-3346.

Although children with a greater number of autistic traits are likely to have other mental health problems, research on the association between earlier autistic traits in preschool children and later emotional/behavioral outcomes is scarce. Using data from 189 Japanese community-based children, this study examined whether autistic traits at age 5 were related to emotional/behavioral outcomes at age 7. The results showed that prior autistic traits were subsequently associated with all emotional/behavioral domains. After controlling for baseline emotional/behavioral scores autistic traits continued to predict later emotional symptoms and peer problems. This study highlights that in addition to clinical ASD, it is also important to focus on subthreshold autistic traits in preschool children for better subsequent emotional/behavioral outcomes.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

A. Saito

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

The Lancet 2017, 390 (10091): 231-266.

Background National levels of personal health-care access and quality can be approximated by measuring mortality rates from causes that should not be fatal in the presence of effective medical care (ie, amenable mortality). Previous analyses of mortality amenable to health care only focused on high-income countries and faced several methodological challenges. In the present analysis, we use the highly standardised cause of death and risk factor estimates generated through the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) to improve and expand the quantification of personal health-care access and quality for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015. Methods We mapped the most widely used list of causes amenable to personal health care developed by Nolte and McKee to 32 GBD causes. We accounted for variations in cause of death certification and misclassifications through the extensive data standardisation processes and redistribution algorithms developed for GBD. To isolate the effects of personal health-care access and quality, we risk-standardised cause-specific mortality rates for each geography-year by removing the joint effects of local environmental and behavioural risks, and adding back the global levels of risk exposure as estimated for GBD 2015. We employed principal component analysis to create a single, interpretable summary measure-the Healthcare Quality and Access (HAQ) Index-on a scale of 0 to 100. The HAQ Index showed strong convergence validity as compared with other health-system indicators, including health expenditure per capita (r= 0.88), an index of 11 universal health coverage interventions (r= 0.83), and human resources for health per 1000 (r= 0.77). We used free disposal hull analysis with bootstrapping to produce a frontier based on the relationship between the HAQ Index and the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a measure of overall development consisting of income per capita, average years of education, and total fertility rates. This frontier allowed us to better quantify the maximum levels of personal health-care access and quality achieved across the development spectrum, and pinpoint geographies where gaps between observed and potential levels have narrowed or widened over time. Findings Between 1990 and 2015, nearly all countries and territories saw their HAQ Index values improve; nonetheless, the difference between the highest and lowest observed HAQ Index was larger in 2015 than in 1990, ranging from 28.6 to 94.6. Of 195 geographies, 167 had statistically significant increases in HAQ Index levels since 1990, with South Korea, Turkey, Peru, China, and the Maldives recording among the largest gains by 2015. Performance on the HAQ Index and individual causes showed distinct patterns by region and level of development, yet substantial heterogeneities emerged for several causes, including cancers in highest-SDI countries; chronic kidney disease, diabetes, diarrhoeal diseases, and lower respiratory infections among middle-SDI countries; and measles and tetanus among lowest-SDI countries. While the global HAQ Index average rose from 40.7 (95% uncertainty interval, 39.0-42.8) in 1990 to 53.7 (52.2-55.4) in 2015, far less progress occurred in narrowing the gap between observed HAQ Index values and maximum levels achieved; at the global level, the difference between the observed and frontier HAQ Index only decreased from 21.2 in 1990 to 20.1 in 2015. If every country and territory had achieved the highest observed HAQ Index by their corresponding level of SDI, the global average would have been 73.8 in 2015. Several countries, particularly in eastern and western sub-Saharan Africa, reached HAQ Index values similar to or beyond their development levels, whereas others, namely in southern sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and south Asia, lagged behind what geographies of similar development attained between 1990 and 2015. Interpretation This novel extension of the GBD Study shows the untapped potential for personal health-care access and quality improvement across the development spectrum. Amid substantive advances in personal health care at the national level, heterogeneous patterns for individual causes in given countries or territories suggest that few places have consistently achieved optimal health-care access and quality across health-system functions and therapeutic areas. This is especially evident in middle-SDI countries, many of which have recently undergone or are currently experiencing epidemiological transitions. The HAQ Index, if paired with other measures of health-systemcharacteristics such as intervention coverage, could provide a robust avenue for tracking progress on universal health coverage and identifying local priorities for strengthening personal health-care quality and access throughout the world.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ryan M. Barber

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Health and Place 2017, 47 : 44-53.

The magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality differs importantly between countries, but these variations have not been satisfactorily explained. We explored the role of behavioral and structural determinants of these variations, by using a dataset covering 17 European countries in the period 1970–2010, and by conducting multilevel multivariate regression analyses. Our results suggest that between-country variations in inequalities in current mortality can partly be understood from variations in inequalities in smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and poverty. Also, countries with higher national income, higher quality of government, higher social transfers, higher health care expenditure and more self-expression values have smaller inequalities in mortality. Finally, trends in behavioral risk factors, particularly smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, appear to partly explain variations in inequalities in mortality trends. This study shows that analyses of variations in health inequalities between countries can help to identify entry-points for policy.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Johan P. Mackenbach

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

New England Journal of Medicine 2017, 377 (1): 13-27.

BACKGROUND Although the rising pandemic of obesity has received major attention in many countries, the effects of this attention on trends and the disease burden of obesity remain uncertain. METHODS We analyzed data from 68.5 million persons to assess the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adults between 1980 and 2015. Using the Global Burden of Disease study data and methods, we also quantified the burden of disease related to high body-mass index (BMI), according to age, sex, cause, and BMI in 195 countries between 1990 and 2015. RESULTS In 2015, a total of 107.7 million children and 603.7 million adults were obese. Since 1980, the prevalence of obesity has doubled in more than 70 countries and has continuously increased in most other countries. Although the prevalence of obesity among children has been lower than that among adults, the rate of increase in childhood obesity in many countries has been greater than the rate of increase in adult obesity. High BMI accounted for 4.0 million deaths globally, nearly 40% of which occurred in persons who were not obese. More than two thirds of deaths related to high BMI were due to cardiovascular disease. The disease burden related to high BMI has increased since 1990; however, the rate of this increase has been attenuated owing to decreases in underlying rates of death from cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS The rapid increase in the prevalence and disease burden of elevated BMI highlights the need for continued focus on surveillance of BMI and identification, implementation, and evaluation of evidence-based interventions to address this problem. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.)

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ashkan Afshin

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: På väg. Lund : Arkiv förlag & tidskrift, 2017. 229-239.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Lisa KingsZhanna Kravchenko

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Social WorkSociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Substance Use & Misuse 2017, 52 (12): 1616-1623.

BACKGROUND: Inhalant use by children and adolescents has been linked to an increased risk of multiple drug use, mental health problems and antisocial behavior.OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the frequency of inhalant use and psychiatric diagnoses among incarcerated delinquent youths in Russia.METHODS: A total of 370 incarcerated delinquents from a juvenile correction center in Northern Russia were assessed by means of a semi-structured psychiatric interview and by self-reports.RESULTS: Compared to non-users (N = 266), inhalant users (N = 104) reported higher rates of PTSD, early onset conduct disorder, ADHD, alcohol abuse and dependence, as well as higher levels of antisocial behavior, impulsiveness and more psychopathic traits. Frequent inhalant users also reported the highest rates of co-occurring psychopathology.CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that inhalant use in delinquents is frequent and may require additional clinical measures to address the issue of psychiatric comorbidity.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Linnea Zachrison

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2017

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Public Health 2017, 147 : 157-158.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

R. Reile

Andrew Stickley

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences 2017, : 1-9.

Aims.: To investigate whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) modify the impact of exposure to a natural disaster (the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami) on the occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among older people. Methods.: Data were collected as part of the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES), which is an on-going epidemiological survey investigating social determinants of health among older people across Japan. Information on PTSD symptoms based on the Screening Questionnaire for Disaster Mental Health, traumatic exposure to the earthquake (i.e., house damage and loss of relatives/friends during the earthquake/tsunami) and ACEs was obtained from 580 participants aged 65 or older living in Iwanuma City, Miyagi Prefecture, which suffered severe damage as a result of the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami in March 2011. Associations were examined using Poisson regression analysis with a robust variance estimator after adjusting for covariates. Results.: The prevalence of PTSD was 9.7% in this population; compared to those with no traumatic experience, the prevalence of PTSD was approximately two times higher among those who experienced the loss of close friends/relatives (PR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.11–3.03, p = 0.018), or whose house was damaged (PR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.07–4.34, p = 0.032). ACE was not significantly associated with PTSD. Stratified analyses by the presence of ACE showed that damage due to the earthquake/tsunami was associated with PTSD only among those without ACEs; more specifically, among non-ACE respondents the PR of PTSD associated with house damage was 6.67 (95% CI = 1.66–26.80), while for the loss of a relative or a close friend it was 3.56 (95% CI = 1.18–10.75). In contrast, no statistically significant associations were observed among those with ACEs. Conclusion.: Following the Great East Japan earthquake/tsunami in 2011 a higher risk of developing PTSD symptoms was observed in 2013 especially among older individuals without ACEs. This suggests that ACEs might affect how individuals respond to subsequent traumatic events later in life.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Y. Inoue

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

The Lancet 2017, 389 (10082): 1885-1906.

Background The scale-up of tobacco control, especially after the adoption of the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, is a major public health success story. Nonetheless, smoking remains a leading risk for early death and disability worldwide, and therefore continues to require sustained political commitment. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) offers a robust platform through which global, regional, and national progress toward achieving smoking-related targets can be assessed. Methods We synthesised 2818 data sources with spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression and produced estimates of daily smoking prevalence by sex, age group, and year for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015. We analysed 38 risk-outcome pairs to generate estimates of smoking-attributable mortality and disease burden, as measured by disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). We then performed a cohort analysis of smoking prevalence by birth-year cohort to better understand temporal age patterns in smoking. We also did a decomposition analysis, in which we parsed out changes in all-cause smoking-attributable DALYs due to changes in population growth, population ageing, smoking prevalence, and risk-deleted DALY rates. Finally, we explored results by level of development using the Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Findings Worldwide, the age-standardised prevalence of daily smoking was 25.0% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 24.2-25.7) for men and 5.4% (5.1-5.7) for women, representing 28.4% (25.8-31.1) and 34.4% (29.4-38.6) reductions, respectively, since 1990. A greater percentage of countries and territories achieved significant annualised rates of decline in smoking prevalence from 1990 to 2005 than in between 2005 and 2015; however, only four countries had significant annualised increases in smoking prevalence between 2005 and 2015 (Congo [Brazzaville] and Azerbaijan for men and Kuwait and Timor-Leste for women). In 2015, 11.5% of global deaths (6.4 million [95% UI 5.7-7.0 million]) were attributable to smoking worldwide, of which 52.2% took place in four countries (China, India, the USA, and Russia). Smoking was ranked among the five leading risk factors by DALYs in 109 countries and territories in 2015, rising from 88 geographies in 1990. In terms of birth cohorts, male smoking prevalence followed similar age patterns across levels of SDI, whereas much more heterogeneity was found in age patterns for female smokers by level of development. While smoking prevalence and risk-deleted DALY rates mostly decreased by sex and SDI quintile, population growth, population ageing, or a combination of both, drove rises in overall smoking-attributable DALYs in low-SDI to middle-SDI geographies between 2005 and 2015. Interpretation The pace of progress in reducing smoking prevalence has been heterogeneous across geographies, development status, and sex, and as highlighted by more recent trends, maintaining past rates of decline should not be taken for granted, especially in women and in low-SDI to middle-SDI countries. Beyond the effect of the tobacco industry and societal mores, a crucial challenge facing tobacco control initiatives is that demographic forces are poised to heighten smoking's global toll, unless progress in preventing initiation and promoting cessation can be substantially accelerated. Greater success in tobacco control is possible but requires effective, comprehensive, and adequately implemented and enforced policies, which might in turn require global and national levels of political commitment beyond what has been achieved during the past 25 years.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Marissa B. Reitsma

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Medicina (Kaunas) 2017, 53 (2): 114-121.

Previous research has highlighted the role of self-rated health (SRH) as an important predictor of mortality. With substantial ethnic differences in SRH and mortality reported in Estonia, this study aims to examine the ethnic variation in SRH–mortality association in this setting. Materials and methods The baseline data come from nationally representative 1996 Estonian Health Interview Survey. Individual records of 3983 respondents in the 25–79 age group were linked with mortality data with 17 years follow-up time. The association between SRH and all-cause mortality was analysed using the Cox regression for two ethnic groups and separately for men and women. Results Among ethnic Estonians, both men and women with bad or very bad SRH had about 60% higher mortality compared to those with good or very good SRH even after adjustment for age, socioeconomic and health-related variables. In contrast, SRH did not predict mortality among non-Estonian men and women. A strong and universal inverse association with mortality was found for personal income. Education (among men) and occupation (among women) predicted mortality only among non-Estonians, whereas ever smoking was associated with mortality in Estonian men and women. Overweight women had lower mortality risk compared to women in normal weight category. Conclusions We found considerable ethnic variation in SRH–mortality association and in socioeconomic predictors of mortality. Further research, preferably focusing on cause-specific mortality and reporting heterogeneity of SRH could potentially shed further light on ethnic differences in SRH–mortality association in Estonia and more generally on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in Eastern Europe.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Mall Leinsalu

Rainer Reile


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2017

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

European Educational Research Journal (online) 2017, 16 (4): 487-503.

The aim of this study is to explore the determinants of the educational expectations of young people in disadvantaged urban areas in three large cities in Sweden. In addition to the conventional predictors such as parental resources (economic and cultural capital) and demographic characteristics (such as age, gender, immigration background), this study examines the impact of the different types of social capital (both within-family and extra-familial), on the educational ambitions of these young people. The results indicate that the class background of the respondents, together with the demographic characteristics of young people, are important predictors of their educational ambition. Different forms of social capital also explain a significant part of the variance in students? educational expectations.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Alireza Behtoui

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Sociologisk forskning 2017, 54 (1-2): 91-110.

The ”stranger” among Swedish ”Homo Academicvs”This paper is about individuals with immigrant background among the Swedish academic elite, i.e. those who have a PhD and work at Swedish universities. The aim of the study is to understand how factors other than academic qualifications, such as gender and a migrant background, may impact on the individual's ability to get a job and pursue a successful career in Swedish higher education. The data used for this study is obtained from the Longitudinal Database of Education, Income and Occupation (LISA) administered by Statistics Sweden. When compared to the reference group (individuals born in Sweden with at least one Swedish-born parent), the results show that given the same work experience individuals born in Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa and South America are more likely to be unemployed. Among those who have a job, those with immigrant background have lower income (lower position) than the reference group.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Alireza Behtoui

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

BMC Urology 2017, 17 (1): -.

BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence (UI) is associated with worse health among older adults. Little is known however, about its relation with loneliness or the role of mental health in this association. This study examined these factors among older adults in Ireland.METHODS: Data were analyzed from 6903 community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 50 collected in the first wave of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) in 2009-11. Information was obtained on the self-reported occurrence (yes/no) and severity (frequency/activity limitations) of UI in the past 12 months. Loneliness was measured using the UCLA Loneliness Scale short form. Information was also obtained on depression (CES-D), anxiety (HADS-A) and other sociodemographic variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between variables.RESULTS: In a model adjusted for all potential confounders except mental disorders, compared to no UI, any UI was associated with significantly higher odds for loneliness (odds ratio: 1.51). When depression was included in the analysis, the association was attenuated and became non-significant while the inclusion of anxiety had a much smaller effect. Similarly, although frequency of UI and activity limitations due to UI were both significantly associated with loneliness prior to adjustment for mental disorders, neither association remained significant after adjustment for both depression and anxiety.CONCLUSION: UI is associated with higher odds for loneliness among older community-dwelling adults but this association is largely explained by comorbid mental health problems, in particular, depression.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ziggi Ivan Santini

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

London : Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.

This book is novel not only in its theoretical framework, which places racialisation in post-communist societies and their modernist political projects at the centre of processes of global racism, but also in being the first account to examine both these new national contexts and the interconnections between racisms in these four regions of the Baltic states, the Southern Caucasus, Central Asia and Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine, and elsewhere. Assessments of the significance of the contemporary geopolitical contexts of armed conflict, economic transformation and political transition for racial discourse are central themes, and the book highlights the creative, innovative and persistent power of contemporary forms of racial governance which has central significance for understanding contemporary societies.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ian Law

Nikolay Zakharov

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Environmental Research 2017, 155 : 134-140.

Prior research has indicated that pollen might be linked to suicide mortality although the few studies that have been undertaken to date have produced conflicting findings and been limited to Western settings. This study examined the association between the level of airborne pollen and suicide mortality in Tokyo, Japan in the period from 2001 to 2011. The daily number of suicide deaths was obtained from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, with pollen data being obtained from the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health. A time-stratified case-crossover study was performed to examine the association between different levels of pollen concentration and suicide mortality. During the study period there were 5185 male and 2332 female suicides in the pollen season (February to April). For men there was no association between airborne pollen and suicide mortality. For women, compared to when there was no airborne pollen, the same-day (lag 0) pollen level of 30 to &lt;100 grains per cm2 was associated with an approximately 50% increase in the odds for suicide (e.g. 30 to &lt;50 grains per cm2: odds ratio 1.574, 95% confidence interval 1.076–2.303, p=0.020). The estimates remained fairly stable after adjusting for air pollutants and after varying the cut-points that defined the pollen levels. Our results indicate that pollen is associated with female suicide mortality in Tokyo.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

C. F. Sheng Ng

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Örebro : , 2017. (Örebro Universitet, Centrum för urbana och regionala studiers skriftserie ; 71)

In 2005, the Nord Stream Consortium launched a pipeline project with the intention to bring Russian natural gas to Germany across the Baltic Sea. Although this raised crucial issues of Russia-EU-Sweden relations on security, energy and the environment the focus of this report is on the Gotland local government response to the Nord Stream approach, thus illustrating the need for a transversal human geography-political studies perspective. Situated in the heart of the Baltic Sea, and in line with the established Swedish governmental "remiss" procedure of commission and referral for consideration the Gotland authority was requested by the Swedish Government to make a statement about the pipeline. How-ever, before the government was even asked for permission the Nord Stream Consortium with Russian Gazprom as the major shareholder turned to the Gotland authority with an offer they after some conflict-ridden twists and turns, manifested in three policy lines as described in the report, decided not to refuse. A narrative inspired analytical ap-proach is applied to dissect the more or less contradictory standpoints and legitimating arguments posed by the actors in the political process preceding the local authority decision to accept the Nord Stream offer, i.e. the local scale actors were provoked to take a stand on a big issue raised by a huge multinational company. By in detail examining the local political repercussions of the energy project the case study contributes to a trans-disciplinary understanding of multi-scalar/multi-level govern-ance. In an epilogue the report also highlights the sudden turnaround of the local narrative in autumn 2016 when Gotland Regional Authority was on the brink of making a deal with Nord Stream II. The turnaround flashlights the geopolitical position of the island in the crossfire of inter-ests concerning the Baltic Sea Region.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Anna-Lisa Fransson

Karin Edberg

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Autism Research 2017, 10 (5): 852-865.

The recent development and use of autism measures for the general population has led to a growing body of evidence which suggests that autistic traits are distributed along a continuum. However, as most existing autism measures were designed for use in children older than age 4, to date, little is known about the autistic continuum in children younger than age 4. As autistic symptoms are evident in the first few years, to address this research gap, the current study tested the preschool version of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-P) in children aged 2 to 4½ years in clinical (N = 74, average age 40 months, 26-51 months) and community settings (N = 357, average age 39 months, 25-50 months) in Japan. Using information obtained from different raters (mothers, other caregivers, and teachers) it was found that the scale demonstrated a good degree of internal consistency, inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability, and a satisfactory degree of convergent validity for the clinical sample when compared with scores from diagnostic "gold standard" autism measures. Receiver operating characteristic analyses and the group comparisons also showed that the SRS-P total score discriminated well between children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and those without ASD. Importantly, this scale could identify autistic symptoms or traits distributed continually across the child population at this age irrespective of the presence of an ASD diagnosis. These findings suggest that the SRS-P might be a sensitive instrument for case identification including subthreshold ASD, as well as a potentially useful research tool for exploring ASD endophenotypes. Autism Res 2016.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Yoshiyuki Tachibana

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

International Journal of Cancer 2017, 141 (1): 33-44.

This study aims to investigate the association between educational level and breast cancer mortality in Europe in the 2000s. Unlike most other causes of death, breast cancer mortality tends to be positively related to education, with higher educated women showing higher mortality rates. Research has however shown that the association is changing from being positive over non-existent to negative in some countries. To investigate these patterns, data from national mortality registers and censuses were collected and harmonized for 18 European populations. The study population included all women aged 30-74. Age-standardized mortality rates, mortality rate ratios, and slope and relative indexes of inequality were computed by education. The population was stratified according to age (women aged 30-49 and women aged 50-74). The relation between educational level and breast cancer mortality was predominantly negative in women aged 30-49, mortality rates being lower among highly educated women and higher among low educated women, although few outcomes were statistically significant. Among women aged 50-74, the association was mostly positive and statistically significant in some populations. A comparison with earlier research in the 1990s revealed a changing pattern of breast cancer mortality. Positive educational differences that used to be significant in the 1990s were no longer significant in the 2000s, indicating that inequalities have decreased or disappeared. This evolution is in line with the "fundamental causes" theory which stipulates that whenever medical insights and treatment become available to combat a disease, a negative association with socio-economic position will arise, independently of the underlying risk factors.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

S Gadeyne

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

BMC Public Health 2017, 17 (1): -.

BACKGROUND: Russian suicide mortality rates changed rapidly over the second half of the twentieth century. This study attempts to differentiate between underlying period and cohort effects in relation to the changes in suicide mortality in Russia between 1956 and 2005.METHODS: Sex- and age-specific suicide mortality data were analyzed using an age-period-cohort (APC) approach. Descriptive analyses and APC modeling with log-linear Poisson regression were performed.RESULTS: Strong period effects were observed for the years during and after Gorbachev's political reforms (including the anti-alcohol campaign) and for those following the break-up of the Soviet Union. After mutual adjustment, the cohort- and period-specific relative risk estimates for suicide revealed differing underlying processes. While the estimated period effects had an overall positive trend, cohort-specific developments indicated a positive trend for the male cohorts born between 1891 and 1931 and for the female cohorts born between 1891 and 1911, but a negative trend for subsequent cohorts.CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the specific life experiences of cohorts may be important for variations in suicide mortality across time, in addition to more immediate effects of changes in the social environment.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Aleksei Baburin

Andrew Stickley

Ilkka Henrik Mäkinen

Pär Sparén

Tanya Jukkala

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2017

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Stockholm : European Civil Society Press, 2017.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Filip Wijkström

Abbas Emami

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Civilsamhället i det transnationella rummet. Stockholm : European Civil Society Press, 2017. 219-247.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Adrienne Sörbom

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Civilsamhället i det transnationella rummet. Stockholm : European Civil Society Press, 2017. 1-32.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Marta Reuter

Abbas Emami

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Civilsamhället i det transnationella rummet. Stockholm : European Civil Society Press, 2017. 101-147.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Abbas Emami

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Civilsamhället i det transnationella rummet. Stockholm : European Civil Society Press, 2017. 63-100.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Eva Karlberg

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: Civilsamhället i det transnationella rummet. Stockholm : European Civil Society Press, 2017. 151-183.

EU är en allt viktigare del av det transnationella rum som både påverkar civilsamhällets villkor och erbjuder dess organisationer nya möjligheter till inflytande, samverkan och finansiering. Allt fler frågor hanteras på europeiska arenor med konsekvenser även för organisationslivet. Kapitlet bygger på analysen av en enkätundersökning som besvarats av organisationer i det svenska civilsamhället. Fokus ligger på den europeiska nivåns betydelse, på relationen mellan dessa organisationer och EU, och en intressant bild framträder. Ett fåtal organisationer nyttjar de ”vägar till EU” som internationell forskning har identifierat, medan de flesta uppvisar ett märkbart ointresse för EU som plattform för samarbeten och politisk påverkan.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Roberto Scaramuzzino

Magnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: Civilsamhället i det transnationella rummet. Stockholm : European Civil Society Press, 2017. 35-61.

Prideparader hålls i dag på mer än 900 platser världen över varje år. Pride är – precis som arbetarrörelsens förstamajtåg – ett exempel på transnationell spridning av en manifestation för att påverka politik och samhälle. Initialt till minne av ett upplopp i New York i slutet av 1960-talet har denna parad blivit en årligen återkommande händelse på den globala HBTQ-kartan. Manifestationen används i dag inte bara för att påverka politik utan också för att stärka den egna gruppens sammanhållning. I kapitlet beskrivs paradens resa till Sverige. Trots en allt starkare och mer standardiserad transnationell praktik har den svenska scenen även fortsatt haft tydliga lokala inslag.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Magnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

This study is about seven women’s organizations in Belgrade, Serbia and their relations to domestic and international donors during the period 2003-2006. My main research questions focus on their choices of either domestic or international cooperation partners. How and why did the women organize themselves? What factors were essential when selecting donors? In what ways were the organizations influenced by donors?Through interviews, with organization representatives’ concepts such as gift and reciprocity, power and dependency, trust and mistrust and collective identity emerged.  These concepts were used as points of departure for developing deeper understanding of women organizations’ choice of cooperation partners.The women organizations’ basically had two alternatives for cooperation: cooperation with foreign donors which offered funds, organizational development and social networks. Alternately, cooperation with local donors, which offered the equivalent except for the organizational development. Cooperation with the foreign donor has resulted in more professional attitudes to the work that have been desired by other international donors. A result is that they can compete with other women’s organizations’ for international funding. Cooperation with local donors has led to fewer resources but more independent working practices. For these women organizations’ independence was important so they choose partners who, they felt more respected this allowing them to write articles or discuss gender in the media with little external influence. Regardless of the chosen donor the reciprocity is embedded in the relation between the donor and the receiver of aid, which in various ways is beneficial for both parties. 

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ali Hajighasemi

Sanja Obrenovic

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2017

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Research in Developmental Disabilities 2017, 62 : 115-123.

BACKGROUND: Research on the association between adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and loneliness is scarce even though factors which have been previously linked to loneliness, such as divorce and poorer mental health may be more prevalent among adults with ADHD. This study investigated the relation between ADHD symptoms/symptom severity and loneliness in the general adult population.METHODS: Data from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (N=7403, aged ≥16years) were analyzed. ADHD symptoms and common mental disorders (CMDs) were assessed with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener and the Clinical Interview Schedule Revised, respectively. Loneliness was measured with a question from the Social Functioning Questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations.RESULTS: In the fully adjusted model, an ASRS score ≥14 was strongly associated with loneliness (OR=2.48 95%CI=1.83-3.36). ADHD symptom severity was related to loneliness in a dose-response fashion. Over one-third of the association between ADHD symptoms and loneliness was explained by CMDs.CONCLUSIONS: Adults with more ADHD symptoms are at an increased risk of feeling lonely. Future research should determine how ADHD symptoms are linked to loneliness and if loneliness is affecting well-being.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ai Koyanagi

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Public Health 2017, 145 : 59-66.

Objectives: To analyze the variation in factors associated with mortality risk at different levels of self-rated health (SRH).Study design: Retrospective cohort study.Methods: Cox regression analysis was used to examine the association between mortality and demographic, socioeconomic and health-related predictors for respondents with good, average, and poor SRH in a longitudinal data set from Estonia with up to 18 years of follow-up time.Results: In respondents with good SRH, male sex, older age, lower income, manual occupation, ever smoking, and heavy alcohol consumption predicted higher mortality. These covariates, together with marital status, illness-related limitations, and underweight predicted mortality in respondents with average SRH. For poor SRH, only being never married and having illness-related limitations predicted mortality risk in addition to older age and male sex.Conclusions: The predictors of all-cause mortality are not universal but depend on the level of SRH. The higher mortality of respondents with poor SRH could to a large extent be attributed to health problems, whereas in the case of average or good SRH, factors other than the presence of illness explained outcome mortality.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Andrew Stickley

Mall Leinsalu

Rainer Reile


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2017

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Child Psychiatry and Human Development 2017, 48 (5): 691-698.

This study evaluated the role of psychiatric morbidity in relation to a history of suicidal behavior, with a particular focus on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Suicidality and psychiatric diagnoses were assessed in 370 incarcerated male juvenile delinquents from Northern Russia using the semi-structured K-SADS-PL psychiatric interview. A lifetime history of suicidal ideation only (24.7 %) and suicidal ideation with suicide attempts (15.7 %) was common. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to assess the role of ADHD and other psychiatric disorders in suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. A history of suicidal ideation and of suicide attempts were associated with higher rates of psychiatric morbidity and with the number of comorbid psychiatric disorders. An ADHD diagnosis was associated with an increased risk for both suicidal ideation and for suicide attempts. The comorbidity of ADHD with drug dependence further increased the risk for suicidal ideation, while ADHD and alcohol dependence comorbidity increased the risk for suicide attempts. Our findings highlight the importance of adequately detecting and treating psychiatric disorders in vulnerable youths, especially when they are comorbid with ADHD.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

V. Ruchkin

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Autism Research 2017, 10 (4): 673-679.

Auditory hyper-reactivity is a common sensory-perceptual abnormality that interrupts behavioral adaptations in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Recently, prolonged acoustic startle response (ASR) latency and hyper-reactivity to weak acoustic stimuli were reported in children with ASD. Indexes of ASR and its modulation are known to be stable biological markers for translational research in the adult population. However, little is known about the stability of these indexes in children. Thus, the objective of our study was to investigate the stability of neurophysiological ASR indexes in children with ASD and typical development (TD). Participants included 12 children with ASD and 24 with TD. Mean startle magnitudes to acoustic stimuli presented at 65-105 dB in increments of 10 dB were analyzed. Average peak startle latency (PSL), ASR modulation of habituation, and prepulse inhibition were also analyzed. These startle measures were examined after a follow-up period of 15.7±5.1 months from baseline. At both baseline and in the follow-up period, children with ASD had significantly greater startle magnitudes to weak stimuli of 65-85 dB and more prolonged PSL compared with controls. Intraclass correlation coefficients for these ASR measures between both periods were 0.499-0.705. None of the ASR measures differed significantly between the two periods. Our results suggest that prolonged PSL and greater startle magnitudes to weak stimuli in children with ASD might serve as moderately stable neurophysiological indexes of ASD.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

H. Takahashi

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Journal of Professions and Organization 2017, 4 (1): 55-69.

This article focuses on “partisan policy professionals” (PPPs), i.e. people who are employed to affectpolitics and policy, and analyzes their particular motivations and skills. This article focuses on the occupationalpractices of PPPs: what are their main motivations and driving forces, and what are thekey skills they deploy in their work? The main motivation for PPPs is a desire to wield power and influencethe course of affairs, while their working-life satisfaction comes from getting their messageinto the media without becoming personally exposed. The key resource of PPPs is contextdependentpolitically useful knowledge, in three main forms: “Problem formulation” involves highlightingand framing social problems and their possible solutions. “Process expertise” consists of understandingthe “where, how, and why” of the political and policy-making processes. “Informationaccess” is the skill to be very fast in finding reliable and relevant information. These motivations andskills underpin a particular professionalism based in an “entrepreneurial ethos”, which differs fromboth the ethos of elected politicians, and that of civil servants, and which has some potentially problematicimplications for democratic governance.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Stefan Svallfors

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

European Journal of Public Health 2017, 27 (2): 203-210.

BACKGROUND: Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide with a higher risk of dying among people with a lower socioeconomic status. We investigated the potential for reducing educational differences in IHD mortality in 21 European populations based on two counterfactual scenarios-the upward levelling scenario and the more realistic best practice country scenario.METHODS: We used a method based on the population attributable fraction to estimate the impact of a modified educational distribution of smoking, overweight/obesity, and physical inactivity on educational inequalities in IHD mortality among people aged 30-79. Risk factor prevalence was collected around the year 2000 and mortality data covered the early 2000s.RESULTS: The potential reduction of educational inequalities in IHD mortality differed by country, sex, risk factor and scenario. Smoking was the most important risk factor among men in Nordic and eastern European populations, whereas overweight and obesity was the most important risk factor among women in the South of Europe. The effect of physical inactivity on the reduction of inequalities in IHD mortality was smaller compared with smoking and overweight/obesity. Although the reduction in inequalities in IHD mortality may seem modest, substantial reduction in IHD mortality among the least educated can be achieved under the scenarios investigated.CONCLUSION: Population wide strategies to reduce the prevalence of risk factors such as smoking, and overweight/obesity targeted at the lower socioeconomic groups are likely to substantially contribute to the reduction of IHD mortality and inequalities in IHD mortality in Europe.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ivana Kulhánová

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

International Journal of Public Administration 2017, 40 (7): 548-558.

The article analyses the orientations of political employees in Sweden. It finds that their roles are diffuse: there is no agreement among political employees about whether they are politicians or not, and their mandate is fleeting and unclear. They hold the average politician’s intellectual abilities in low regard, and sometimes take on clearly paternalistic views toward elected representatives. They see little attraction in pursuing a career as elected politicians, because of intrusive media scrutiny and since they hold a view of elected politics as slow, boring, and shallow. The professional route to politics is seen as more fast and fun.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Stefan Svallfors

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2017

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Class, Sex and Revolutions. Lund : Arkiv förlag & tidskrift, 2016. 155-183.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Aliaksei Lastouski

Nikolay Zakharov

Sven Hort


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

ARKIV. Tidskrift för samhällsanalys 2016, 6 : 7-37.

Globala utmaningar som klimatförändringar, transnationella kapitalrörelser och politiskt gränsöverskridande samarbete har satt den nationella välfärdsstaten på prov under de senaste decennierna. Två större finansiella kriser har också de påverkat politikens utformning. Under samma tid har begreppen hållbar utveckling och ekologisk modernisering bidragit med ståndpunkten att tillväxt och miljömedvetenhet kan gå hand i hand. Utifrån den kontexten diskuterar Karin Edberg i sin artikel huruvida miljöpolitiken kan sägas vara en del av den nutida svenska välfärdsstaten. Till grund för sitt resonemang använder sig Edberg av de årliga regeringsförklaringar som ges av statsministern i samband med riksdagens öppnande. Detta innebär att artikelns resultat inte speglar politisk praktik utan snarare vilka frågor som anses vara i den politiska hetluften och hur de artikuleras. Edberg visar hur miljöfrågan pendlat mellan att utgöra en avideologiserad och normaliserad del av det politiska landskapet, och en politisk vattendelare. I dag är idén om hållbar utveckling kittet som binder samman miljöpolitiken med välfärdsstaten – åtminstone på en retorisk nivå – och som gör miljö till en konsensusfråga

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Karin Edberg

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Amsterdam : Amsterdam University Press, 2016.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Jonas Lindblom

Kerstin Jacobsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2016

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Anthropology Today 2016, 32 (6): 18-21.

Markets are often portrayed as being organized by way of rationalized knowledge, objective reasoning, and the fluctuations of demand and supply. In parallel, and often mixed with this modality of knowledge, magical beliefs and practices are prevalent. Business leaders, management consultants, and financial advisors are often savvy in the art of creatively blending the ‘objective facts’ of markets with magical formulae, rites, and imaginaries of the future. This article looks at the World Economic Forum's yearly Davos meeting as a large-scale ritual that engages senior executives of global corporations, top-level politicians, and civil society leaders to contribute to the overall aim of ‘improving the world’. The Davos gathering has become a vital part of the business calendar, just as much for the intensity of its networking as for the declarations of action from the speakers’ podiums. The presentations and performances in Davos work as ‘technologies of enchantment’ in Gell's (1992) sense, instilling a sense of agency onto participants. The ritual also contributes towards securing the acquiescence of individuals and organizations in a transnational network of politico-economic intentionalities. By invoking global and regional challenges and risks, discussing possible scenarios and solutions, presenters invoke a sense of urgency and contribute to the articulation of global ‘problems’ and ‘solutions’. It is proposed that the magic of Davos resides to a large extent in the ritualized form of interaction and the technologies of enchantment through which it is set up. © RAI 2016

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

C. Garsten

Adrienne Sörbom

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: A European Youth Revolt. Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. 97-111.

This chapter examines the development and role of the anarchistmovement in Sweden during the 1980s. In relation to many otherparts of Northern Europe – which had seen an upsurge in radicalleft-libertarian activism, squatting and urban unrest at the turn ofthe 1980s – such social movements and confrontations remained amarginal phenomenon in Sweden, at least until the end of the decade.However, by the late 1980s a new generation of younger activists,often with roots in the anarchist milieu, formed the basis for a radicalsquatter and autonomist movement, which proved very similar to themovements that had developed throughout Europe almost a decadeearlier.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Jan Jämte

Adrienne Sörbom

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2016

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Sociologisk forskning 2016, 53 (3): 317-321.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Lena Sohl

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Class, Sex and Revolutions. Lund : Arkiv förlag & tidskrift, 2016. -.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Sven Hort

Lisa KingsZhanna Kravchenko

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Social WorkSociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

European Urban and Regional Studies 2016, 23 (4): 697-715.

This paper revisits the geographical legacy of socialism in the urban areas of the former Soviet Union. Building on research on housing and socio-spatial differentiation under and after socialism, this will be achieved by examining an important component in the spatial differentiation of the city, namely neighbourhood reputation. The analysis is based on survey data (n = 1515) from the city of Ust’-Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan; a combination of descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression are deployed in order to shed light on the factors that are associated with the reputation of the neighbourhoods in which people reside. The results show that the Soviet system manufactured its own brand of socio-spatial distinction, which reflected the priority hierarchies built in the socialist planned economy. Education, age and, most importantly, area of employment appear to have been ‘rewarded’ with prestigiously located housing.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Michael Gentile


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2016

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Miscellanea Anthropologica et Sociologica 2016, 17 (1): 53-69.

Radical social movements are more and more often the subject of academic inquiry, where their agenda, identity-building processes and repertoires of action are examined vis a vis the dominant discursive opportunity structures. The case study presented in this articleis the squatting movement in Poland. We interpret this movement, its actions and in particular alliance-building strategies, through the perspective of radical flanks of broader urban social movements environment.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Dominika PolanskaGrzegorz Piotrowski

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2016

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Baltic Worlds 2016, IX (1-2): 68-79.

This paper explores the scope, causes, flourishing, and decline of squatting in Lithuanian society during the period of 1990-2002. Drawing on 16 in-depth interviews conducted with squatters in Vilnius, newspaper articles and legal documents, this paper shows that squatters made contributions to the city with their cultural capital, creating local subcultures and making the urban space more attractive. Squatters promoted an alternative way of life, contributed to the preservation of the city and fostered counter-cultural activities. They offered spaces for performances, exhibits, and concerts. These activities are still present up to this day in the Užupis neighborhood that hosted the most long-lived squat, which in turn was transformed into Art Incubator.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Jolanta Aidukaite


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2016

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Baltic Worlds 2016, IX (1-2): 46-56.

Two Polish cities, Warsaw and Poznań, are studied in the article to examine how external structures are handled and used by squatters in these two settings. The aim is to analyze opportunity structures that condition the emergence and development of squatting and how squatters respond to and utilize these opportunities. Our ambition is to understand why squatting has developed differently in the two cities by emphasizing the duration and cohesion of the squatting scene as pivotal for the different trajectories of squatting. It is argued in the article that the durability of the squatting environment abates tendencies to open the squatting scene to external coalitions and establish more institutionalized forms of political struggle.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Dominika PolanskaGrzegorz Piotrowski

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2016

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

PLoS ONE 2016, 11 (10): -.

Previous studies have found an association between neighborhood characteristics (i.e., aspects of the physical and social environment) and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and elevated CVD risk. This study investigated the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and CVD risk among older people in Japan where research on this association is scarce. Data came from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study project; questionnaire data collected from 3,810 people aged 65 years or older living in 20 primary school districts in Aichi prefecture, Japan, was linked to a computed composite CVD risk score based on biomarker data (i.e., hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and estimated glomerular filtration rate). A sex-stratified multilevel linear regression analysis revealed that for male participants, living in neighborhoods with a higher perceived occurrence of traffic accidents and reduced personal safety was associated with an elevated CVD risk (coefficient = 1.08 per interquartile range increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30 to 1.86) whereas males living in neighborhoods with a higher perceived proximity of exercise facilities had a lower risk (coefficient = −1.00, 95% CI = −1.78 to −0.21). For females, there was no statistically significant association between neighborhood characteristics and CVD risk. This study suggests that aspects of the neighborhood environment might be important for CVD morbidity and mortality in Japan, particularly among men.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Yosuke Inoue

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Psychiatry Research 2016, 246 : 326-331.

Abstract Prior research has produced conflicting findings on the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and pain, while studies among community-dwelling adults are lacking. This study examined the association between ADHD symptoms and pain in the general adult population, and the extent to which this association is influenced by comorbid common mental disorders (CMDs). Data came from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey which included a representative sample of the English adult population aged ≥16 years (N=7403). The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener was used to obtain information on ADHD symptoms, while pain was assessed by the degree to which it interfered with work activity in the previous month. The Clinical Interview Schedule Revised (CIS-R) was used to evaluate six categories of CMDs. In a binary logistic regression analysis adjusted for socio-demographic factors and physical health conditions, an ADHD symptom score ≥14 was strongly associated with extreme pain (odds ratio [OR]: 3.15, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.09–4.74). The OR was attenuated greatly after further adjustment for CMDs (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.05–2.58) but remained statistically significant. Adults with ADHD symptoms have higher odds for experiencing pain. CMDs are influential in this association but do not fully explain it.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ai Koyanagi

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

The Lancet 2016, 388 (10053): 1813-1850.

BackgroundIn September, 2015, the UN General Assembly established the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs specify 17 universal goals, 169 targets, and 230 indicators leading up to 2030. We provide an analysis of 33 health-related SDG indicators based on the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015).

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Stephen S Lim

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: The Ritual of May Day in Western Europe. Abingdon, Oxon : Routledge, 2016. 262-278.

This chapter concerns some methodological aspects of protest surveys and data analysis. We start by providing an overview of the demonstrations we surveyed, describe the protest survey sampling method and proceed to an analysis of non-response bias. Thereafter we discuss how we combine the data from different demonstrations into averages, and we also discuss some of the more technical aspects of coding.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Mattias Wahlström

Magnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: The Ritual of May Day in Western Europe. Abingdon, Oxon : Routledge, 2016. 187-216.

In this chapter I examine which socio-demographic groups take part in contemporary May Day demonstrations in Western Europe. In particular I focus on social class, but also on other relevant social categories such as gender, age and ethnicity and whether they vary between specific types of demonstrations and between the countries in our sample. Firstly, the chapter discusses the socio-demographic profiles of those taking part in such annual events. Are May Day participants more or less representative of the wider population? Do they differ from participants in other types of demonstrations? Secondly, I interrogate the composition and role of social class in May Day marches, both with regard to the individuals’ objective positions in the labour market and their subjective class identifications, and analyse the factors that shape May Day marchers’ class identity. Thirdly, I analyse which social and political characteristics most strongly influence individuals’ decisions to join a May Day parade. This chapter’s analysis is based on the survey data for individual demonstrators collected within the international research programme Caught in the Act of Protest: Contextualising Contestation (CCC). In this chapter I analyse the participants in fifteen May Day demonstrations in six Western European countries surveyed during the period 2010–2012 (cf. chapter 7). In order to determine whether participants in May Day demonstrations differ from participants in other types of street protests and marches, I also compare them with data from a sample of 23 additional demonstrations surveyed within the CCC project. In order to compare the social composition of the surveyed May Day demonstrations with the general population, I also use data from the European Social Survey and the Swedish SOM Institute’s national survey.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Magnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

BMC Psychology 2016, 4 (1): -.

BACKGROUND: Depression is a major health problem worldwide, especially among women. The condition has been related to a number of factors, such as alcohol consumption, economic situation and, more recently, to social capital. However, there have been relatively few studies about the social capital-depression relationship in Eastern Europe. This paper aims to fill this gap by examining the association between different forms of social capital and self-rated depression in Moscow. Differences between men and women will also be examined, with a special focus on women.METHODS: Data was obtained from the Moscow Health Survey, which was conducted in 2004 with 1190 Muscovites aged 18 years or above. For depression, a single-item self-reported measure was used. Social capital was operationalised through five questions about different forms of social relations. Logistic regression analysis was undertaken to estimate the association between social capital and self-rated depression, separately for men and women.RESULTS: More women (48 %) than men (36 %) reported that they had felt depressed during the last year. An association was found between social capital and reported depression only among women. Women who were divorced or widowed or who had little contact with relatives had higher odds of reporting depression than those with more family contact. Women who regularly engaged with people from different age groups outside of their families were also more likely to report depression than those with less regular contact.CONCLUSIONS: Social capital can be a mixed blessing for women. Different forms of social relations can lead to different health outcomes, both positive and negative. Although the family is important for women's mental health in Moscow, extra-familial relations across age groups can be mentally distressing. This suggests that even though social capital can be a valuable resource for mental health, some of its forms can be mentally deleterious to maintain, especially for women. More research is needed on both sides to social capital. A special focus should be placed on bridging social relations among women in order to better understand the complex association between social capital and depression in Russia and elsewhere.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Olga Kislitsyna

Andrew Stickley

Ilkka Henrik Mäkinen

Per CarlsonSara FerlanderTanya Jukkala

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2016

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Social WorkSociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Hypertension Research 2016, 39 : 818-824.

Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of mortality in the world. Although previous studies have focused on individual-level behavioral risk factors associated with hypertension, there has been little research on how interacting with others, that is social participation, affects hypertension. To address this research gap, this study examined the association between social participation and hypertension in Japan, a country with a high prevalence of hypertension possibly linked to rapid population aging. Data were used from 4582 participants aged more than 65 years who participated in the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Survey (JAGES) with blood pressure data collected during a health check-up. The frequency of participation in vertical organizations (characterized by hierarchical relationships) and horizontal organizations (characterized by non-hierarchical, egalitarian relationships) was measured by a questionnaire. In a Poisson regression analysis, participation in vertical organizations was not associated with hypertension, whereas participation in horizontal organizations at least once a month was inversely associated with hypertension (prevalence ratio: 0.941). This association remained significant after adjusting for social support variables, although further adjustment for health behaviors attenuated the association. As the frequency of going out and average time spent walking were both associated with hypertension, physical activity may be a possible pathway that connects social participation and hypertension. The results of this study suggest that expanding social participation programs, especially those involving horizontal organizations, may be one way to promote better health among older people in Japan.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Aki Yazawa

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Journal of Affective Disorders 2016, 201 : 194-202.

Background: Some evidence suggests an association may exist between the level of air pollution and suicide mortality. However, this relation has been little studied to date. The current study examined the association in Tokyo, Japan. Methods: Suicide mortality data for Tokyo for the 11-year period 2001-2011 were obtained together with data on four air pollutants: fine particulate matter (PM2.5), suspended particulate matter (SPM), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). A time-stratified case-crossover study design was used to examine the daily association between the level of air pollution and suicide mortality. Results: During the study period there were 29,939 suicide deaths. In stratified analyses an interquartile range (IQR) increase in the same-day concentration of NO2 was linked to increased suicide mortality among those aged under 30 (percentage change: 6.73%, 95% Cl: 0.69-13.12%). An IQR increase in PM25 and SO2 was associated with a 10.55% (95% Cl: 2.05-19.75%) and 11.47% (95% Cl: 3.60-19.93%) increase, respectively, in suicide mortality among widowed individuals for mean exposure on the first four days (average lags 0-3). Positive associations were observed for the air pollutants in the summer although associations were reversed in autumn. Limitations: We relied on monitoring data to approximate individual exposure to air pollutants. Conclusions: Higher levels of air pollution are associated with increased suicide mortality in some population subgroups in Tokyo. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms linking air pollutants and suicide in this setting.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Chris Fook Sheng Ng

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Journal of Affective Disorders 2016, 200 : 259-265.

Background: Previous research has produced conflicting findings concerning whether birthdays are associated with an increased risk of suicide. This study examined the association in Tokyo, Japan. Methods: Suicide data (ICD-10 codes X60-X84) for the period 2001-2010 were obtained from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used with conditional logistic regression analysis being performed to estimate within-subject birthday exposures' while controlling for meteorological conditions and public holidays. Results: There were 27,007 suicides in the study period. For males the 5 days before the birthday and the week after the birthday were associated with significantly higher odds for suicide with the odds ratio being highest on the actual birthday (OR =1.677, 95% CI: 1.294, 2.172). For females, significantly higher odds for completed suicide were observed 7-11 days before the birthday. Stratified analyses showed different at risk time patterns among men from different age groups, and that married men had higher odds for suicide on, and for the 4 days before and in the 2 weeks after their birthday. Limitations: We lacked detailed information on suicides which would have enabled a better understanding of the observed associations. Conclusions: Birthdays are associated with an increased risk for suicide in Tokyo, Japan. Health professionals who work with individuals at risk of suicide should be made aware that birthdays are associated with an elevated suicide risk. This information should also be communicated in wider suicide prevention campaigns.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Chris Fook Sheng Ng

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Schizophrenia Research 2016, 175 (1-3): 209-215.

Background: Information on the association between subclinical psychosis and pain is scarce, and the role of common mental disorders (CMDs) in this association is largely unknown. The aim of the current study was to therefore assess this association in the general population using nationally representative data from England. Methods: Data for 7403 adults aged. ≥. 16. years were used from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. Five forms of psychotic symptoms were assessed by the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire, while pain was assessed in terms of the level of its interference with work activity in the past four weeks. The Clinical Interview Schedule Revised (CIS-R) was used to assess anxiety disorders, depressive episode, and mixed anxiety-depressive disorder (MADD). Participants with probable or definite psychosis were excluded. The association between psychotic symptoms and pain was assessed by ordinal and binary logistic regression analysis. Results: When adjusted for confounders other than CMDs, psychotic symptoms were significantly associated with pain [e.g., the OR (95%CI) for the severest form of pain (binary outcome) was 1.78 (1.11-2.85)]. However, this association was no longer significant when CMDs were controlled for in most analyses. Anxiety disorders and depressive episode explained 34.8%-47.1% of the association between psychotic symptoms and pain, while this percentage increased to 62.7%-78.0% when the sub-threshold condition of MADD was also taken into account. Conclusions: When coexisting psychotic symptoms and pain are detected, assessing for anxiety and depression (even at sub-threshold levels) may be important for determining treatment options.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

A. Koyanagi

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Science of the Total Environment 2016, 566-567 : 528-535.

Short-term exposure to air pollution may be linked to negative health outcomes that require an emergency medical response. However, few studies have been undertaken on this phenomenon to date. The aim of this study therefore was to examine the association between short-term exposure to ambient suspended particulate matter (SPM) and emergency ambulance dispatches (EADs) for acute illness in Japan. Daily EAD data, daily mean SPM and meteorological data were obtained for four prefectures in the Kanto region of Japan for the period from 2007 to 2011. The area-specific association between daily EAD for acute illness and SPM was explored using generalized linear models while controlling for ambient temperature, relative humidity, seasonality, long-term trends, day of the week and public holidays. Stratified analyses were conducted to evaluate the modifying effects of age, sex and medical conditions. Area-specific estimates were combined using meta-analyses. For the total study period the mean level of SPM was 23.7 μg/m3. In general, higher SPM was associated with a significant increase in EAD for acute illness [estimated pooled relative risk (RR): 1.008, 95% CI: 1.007 to 1.010 per 10 μg/m3 increase in SPM at lag 0-1]. The effects of SPM on EAD for acute illness were significantly greater for moderate/mild medical conditions (e.g. cases that resulted in &lt;3 weeks hospitalization or no hospitalization) when compared to severe medical conditions (e.g. critical cases, and cases that led to &gt;3 weeks hospitalization or which resulted in death). Using EAD data, this study has shown the adverse health effects of ambient air pollution. This highlights the importance of reducing the level of air pollution in order to maintain population health and well-being.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

S. Tasmin

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Psychiatry Research 2016, 241 : 26-34.

There are no studies on psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) and disordered eating in the general population. We aimed to assess this association in the English adult population. Data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (APMS) were analyzed. This was a nationally representative survey comprising 7403 English adults aged ≥16 years. The Psychosis Screening Questionnaire was used to identify the past 12-month occurrence of five forms of psychotic symptoms. Questions from the five-item SCOFF screening instrument were used to identify those with eating disorder (ED) symptoms and possible ED in the past year. The prevalence of any PLE was 5.1% (female) and 5.4% (male), while that of possible ED was 9.0% (female) and 3.5% (male). After adjustment for potential confounders, possible ED was associated with hypomania/mania in females (OR=3.23 95%CI=1.002-10.39), strange experiences [females (OR=1.85 95%CI=1.07-3.20) and males (OR=3.54 95%CI=1.65-7.57)], and any PLE in males (OR=3.44 95%CI=1.85-6.39). An interaction analysis revealed that the association was stronger among males for: auditory hallucinations and uncontrolled eating; and any PLE with uncontrolled eating, food dominance, and possible ED. Clinical practitioners should be aware that PLEs and disordered eating behavior often coexist. When one condition is detected, screening for the other may be advisable, especially among males.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

A. Koyanagi

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

BMC Psychiatry 2016, 16 (1): -.

Background: Loneliness is common in adolescence and has been linked to various negative outcomes. Until now, however, there has been little cross-country research on this phenomenon. The aim of the present study was to examine which factors are associated with adolescent loneliness in three countries that differ historically and culturally-the Czech Republic, Russia and the United States, and to determine whether adolescent loneliness is associated with poorer psychological and somatic health. Methods: Data from a school survey, the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), were used to examine these relations among 2205 Czech, 1995 Russian, and 2050 U.S. male and female adolescents aged 13 to 15 years old. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine if specific demographic, parenting, personal or school-based factors were linked to feeling lonely and whether lonely adolescents were more likely to report psychological (depression and anxiety) or somatic symptoms (e.g. headaches, pain). Results: Inconsistent parenting, shyness, and peer victimisation were associated with higher odds for loneliness in at least 4 of the 6 country- and sex-wise subgroups (i.e. Czech, Russian, U.S. boys and girls). Parental warmth was a protective factor against feeling lonely among Czech and U.S. girls. Adolescents who were lonely had higher odds for reporting headaches, anxiety and depressive symptoms across all subgroups. Loneliness was associated with other somatic symptoms in at least half of the adolescent subgroups. Conclusion: Loneliness is associated with worse adolescent health across countries. The finding that variables from different domains are important for loneliness highlights the necessity of interventions in different settings in order to reduce loneliness and its detrimental effects on adolescent health. © 2016 Stickley et al.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

A. Koyanagi

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Psychological Medicine 2016, 43 (12): 2655-2665.

Background: Studies on whether the co-occurrence of psychotic experiences (PEs) and depression confers a more pronounced decrement in health status and function compared with depression alone are scarce in the general adult population. Method: Data on 195 479 adults aged ⩾18 years from the World Health Survey were analysed. Using the World Mental Health Survey version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), depression in the past 12 months was categorized into four groups: depressive episode, brief depressive episode, subsyndromal depression, and no depression. Past 12-month psychotic symptoms were assessed using four questions on positive symptoms from the CIDI. Health status across seven domains (cognition, interpersonal activities, sleep/energy, self-care, mobility, pain/discomfort, vision) and interviewer-rated presence of a mental health problem were assessed. Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were performed to assess the associations. Results: When compared with those with no depression, individuals with depression had higher odds of reporting at least one PE, and this was seen across all levels of depression severity: subsyndromal depression [odds ratio (OR) 2.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.02–2.81], brief depressive episode (OR 3.84, 95% CI 3.31–4.46) and depressive episode (OR 3.75, 95% CI 3.24–4.33). Having coexisting PEs and depression was associated with a higher risk for observable illness behavior and a significant decline in health status in the cognition, interpersonal activities and sleep/energy domains, compared with those with depression alone. Conclusions: This coexistence of depression and PEs is associated with more severe social, cognitive and sleep disturbances, and more outwardly apparent illness behavior. Detecting this co-occurrence may be important for treatment planning.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

A. Koyanagi

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Social spaces and social relations. Frankfurt am Main : Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2016. 21-38.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Apostolis Papakostas

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: Challenges to European Welfare Systems. : Springer, 2016. 671-691.

This paper examines the challenges to the Swedish welfare state after the credit crunch of 2008 focusing on several major challenges: the government’s reaction to the fiscal and economic crisis and its outcomes, the (re)balance of welfare policies addressing risks and opportunities. While the situation is almost excellent from a purely fiscal point of view, the outstanding private debt, unemployment, especially among youth, pressures on the pension, health and education systems are prominent concerns. They have led to the revitalization of the social investment paradigm, strict budgetary policies, increased number of welfare-to-work programmes and focus on using tax reductions as a means of stimulating the labour market. In this context, the main demographic concerns and social integration have come to the fore to an unprecedented extent.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Lisa Kings

Sven E. O. Hort

Zhanna Kravchenko

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Social WorkSociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

New Political Economy 2016, 21 (6): 505-519.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Stefan Svallfors

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2016, 20 (5): 574-581.

SETTING: Previous studies in many countries have shown that mortality due to tuberculosis (TB) is higher among people of lower socio-economic status.OBJECTIVE: To assess the magnitude and direction of trends in educational inequalities in TB mortality in 11 European countries.DESIGN: Data on TB mortality between 1980 and 2011 were collected among persons aged 35-79 years. Age-standardised mortality rates by educational level were calculated. Inequalities were estimated using the relative and slope indices of inequality.RESULTS: In the first decade of the twenty-first century, educational inequalities in TB mortality occurred in all countries in this study. The largest absolute inequalities were observed in Lithuania, and the smallest in Denmark. In most countries, relative inequalities have remained stable since the 1980s or 1990s, while absolute inequalities remained stable or went down. In Lithuania and Estonia, however, absolute inequalities increased substantially.CONCLUSION: The reduction in absolute inequalities in TB mortality, as seen in many European countries, is a major achievement; however, inequalities persist and are still a major cause for concern in the twenty-first century. Interventions aimed at preventing TB disease and reducing TB case fatality in lower socio-economic groups should be intensified, especially in the Baltic countries.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

B L Nagavci

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2016

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 2016, 133 (6): 497-505.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between psychotic symptoms and smoking among community-dwelling adults in 44 countries.METHOD: Data from the World Health Survey (WHS) for 192 474 adults aged ≥18 years collected in 2002-2004 were analyzed. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to identify four types of past 12-month psychotic symptoms. Smoking referred to current daily and non-daily smoking. Heavy smoking was defined as smoking ≥30 tobacco products/day.RESULTS: The pooled age-sex-adjusted OR (95% CI) of psychotic symptoms (i.e., at least one psychotic symptom) for smoking was 1.35 (1.27-1.43). After adjustment for potential confounders, compared to those with no psychotic symptoms, the ORs (95% CIs) for smoking for 1, 2, and ≥3 psychotic symptoms were 1.20 (1.08-1.32), 1.25 (1.08-1.45), and 1.36 (1.13-1.64) respectively. Among daily smokers, psychotic symptoms were associated with heavy smoking (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.10-1.92), and individuals who initiated daily smoking at ≤15 years of age were 1.22 (95% CI = 1.05-1.42) times more likely to have psychotic symptoms.CONCLUSIONS: An increased awareness that psychotic symptoms are associated with smoking is important from a public health and clinical point of view. Future studies that investigate the underlying link between psychotic symptoms and smoking prospectively are warranted.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

A Koyanagi

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Schizophrenia Bulletin 2016, 42 (6): 1353-1362.

Stress has a central role in most theories of psychosis etiology, but the relation between stress and psychosis has rarely been examined in large population-level data sets, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. We used data from 39 countries in the World Health Survey (n = 176 934) to test the hypothesis that stress sensitivity would be associated with psychotic experiences, using logistic regression analyses. Respondents in low-income countries reported higher stress sensitivity (P < .001) and prevalence of psychotic experiences (P < .001), compared to individuals in middle-income countries. Greater stress sensitivity was associated with increased odds for psychotic experiences, even when adjusted for co-occurring anxiety and depressive symptoms: adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) = 1.17 (1.15-1.19) per unit increase in stress sensitivity (range 2-10). This association was consistent and significant across nearly every country studied, and translated into a difference in psychotic experience prevalence ranging from 6.4% among those with the lowest levels of stress sensitivity up to 22.2% among those with the highest levels. These findings highlight the generalizability of the association between psychosis and stress sensitivity in the largest and most globally representative community-level sample to date, and support the targeting of stress sensitivity as a potential component of individual- and population-level interventions for psychosis.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Jordan E DeVylder

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 2016, 116 (4): 579-589.

Background Prior research has indicated that several factors are associated with low energy dietary reporting; however, there is comparatively little information on the association between body image, weight control, and low energy reporting. Objective Our aim was to evaluate the association between low energy reporting and aspects of weight perception, satisfaction, and control in a nationally representative US adult sample. Design This was a cross-sectional study. Participants/setting Data were analyzed from 13,581 adults aged 20 years and older who participated in the 2007-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data on sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle characteristics, and weight perception, satisfaction, and control were collected. The ratio of reported energy intake to estimated basal metabolic rate (EI/BMR) was calculated and used for the assessment of low energy reporting. Main outcome measures The relationship of low energy reporting with various aspects of weight perception, satisfaction, and control was evaluated. Statistical analyses performed Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between the variables. Results Low energy reporters were significantly more likely to consider themselves overweight (perception), want to weigh less (satisfaction), and to have tried to lose weight in the past 12 months (control). Compared with having no desire for weight change, wanting to weigh less was associated with 1.28 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.53) times higher odds for low energy reporting. Trying to lose weight was also associated with low energy reporting (odds ratio = 1.56; 95% CI 1.38 to 1.76). Effect modification by obesity status was observed for the weight perception, satisfaction, and control variables where the odds ratios of these factors for low energy reporting were higher among those who were not obese. Conclusion Weight perception, satisfaction, and control are related to low energy reporting, and should be taken into account in nutritional assessments. In addition, the effect of these factors can differ by obesity status.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Stefanos Tyrovolas

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

American Journal of Human Biology 2016, 28 (2): 281-282.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Y. Inoue

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Chronobiology International 2016, 33 (4): 441-447.

Month of birth (MOB) has been linked to a variety of health conditions in adulthood. This study examined the association between MOB and mortality among the healthy elderly in Japan, where a practice of traditional age reckoning was employed up until the late 1940s. The results showed male participants born in December were more likely to die earlier while those born in January had lower mortality. It is possible that social factors in early life, such as the time period when a birth is officially registered, may have implications for health that stretch across the life course.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Y. Inoue

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

ARKIV. Tidskrift för samhällsanalys 2016, 5 : 15-37.

Termen ”extremism” har blivit vanligare inom både svensk offentlig debatt och myndighetsprosa. I sådana sammanhang är det dock sällan klart exakt vad som avses med denna term. Inte heller inom samhällsvetenskapen är begreppet extre­ mism oomstritt och inom olika forskningsfält används begreppet på olika sätt. Syftet med Adrienne Sörbom och Magnus Wennerhags artikel är att belysa extremismbegrep­ pets uppkomst och förändrade betydelse under moderniteten, samt att diskutera några av de problem som begreppet är behäftat med. Med hjälp av bland annat vetenskaps­ sociologen Thomas F. Gieryns begrepp ”gränsdragningsarbete” (boundary-work) visar Sörbom och Wennerhag hur begreppet extremism används i fältet mellan vetenskap, politik och samhällsdebatt. Författarnas huvudsakliga poäng är att begreppets utgångs­ punkt i en tydligt normativ föreställning om politiska avvikelser gör det mindre använd­ bart i vetenskapliga sammanhang, eftersom det enbart tar dessa avvikelser för givna och inte erbjuder några förklaringar om varför de uppkommer eller vilken roll de spelar i moderna samhällen. 

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Adrienne SörbomMagnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2016

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: Det vita fältet III. Samtida forskning om högerextremism. : Arkiv förlag & tidskrift, 2016. 7-13.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Mats Deland

Paul Fuehrer

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

: Arkiv förlag & tidskrift, 2016.

Det här specialnumret av tidskriften Arkiv utgör den tredje volymen i enserie, Det vita fältet, som samlar svensk och internationell forskning om högerextremism.Sedan den förra volymen kom ut (2013) har regeringen aktualiserat det omstridda extremismbegreppetoch gjort det till praktisk politik, Sverigedemokraterna har präglat ochdelvis lamslagit det parlamentariska arbetet och en våg av näthat har drabbat offentligheten.Numret innehåller en kritisk granskning av extremismbegreppet, av sociologernaAdrienne Sörbom och Magnus Wennerhag. Markus Lundström och Tomas Lundströmintroducerar i stället begreppet ”radikal nationalism” för att begreppsliggöra det högerextremapolitiska projektet i en exposé över dess utveckling under de senaste hundra åreni Sverige. Vidare diskuterar den nederländske forskaren Cas Mudde omfattningen avden våg av högerpopulism som spridits genom Europa. Bristerna inom forskningen omSverigedemokraterna, och deras kontakter med andra delar av den högerextrema miljön,behandlas av den amerikanske musikvetaren Benjamin Raphael Teitelbaum. Från tysktperspektiv diskuteras förutsättningarna för ideologiskt betingat våld av Daniel Köhleroch Tine Hutzel i två artiklar.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Mats Deland

Paul Fuehrer

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Annat forskningsområde

Journal of Affective Disorders 2016, 197 (June): 81-87.

BACKGROUND: Loneliness has been linked to an increased risk of engaging in suicidal behavior. To date, however, there has been comparatively little research on this in the general adult population, or on the role of common mental disorders (CMDs) in this association. The current study examined these associations using nationally representative data from England.METHODS: Data came from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007. Information was obtained from 7403 household residents aged ≥16 years on perceived loneliness and lifetime and past 12-month suicide ideation and attempts. The Clinical Interview Schedule Revised (CIS-R) was used to assess six forms of CMD. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine these associations.RESULTS: Loneliness was associated with suicidal behavior. Although adjusting for CMDs attenuated associations, higher levels of loneliness were still significantly associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts with odds ratios (OR) for those in the most severe loneliness category ranging from 3.45 (lifetime suicide attempt) to 17.37 (past 12-month suicide attempt). Further analyses showed that ORs for suicidal behavior were similar for individuals who were lonely without CMDs, and for those respondents with CMDs who were not lonely. Lonely individuals with CMDs had especially elevated odds for suicidal ideation.LIMITATIONS: This study used cross-sectional data and a single-item measure to obtain information on loneliness.CONCLUSION: Loneliness is associated with suicidal behavior in the general adult population. This highlights the importance of efforts to reduce loneliness in order to mitigate its harmful effects on health and well-being.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ai Koyanagi

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Energy Research & Social Science 2016, 13 : 170-179.

This article examines how members of the Swedish Parliament framed nuclear energy in the 2010 debate on the future of nuclear power in Sweden in order to understand how politicians construct and contextualize their views on the role of nuclear energy in energy transitions. Our findings suggest that four themes could be identified in the debate and that these were formative for politicians in framing nuclear energy. Even though all political actors anticipate an energy transition towards a more sustainable system, different paths to advancing in this process were brought up in the debate, both with and without prolongation of the nuclear energy program. Our analysis suggests that framings of nuclear energy are closely related to the political ideologies of the parties in the Parliament because the two framings of nuclear energy correspond with the division of the Swedish Parliament into two political blocs. However, views on nuclear energy are not inherent to political ideologies but are constructed. This article thus integrates the politics of nuclear energy within the research on energy transitions.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Ekaterina TarasovaKarin Edberg

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Political ScienceSociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Politics and Policy 2016, 44 (1): 56-73.

This article focuses on “policy professionals”—people employed to affect politics and policy making rather than elected to office, and their career motivations and considerations. What do they see as career opportunities and limitations? What resources do policy professionals offer on the job market? How are status and hierarchy on their particular labor market perceived? Special attention is paid to the possible transitions from current job into other positions and arenas. The study pinpoints the “golden cage” problem: the problem for organizations positioned outside party politics to properly evaluate the distinct skills of policy professionals. The key position of the public relations agencies in this regard is highlighted. The article closes with a discussion of some democratic implications of the arguments and findings, such as anticipatory adjustment of behavior in public office, the potential merging of political elites, and the supply driven growth of the policy professional stratum.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Stefan Svallfors

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: Det hotade universitetet. Stockholm : Dialogos Förlag, 2016. 143-153.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Stefan Svallfors

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: The Oxford Handbook of Swedish Politics. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2016. 22-36.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Stefan Svallfors

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2016, 70 (7): 644-652.

BACKGROUND: Between the 1990s and 2000s, relative inequalities in all-cause mortality increased, whereas absolute inequalities decreased in many European countries. Whether similar trends can be observed for inequalities in other health outcomes is unknown. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of trends in socioeconomic inequalities in self-assessed health (SAH) in Europe between 1990 and 2010.METHODS: Data were obtained from nationally representative surveys from 17 European countries for the various years between 1990 and 2010. The age-standardised prevalence of less-than-good SAH was analysed by education and occupation among men and women aged 30-79 years. Socioeconomic inequalities were measured by means of absolute rate differences and relative rate ratios. Meta-analysis with random-effects models was used to examine the trends of inequalities.RESULTS: We observed declining trends in the prevalence of less-than-good SAH in many countries, particularly in Southern and Eastern Europe and the Baltic states. In all countries, less-than-good SAH was more prevalent in lower educational and manual groups. For all countries together, absolute inequalities in SAH were mostly constant, whereas relative inequalities increased. Almost no country consistently experienced a significant decline in either absolute or relative inequalities.CONCLUSIONS: Trends in inequalities in SAH in Europe were generally less favourable than those found for inequalities in mortality, and there was generally no correspondence between the two when we compared the trends within countries. In order to develop policies or interventions that effectively reduce inequalities in SAH, a better understanding of the causes of these inequalities is needed.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Yannan Hu

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Journal of Affective Disorders 2016, 189 : 321-328.

BACKGROUND: Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have an increased risk of engaging in suicidal behavior. This study examined this association in the general adult population where there has been little research.METHODS: Data came from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007. This was a representative sample of the English adult household population aged ≥16 years (N=7403). The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) was used to obtain information on ADHD symptoms. The Clinical Interview Schedule Revised (CIS-R) was used to assess six forms of common mental disorder (CMD). Information was also obtained on the lifetime and past 12-month occurrence of suicide ideation and attempts. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine these associations.RESULTS: After adjusting for comorbid disorders, adults with more ADHD symptoms had significantly higher odds for suicidal behavior. When a single cut-off point was used to classify ADHD (ASRS score ≥14), odds ratios ranged from 1.62 (lifetime suicide attempt) to 2.43 (past 12-month suicide ideation). When ADHD symptoms were categorized by strata (I: a score of 0-9; II: 10-13; III: 14-17; IV: 18-24), compared to adults in stratum I, those in stratum IV had odds ratios ranging from 2.16 (lifetime suicide ideation) to 3.68 (past 12-month suicide attempt).LIMITATIONS: ADHD and suicide data came from self-reports which may have been affected by socially desirable responding.CONCLUSIONS: ADHD symptoms were linked to suicidal behavior after controlling for comorbid conditions. Health care professionals should be alerted to the increased suicide risk among adults with ADHD symptoms.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ai Koyanagi

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Clinical and Experimental Allergy 2016, 46 (8): 1083-1089.

BACKGROUND: Having an allergic disease may have health implications beyond those more commonly associated with allergy given that previous epidemiological studies have suggested that both atopy and allergy are linked to mortality. More viable immune functioning among the elderly, as indicated by the presence of an allergic disease might therefore be associated with differences in all-cause mortality.OBJECTIVE: Using data from a Japanese cohort, this study examined whether having pollinosis (a form of allergic rhinitis) in a follow-up survey could predict all-cause and cause-specific mortality.METHODS: Data came from the Komo-Ise cohort, which at its 1993 baseline recruited residents aged 40-69 years old from two areas in Gunma prefecture, Japan. The current study used information on pollinosis that was obtained from the follow-up survey in 2000. Mortality and migration data were obtained throughout the follow-up period up to December 2008. Proportional hazard models were used to examine the relation between pollinosis and mortality.RESULTS: At the 2000 follow-up survey, 12% (1 088 out of 8 796) of respondents reported that they had pollinosis symptoms in the past 12 months. During the 76 186 person-years of follow-up, 748 died from all-causes. Among these there were 37 external, 208 cardiovascular, 74 respiratory, and 329 neoplasm deaths. After adjusting for potential confounders, pollinosis was associated with significantly lower all-cause (hazard ratio 0.57 [95% confidence interval = 0.38 to 0.87]) and neoplasms mortality (hazard ratio 0.48 [95% confidence interval = 0.26 to 0.92]).CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Having an allergic disease (pollinosis) at an older age may be indicative of more viable immune functioning and be protective against certain causes of death. Further research is needed to determine the possible mechanisms underlying the association between pollinosis and mortality.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Shoko Konishi

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Journal of Housing and the Built Environment 2016, 31 (1): 171-173.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Dominika Polanska

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

American Journal of Human Biology 2016, 28 (2): 186-196.

Objective: Earlier fieldwork in rural areas of Hainan Island, China, demonstrated that during the course of economic development increasing differences had emerged in lifestyles within communities. It is possible that these variations might have stratified residents into subpopulations with different health attributes. This study examined the association between C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, a biomarker of future cardiovascular events, and personal lifestyle parameters and the degree of community-level economic development among rural communities. Methods: A cross-sectional field survey was undertaken in 19 rural communities in Hainan. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 1,744 participants. Dried blood spot samples were collected to measure high-sensitivity CRP concentration. Sex-stratified multilevel regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with CRP concentration among the participants. Results: While CRP concentration was negatively associated with being married and (more) education among men, for women CRP concentration was associated with the frequency of poultry consumption (P = 0.014) and the experience of migratory work in the previous year (P = 0.009). In addition, for females, living in communities with a greater degree of inequality, as indexed by the Gini coefficient, was also associated with increased CRP concentration (P = 0.003). Conclusion: Given that CRP concentration is a marker of future CVD risk, this study suggests that within these previously homogenous rural communities, economic development might have stratified people into population subgroups with a different CVD risk. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2015.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Y. Inoue

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Studia z dziejów anarchizmu (2). Szczecin : Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Grzegorz Piotrowski

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2016

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: A European Youth Revolt?. Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. 203-216.

The 1989 pro-democratic transition in Poland was partly influenced by the rapidly growing youth subcultures. Punk rock was one of the most visible of them, providing numerous young people with networking possibilities, fresh ideas and different (than of the dissidents) understanding of freedom. Punk was not only challenging aesthetically, but also contested communist authorities from a different perspective, looking into environmental protection or turning against compulsory military service. The punk ‘no future’ slogan was also very appealing for young people in crisis-driven Poland of 1980s and the flagship punk event in Poland – the Jarocin music festival – became a safe place for many young people. The aim of this chapter is to show how punk rock helped to overthrow communism in Poland through these processes.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Grzegorz Piotrowski

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2016

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Social Movement Studies 2016, 15 (2): 242-244.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Grzegorz Piotrowski

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Environmental Studies

Interactions 2016, 7 (1): 23-39.

The Occupy movement, which started with a group of activists in New York, soon grew into a global movement with protesters gathering and occupying public spaces worldwide. This article provides a critical discourse analysis and examines the representation of the global as well as local expressions of the Occupy movement in Latvian and Swedish major newspapers. It shifts the lens from the financial centres to the European periphery and asks how the movement is recontextualized in Latvia and Sweden. In the analysis four main discursive strategies are identified and discussed comparatively for the two countries; nomination, predication, perspectivation and mitigation. Although the discursive strategies in both contexts are similar, the recontextualization in Latvia and Sweden reflects the distinct historical and cultural circumstance in which the mediation of the Occupy movement emerged.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Anne Kaun

Iveta Jurkane-Hobein


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2016

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Culture and EducationSchool of Social Sciences
Media and Communication StudiesSociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Critical and Cultural Theory

Zhurnal Issledovanii Sotsial'noi Politiki / The Journal of Social Policy Studies 2015, 13 (2): 303-316.

The life course approach and, more specifically, the transition to adulthood have become important fields in social science. The creation of the family unit, finishing one's education, entering the labour market, accessing social security and progressing on the property ladder have all been the focus of systematic inquiries based on different theoretical paradigms that examine the backgrounds, trajectories and destinations of these transitions. This paper reviews debates in the contemporary field of transition research and argues that public policy outputs do not necessarily form coherent normative patterns. Nevertheless, they may provide an important reference framework for norms and expectations. This research has demonstrated systematic class, ethnic and gender differences in biographical pathways, despite the trend towards more deliberate biography construction. It is suggested here that the timing and sequence of the various stages of transition to adulthood depends on the compatibility existing between different life domains, i.e. the various societal and individual, structural and cultural levels. Such compatibility can be achieved by means of public policies that facilitate a "normal" transition through normative prescriptions and resource re-distribution.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Zhanna Kravchenko

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Stockholm : , 2015. (TRITA-INFRA-FMS ; 2015:05)

The strong research environment ”Beyond GDP growth - Scenarios for sustainable building and planning” explores what could happen in the Swedish society when growth is not seen as an end in itself but the goal is instead other qualities that society might wish to achieve. The purpose of this report is to describe the test version of scenarios for Sweden in 2050. The scenarios are qualitative and aim to create a basis for further development, discussion and analysis. The scenarios are so-called normative backcasting scenarios which means that they illustrate future states in which four sustainability targets (climate, land use, participation and resource security) are to be attained. The focus of the four scenarios are: 1) collaborative economy, 2) local self-sufficiency, 3) automisation for quality of life, and 4) circular economy in the welfare state. The scenarios are presented as descriptions of the future in Sweden, with a brief description of global trends and developments in Sweden that may explain the scenario assumptions. A lot of work remains. For example, the scenarios will be presented and discussed in several forums in the coming year, and the feedback from the discussions will be incorporated into a new version of the scenarios. Economic modeling of the scenarios will also be performed, and after that sustainability assessments of scenarios and in depth studies of parts of the scenarios.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Åsa Svenfelt

Paul Fuehrer

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Copenhagen : WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2015. ( ; )

This case study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of trends and inequalities in mortality of noncommunicable diseases in Estonia over the first decade of the 2000s. Decomposition of life expectancy by causes and age groups, and calculation of age-standardized rates for total and cause-specific mortality were used to assess differences over time and across social groups. The findings of the analysis showed significant overall reduction in mortality and increasing life expectancy in Estonia during the 2000s. The considerable improvement in mortality was observed in all groups distinguished by gender, ethnicity, educational level or by place of residence resulting in narrowing absolute inequalities, although the relative inequalities by educational level and by place of residence slightly increased. Despite progress, mortality rates remained higher among non-Estonians, the lower educated and residents of Ida-Viru county. Circulatory diseases and external causes of death contributed the most to the overall life expectancy at birth improvement and to the larger mortality decline among non-Estonians, the lower educated and in Ida-Viru county, with the opposite effect seen for infectious diseases.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Taavi Lai

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

PArticipation and COnflict 2015, 8 (3): 845-875.

Radical left-libertarian movements are often regarded as primarily seeking ways to accom-plish social and political change outside the framework of institutionalized politics. Previous research, however, has paid little or no attention to the question of these activists’ actual interactions with institu-tionalized politics, nor has it addressed the ways these interactions could be understood in relation to their overall strategies and ideology. This article therefore explores whether, and to what extent, such interaction actually occurs and analyzes the meanings and motives radical left-libertarian activists – from anarchist, autonomist, and anarcho-syndicalist groups – attribute to various types of political actions, ranging from voting and lobbying to protests and direct action. We furthermore compare activists in Po-land and Sweden, in order to scrutinize whether cross-country differences in “political opportunities” affects the activists’ political strategies and ideas about how social and political change can best be ac-complished. Contrary to popular beliefs and many activists’ own self-declarations, our analysis shows that radical left-libertarian groups do in fact try to achieve political change by interacting with institution-alized politics. While radical left-libertarian activists do in most cases prefer “direct action”, this article explores how a more complex relationship to institutionalized politics allows them to accomplish real and immediate changes at the grassroots level.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Grzegorz PiotrowskiMagnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Europe-Asia Studies 2015, 67 (10): 1635-1655.

Dramatic fluctuations have occurred in population health in Russia since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Although many factors have been examined in connection with this, there has been little focus on the role of the family, despite evidence from Western studies linking family functioning to individual health. Using data from 1,190 respondents collected during the Moscow Health Survey 2004 we examined the association between family relations and health outcomes. Poorer family functioning was strongly associated with worse self-rated physical health and mental health. Our results suggest that the proximal social environment of the family is important for understanding health outcomes in contemporary Russia.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ai Koyanagi

Andrew Stickley

Zhanna Kravchenko

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

PLoS ONE 2015, 10 (12): -.

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the association between psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in the general adult population. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the association using nationally-representative data from England.METHODS: Data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey was analyzed. The sample consisted of 7403 adults aged ≥16 years. Five forms of PLEs (mania/hypomania, thought control, paranoia, strange experience, auditory hallucination) were assessed with the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire. The association between PLEs and NSSI was assessed by multivariable logistic regression. Hierarchical models were constructed to evaluate the influence of alcohol and drug dependence, common mental disorders, and borderline personality disorder symptoms on this association.RESULTS: The prevalence of NSSI was 4.7% (female 5.2% and male 4.2%), while the figures among those with and without any PLEs were 19.2% and 3.9% respectively. In a regression model adjusted for sociodemographic factors and stressful life events, most types of PLE were significantly associated with NSSI: paranoia (OR 3.57; 95%CI 1.96-6.52), thought control (OR 2.45; 95%CI 1.05-5.74), strange experience (OR 3.13; 95%CI 1.99-4.93), auditory hallucination (OR 4.03; 95%CI 1.56-10.42), and any PLE (OR 2.78; 95%CI 1.88-4.11). The inclusion of borderline personality disorder symptoms in the models had a strong influence on the association between PLEs and NSSI as evidenced by a large attenuation in the ORs for PLEs, with only paranoia continuing to be significantly associated with NSSI. Substance dependence and common mental disorders had little influence on the association between PLEs and NSSI.CONCLUSIONS: Borderline personality disorder symptoms may be an important factor in the link between PLEs and NSSI. Future studies on PLEs and NSSI should take these symptoms into account.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ai Koyanagi

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Sleep 2015, 38 (12): 1875-1885.

Study Objectives: To assess the prevalence of sleep problems and their association with psychotic symptoms using a global database. Design: Community-based cross-sectional study. Setting: Data were analyzed from the World Health Organization's World Health Survey (WHS), a population-based survey conducted in 70 countries between 2002 and 2004. Patients or Participants: 261,547 individuals aged >= 18 years from 56 countries. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The presence of psychotic symptoms in the past 12 months was established using 4 questions pertaining to positive symptoms from the psychosis screening module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Sleep problems referred to severe or extreme sleep problems in the past 30 days. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the associations. The overall prevalence of sleep problems was 7.6% and ranged from 1.6% (China) to 18.6% (Morocco). Sleep problems were associated with significantly higher odds for at least one psychotic symptom in the vast majority of countries. In the pooled sample, after adjusting for demographic factors, alcohol consumption, smoking, and chronic medical conditions, having sleep problems resulted in an odds ratio (OR) for at least one psychotic symptom of 2.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.18-2.65). This OR was 1.59 (1.40-1.81) when further adjusted for anxiety and depression. Conclusions: A strong association between sleep problems and psychotic symptoms was observed globally. These results have clinical implications and serve as a basis for future studies to elucidate the causal association between psychotic symptoms and sleep problems.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ai Koyanagi

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

PLoS Medicine 2015, 12 (12): -.

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic inequalities in alcohol-related mortality have been documented in several European countries, but it is unknown whether the magnitude of these inequalities differs between countries and whether these inequalities increase or decrease over time.METHODS AND FINDINGS: We collected and harmonized data on mortality from four alcohol-related causes (alcoholic psychosis, dependence, and abuse; alcoholic cardiomyopathy; alcoholic liver cirrhosis; and accidental poisoning by alcohol) by age, sex, education level, and occupational class in 20 European populations from 17 different countries, both for a recent period and for previous points in time, using data from mortality registers. Mortality was age-standardized using the European Standard Population, and measures for both relative and absolute inequality between low and high socioeconomic groups (as measured by educational level and occupational class) were calculated. Rates of alcohol-related mortality are higher in lower educational and occupational groups in all countries. Both relative and absolute inequalities are largest in Eastern Europe, and Finland and Denmark also have very large absolute inequalities in alcohol-related mortality. For example, for educational inequality among Finnish men, the relative index of inequality is 3.6 (95% CI 3.3-4.0) and the slope index of inequality is 112.5 (95% CI 106.2-118.8) deaths per 100,000 person-years. Over time, the relative inequality in alcohol-related mortality has increased in many countries, but the main change is a strong rise of absolute inequality in several countries in Eastern Europe (Hungary, Lithuania, Estonia) and Northern Europe (Finland, Denmark) because of a rapid rise in alcohol-related mortality in lower socioeconomic groups. In some of these countries, alcohol-related causes now account for 10% or more of the socioeconomic inequality in total mortality. Because our study relies on routinely collected underlying causes of death, it is likely that our results underestimate the true extent of the problem.CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol-related conditions play an important role in generating inequalities in total mortality in many European countries. Countering increases in alcohol-related mortality in lower socioeconomic groups is essential for reducing inequalities in mortality. Studies of why such increases have not occurred in countries like France, Switzerland, Spain, and Italy can help in developing evidence-based policies in other European countries.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Johan P Mackenbach

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Austerity and Protest. Farnham : Ashgate, 2015. 83-107.

In this chapter, we compare the class composition of four types of anti-austerity demonstrations—Occupy/Indignados, trade union, May Day and other anti-austerity protests—with “new social movement” demonstrations. This allow us to, firstly, scrutinize whether contemporary anti-austerity protests attract more participants from the lower classes—in particular the working class—than from the upper strata. Since austerity policies tend to affect the general population differently, and in particular worsen the social conditions for the lower classes, it is interesting to see whether these policies mobilize the groups that are primarily affected by them. In this comparison, we explore and analyze survey data from 75 demonstrations collected within the research program “Caught in the Act of Protest: Contextualizing Contestation” (CCC). Secondly, we use the same data to examine the impact of social class on political attitudes among protesters, focusing issues that have been at the forefront during the last few years’ wave of protest: deepening social inequality, welfare privatization, and distrust in political elites. This analysis allow us to scrutinize to which degree the “framing” of the protests possibly contributes to the demonstrators’ attitudes towards austerity measures, economic inequality and their governments—or if the attitudes of the protesters are best explained by their individual social class, or even the national context in which the demonstration takes place.Social class is measured in two different ways. First, with the recently developed occupation-based Oesch class scheme, in which class is conceptualized as the individual’s “objective” position in the labor market. Secondly, we focus individuals’ self-categorizations of which class they belong to, i.e. their class identity, which can be seen as the “subjective” side of class. Our analysis also show the different merits of these two conceptualizations of class for analyzing political protests.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Anders Hylmö

Magnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: Sociologi genom litteratur. Lund : Arkiv förlag & tidskrift, 2015. 243-253.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Paavo Bergman


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Социальные Aспекты Здоровья Hаселения [Social Aspects of Population Health] 2015, 4 (44): -.

Background: Existence of systematic health differences between people with different socio-economic status has been confirmed by many studies. At the same time, social relations have been found to be an important determinant of health. Some scholars consider social relations as mediator between socioeconomic status and health. However, studies on this subject are scattered and inconsistent. At the same time, it remains unclear how social relations are distributed according to socio-economic status. The study, the results of which are presented in this work, is an attempt to examine relationship between socio-economic status, social relations and health.Purpose: The purposes of the study are: 1) to explore relationship between socio-economic status and social relations; 2) to confirm association between social relations and health; 3) to reveal whether social relations mediate association between socio-economic status and health.Methods: The study is based on data of the European Social Survey, Round 5. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression models. Three indicators were selected to measure social relations: presence of a family partner, confidentiality availability (presence of someone with whom it is possible to discuss intimate and personal matters) and social participation (communication with people for enjoyment rather than for reasons of work or duty). Socioeconomic status was assessed by the level of education, employment and financial situation. Self-rated health on a one-five scale was used as health (illness) indicator.Results: It was found out that socio-economically disadvantaged persons are at greater risk of social isolation, which, in turn, has negative effect on health. Social relations explain up to 21% of the socio-economic inequalities in self-rated health of the Russian people.Conclusions: The received results show the need to promote social support and social integration especially among people with low socio-economic status, which can contribute to reduce health inequalities.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Olga Kislitsyna

Sara Ferlander

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

PLoS ONE 2015, 10 (10): -.

Season of birth (SOB) has been investigated as one of the environmental factors that might epigenetically determine the physiology of individuals. This study investigated the role of SOB in the association between Quality of Life (QOL), a proxy of psychological stress status, and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration (i.e., inflammatory status) among 1,085 adults (aged 20-57 years old) in Hainan Island, China. High sensitivity CRP concentration was measured in dried blood spot samples, while the abbreviated version of the World Health Organization's QOL questionnaire was used to gather information on six QOL domains. Analysis stratified by three historically distinct age groups revealed a significant association between CRP concentration, SOB, QOL and an interaction between SOB and QOL among the youngest and oldest groups. In the oldest group, those born in the dry season had a higher CRP concentration with worse QOL whereas in the youngest group, there was a higher CRP concentration with better QOL. Annual per capita rice production, a proxy of population nutritional status in the year of birth, was found to predict CRP concentration only among the second oldest group. These findings suggest that the early environment might affect the immune response to psychological stress in adulthood and that its effect may differ by the time period in which people were born.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Aki Yazawa

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Journal of Adolescence 2015, 45 : 174-182.

This longitudinal study aimed to examine the association between depressive and anxiety symptoms and academic motivation by gender, and whether positive school and family factors would be associated with academic motivation, in spite of the presence of such symptoms. Study participants were predominantly economically disadvantaged youths aged 13-15 years in a Northeastern US urban public school system. The Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) served as the basis for a survey undertaken in 2003 and 2004 with information being used from students who participated at both time points (N = 643). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that depressive symptoms were negatively associated with academic motivation, while anxiety was positively related to academic motivation in both genders. Teacher support, school attachment and parental control were positively related to academic motivation even in the presence of internalizing problems. The negative association of depressive symptoms with academic motivation may be potentially decreased by attachment to school.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Andrea Elmelid

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

BMC Public Health 2015, 15 : -.

Background: Criminal victimisation and subjective well-being have both been linked to health outcomes, although as yet, comparatively little is known about the relationship between these two phenomena. In this study we used data from nine countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) to examine the association between different types of crime and subjective well-being. Methods: Data were obtained from 18,000 individuals aged 18 and above collected during the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) survey in 2010/11 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Ukraine. Information was obtained on respondents' experience of crime (violence and theft) and self-reported affective (happiness) and cognitive (life satisfaction) well-being. Ordered probit and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analyses were undertaken to examine the associations between these variables. Results: In pooled country analyses, experiencing violence was associated with significantly lower happiness and life satisfaction. Theft victimisation was associated with significantly reduced life satisfaction but not happiness. Among the individual countries, there was a more pronounced association between violent victimisation and reduced happiness in Kazakhstan and Moldova. Conclusions: The finding that criminal victimisation is linked to lower levels of subjective well-being highlights the importance of reducing crime in the fSU, and also of having effective support services in place for victims of crime to reduce its detrimental effects on health and well-being.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ai Koyanagi

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Krajobraz spolecznosciowy - Polska 2014 [Social landscape Poland 2014]. Warszawa : Centrum Wspierania Aktywności Lokalnej/CAL, 2015. 27-46.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Dominika Polanska

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: Urban Grassroots Movements in Central and Eastern Europe. Farnham : Ashgate, 2015. 195-218.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Dominika Polanska

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Budapest : Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 2015.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Daniel Mikecs

Grzegorz Piotrowski

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics 2015, 1 (3): 4-15.

The idea for this issue emerged in Budapest during a two-day workshop on social movements in Central and Eastern Europe. The ideas behind this workshop (and thus this issue) was to discuss the specificity of civil mobilizations in the region and to contribute to academic debates ongoing since the transformation of 1989. Is there a regional specificity of social activism? Is, and if yes, how social activism is different from other parts of the world? Does this imply different theoretical and analytical approach? Other questions, closely linked to these are, how Eastern Europe is defined, characterized and constructed? How the eastern European context and environment affect social movements and mobilizations in the region? The main goal of this article is to present the main discussions among social movement academics and practitioners in the region and to deconstruct some of the clichés about grassroots activism in Eastern Europe that arose over the years.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Grzegorz Piotrowski

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Journal of Psychiatric Research 2015, 69 : 19-26.

Previous studies examining the association between schizophrenia and pain have produced mixed results and data on sub-threshold psychosis or psychotic symptoms and pain are scarce. This study assessed the association between psychosis and severe pain among community-dwelling adults in 44 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where no data exists.Data on 235,370 adults aged ≥18 years from the World Health Survey (WHS) 2002-2004 were analyzed. The presence of past 12-month psychotic symptoms was established using four questions from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Participants were categorized into four mutually exclusive groups based on whether they had at least one psychotic symptom and/or a lifetime psychosis or schizophrenia diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the association between psychosis and past 30-day severe pain. The prevalence of severe pain among those with 0, 1, 2, ≥3 psychotic symptoms was 8.7%, 16.7%, 21.8%, 30.5% respectively. Compared to those with no psychotic symptoms or diagnosis, the ORs (95%CIs) were: at least one symptom without diagnosis [2.17 (1.99-2.38)]; no symptom with diagnosis [2.33 (1.71-3.17)]; at least one symptom and diagnosis [4.27 (3.20-5.71)]. Associations were partly mediated by chronic physical conditions, anxiety, and depression. Despite some limitations such as the use of a single-item question to assess pain, the results of this study suggest that individuals with psychotic symptoms or a psychosis diagnosis should be systematically assessed for pain, and if necessary, receive treatment for pain and its underlying conditions. Future research on the effect of pain management on psychosis outcome is warranted.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ai Koyanagi

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Schizophrenia Research 2015, 168 (1-2): 62-67.

Background: Psychotic disorders have been associated with suicidality but information on the association between subclinical psychosis and suicidality in the general adult population is scarce. Methods: Data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (n = 7403) were analyzed. This was a nationally representative survey of the English adult household population (aged ≥. 16. years). Five types of psychotic symptoms (hypomania, thought control, paranoia, strange experience, auditory hallucination) occurring in the past 12. months were assessed with the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire. Participants with probable or definite psychosis were excluded. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between psychotic symptoms and suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in the past 12. months. Results: The prevalence of at least one psychotic symptom was 5.4%. After adjusting for potential confounders including mental disorders, each individual psychotic symptom was significantly associated with suicidal ideation with odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 3.22 to 4.20. With the exception of thought control, all symptoms were also associated with significantly higher odds for suicide attempt (ORs 3.95 to 10.23). Having at least one psychotic symptom was associated with ORs of 3.13 (95%CI 2.09-4.68) and 3.84 (95%CI 1.67-8.83) for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt respectively. In addition, a greater number of psychotic symptoms was associated with higher odds for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Conclusions: Psychotic symptoms, regardless of the type, were independently associated with higher odds for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Assessment and management of suicide risk in individuals with psychotic symptoms may be important for suicide prevention.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

A. Koyanagi

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Journal of autism and developmental disorders 2015, 45 (12): 1447-1453.

To determine the best discriminative items for identifying young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), we conducted a secondary analysis using longitudinal cohort data that included the Japanese version of the 23-item modified checklist for autism in toddlers (M-CHAT-JV). M-CHAT-JV data at 18 months of age and diagnostic information evaluated at age 3 or later from 1851 Japanese children was used to isolate six highly discriminative items. Using data from two different community samples (n = 1851, n = 665) these items were shown to have comparable psychometric values with those of the full version. Our results suggest that these items might work as a short form screener for early identification of ASD in primary care settings where there are time constraints on screening. © 2015 The Author(s)

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Y. Kamio

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

International journal of sociology and social policy 2015, 35 (7-8): 565-580.

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore urban mobilisation patterns in two post-Soviet cities: Vilnius and Moscow. Both cities were subject to similar housing and urban policy during Soviet times, and they have implemented urban development using neoliberal market principles, provoking grassroots opposition from citizens to privatisation and marketisation of their housing environment and local public space. However, the differing conditions of democratic Lithuanian and authoritarian Russian public governance offer different opportunities and set different constraints for neighbourhood mobilisation. The purpose is to contrast local community mobilisations under the two regimes and highlight the differences between and similarities in the activists' repertoires of actions in two distinct political and economic urban settings. Design/methodology/approach - The paper employs qualitative methodology using data from semi-structured interviews conducted with community activists and state officials, presented using a comparative case study design. Findings - Although, citizens' mobilisations in the two cities are reactions to the neoliberalisation of housing and local public space, they take different forms. In Vilnius they are institutionalised and receive formal support from national and local authorities. Moreover, support from the EU encourages organisational development and provides material and cognitive resources for grassroots urban mobilisations. In contrast, residents' mobilisations in Moscow are informal and face fierce opposition from local authorities. However, even in an authoritarian setting, grassroots mobilisations evolve using creative strategies to circumvent institutional constraints. Originality/value - Little attention has been paid to grassroots urban mobilisations in post-Soviet cities. There is also a lack of comparative attempts to show variation in post-Soviet urban activism related to housing and local public space.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Christian Fröhlich

Jolanta Aidukaite


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: Urban Grassroots Movements in Central and Eastern Europe. Farnham : Ashgate, 2015. 247-272.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Jolanta Aidukaite

Kerstin Jacobsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 2015, 50 (11): 1753-1760.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

K. Laidra

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Democratization through Social Activism. Bucharest : Tritonic, 2015. 235-264.

In this paper I show the development of the environmental protection movement in Poland and its influence on the process of democratization that occurred in the 1980s. I present the social and political landscape of Poland of the 1980s, focusing on the dynamics within the dissident sector. I shall later describe briefly the few most important campaigns of those times and present the actors that took part in them. In the second part of the paper I will analyze the input of the environmental movement for the democratization process of Poland and on the development of the NGO sector and grassroots social activism. The environmental movement in Poland managed to mobilize different cohorts of the society compared to the mainstream opposition, introduced novel repertoire of contention and brought issues that were not within the mainstream public discourse. In the last part of the paper I argue that the continuity of the environmental movement in Poland and its influence on the democratic consolidation after 1989. In the paper I focus mostly on the radical strain of the environmental movement in Poland that is under-researched within the transitional and social movement literature and that seemed to set the tone for the whole sector in terms of agenda and repertoires of action.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Grzegorz Piotrowski

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Economic crisis, health systems and health in Europe. Copenhagen : WHO Regional Office for Europe / European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, 2015. 371-374.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Triin Habicht

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Urban geography 2015, 36 (5): 696-720.

In this paper, I revisit the role of Soviet legacy factors in explaining todays housing inequalities in a midsized post-Soviet city by investigating social, demographic, economic and geographic determinants of perceived housing quality. Building on a sample survey dataset (n = 3,000) that brings together both Soviet legacy effects and more universal influences on housing inequality, it is shown that various aspects of Soviet housing policy can be traced as well-preserved legacies today. The survey was conducted in 2009 in Stakhanov, Ukraine, and the method of analysis is binomial logistic regression. By capturing both the social costs attributed to the post-Soviet transition crisis as well as the underlying legacy factors inherited from the Soviet epoch, the findings suggest that any analysis of housing inequalities or residential segregation in the post-socialist city must come to terms with the impacts of socialist-era economic priorities on the urban social landscape.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Michael Gentile


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

SAGE Open 2015, 5 (2): 1-14.

This study explores factors that influence Swedish civil society organizations’ (CSOs) degree of activity at different geographical and administrative levels and, in particular, how they are affected by processes of Europeanization in the social welfare policy area. The present study is based on a national survey and includes approximately 1,600 Swedish CSOs. Despite the often claimed mismatch between the Swedish welfare model and European Union (EU) level social policy measures, EU membership has opened a new level of opportunities for activities for Swedish CSOs. The results show that Swedish CSOs are mostly active at the local level and very seldom at the European level. The strongest factor contributing to Swedish CSOs’ degree of activity at the European level is the perceived relevance of this level. Furthermore, resources have a great impact. CSOs that can claim strong representativeness and that have access to employed staff are more likely to be Europeanized.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Roberto Scaramuzzino

Magnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.

Since the 1990s, there have been striking changes in racial ideas, practices, exclusions and violence in Russia. By showing how the processes of globalization and racialization are interrelated, Zakharov seeks to demonstrate and explore the roles these play in Russia's new nationhood project. The book employs a new threefold theoretical elaboration of racialization, examining the process in terms of 'making', 'doing', and finally 'becoming'. These three elements are considered through discussions of a wide variety of aspects of Russian identity and nationalism, from the analysis of subcultures to explorations of nation-building. 

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Nikolay Zakharov

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

London : Routledge, 2015.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Steven Saxonberg

Kerstin Jacobsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Ethnic and Racial Studies 2015, 38 (10): 1707-1723.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Hans Andersson

Lia Antoniou


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Political ScienceSociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

City 2015, 19 (2-3): 274-296.

Squatting, or the use of property without the legal permission, and tenants’ activism are under-researched areas, in particular in the post-socialist context. Poland has been pointed out as extraordinary on the map of squatting in post-socialist Europe and a considerable number of tenants’ organizations are active in the country. What is most interesting is that squatters’ and tenants’ activists are forming alliances, despite their obvious differences in their organizational models, social composition, along with the specific motives and goals of their activism. The objective of this article is to examine the relations between the tenants’ and squatting movements in Poland by studying two cities where both movements are established and closely cooperating. In particular we are interested in the transformative power of such cooperation and we assume that cooperation between social movements results in negotiations and transformations of the social movement actors involved. The empirical foundations for this article are 50 interviews, whereof 30 interviews conducted in Warsaw with squatters and tenants’ movement activists and 20 interviews conducted with activists in Poznań. Warsaw and Poznań are, moreover, two Polish cities where the squatting movement is most vibrant and where squatters and tenants have achieved some considerable successes in their activities. The article argues against previous studies emphasizing access to abundant resources and identity alignment as crucial for the mobilization of collective and collaborative action. Instead, it argues that the lack of resources might also be driving social movements towards cooperation, as a kind of compensation. Moreover, our cases demonstrate that ideology and identity alignment in social movements create stagnation with regard to openness towards new allies. We therefore argue that a high degree of identity alignment and ideological consistency might discourage the formation of new alliances.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Dominika PolanskaGrzegorz Piotrowski

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Journal of Affective Disorders 2015, 178 : 142-148.

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that the prevalence of mental illness can vary between urban and rural locations. This study extended research to the countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) by assessing the association between settlement type and psychological distress and whether factors associated with psychological distress vary by settlement type.METHODS: Data on 18,000 adults aged ≥18 years from the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) survey undertaken in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine in 2010/11 were analyzed. Settlement types were country capitals, regional capitals, cities/other urban settlements, and villages. Psychological distress was defined as the country-specific highest quintile of a composite score based on 11 questions. Logistic regression analysis with random effects was used to examine associations.RESULTS: In a pooled country analysis, living in a smaller urban settlement or village was associated with significantly higher odds for psychological distress compared to living in the country capital. Lower social support was a strong correlate of psychological distress in all locations except capital cities.LIMITATIONS: The psychological distress measure has not been formally validated in the study countries.CONCLUSIONS: Lower levels of urbanicity are associated with greater psychological distress in the fSU countries. As many Western studies have linked greater urbanization to poorer mental health, this highlights the need for caution in extrapolating findings from one part of the world to others and the importance of undertaking research on the geographical correlates of mental health in different world regions.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ai Koyanagi

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

International Journal of Public Health 2015, 60 (4): 401-410.

Objectives: To evaluate educational inequalities in diabetes mortality in Europe in the 2000s, and to assess whether these inequalities differ between genders. Methods: Data were obtained from mortality registries covering 14 European countries. To determine educational inequalities in diabetes mortality, age-standardised mortality rates, mortality rate ratios, and slope and relative indices of inequality were calculated. To assess whether the association between education and diabetes mortality differs between genders, diabetes mortality was regressed on gender, educational rank and ‘gender × educational rank’. Results: An inverse association between education and diabetes mortality exists in both genders across Europe. Absolute educational inequalities are generally larger among men than women; relative inequalities are generally more pronounced among women, the relative index of inequality being 2.8 (95 % CI 2.0–3.9) in men versus 4.8 (95 % CI 3.2–7.2) in women. Gender inequalities in diabetes mortality are more marked in the highest than the lowest educated. Conclusions: Education and diabetes mortality are inversely related in Europe in the 2000s. This association differs by gender, indicating the need to take the socioeconomic and gender dimension into account when developing public health policies. © 2015 The Author(s)

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

H. Vandenheede

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

BMC Public Health 2015, 15 (1): -.

Background: The association between obesity and back pain has mainly been studied in high-income settings with inconclusive results, and data from older populations and developing countries are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess this association in nine countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America among older adults using nationally-representative data. Methods: Data on 42116 individuals ≥50 years who participated in the Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe (COURAGE) study conducted in Finland, Poland, and Spain in 2011-2012, and the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) conducted in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa in 2007-2010 were analysed. Information on measured height and weight available in the two datasets was used to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI). Self-reported back pain occurring in the past 30 days was the outcome. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between BMI and back pain. Results: The prevalence of back pain ranged from 21.5% (China) to 57.5% (Poland). In the multivariable analysis, compared to BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2, significantly higher odds for back pain were observed for BMI ≥35 kg/m2 in Finland (OR 3.33), Russia (OR 2.20), Poland (OR 2.03), Spain (OR 1.56), and South Africa (OR 1.48); BMI 30.0-34.0 kg/m2 in Russia (OR 2.76), South Africa (OR 1.51), and Poland (OR 1.47); and BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 in Russia (OR 1.51) and Poland (OR 1.40). No significant associations were found in the other countries. Conclusions: The strength of the association between obesity and back pain may vary by country. Future studies are needed to determine the factors contributing to differences in the associations observed. © 2015 Koyanagi et al.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

A. Koyanagi

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Social Movement Studies 2015, 14 (6): 713-732.

This article considers the strategic choices that radical activists face when a cycle of contention ends. It investigates the re-orientation of the autonomous anarchists or left-libertarian activist milieu in Sweden after the riots at the Gothenburg summit in 2001, which ended a cycle of anti-globalization protests in Sweden. The article identifies five strategies by which this activist milieu attempted to reconstruct collective agency, build a new alliance structure and renew the repertoire of contention: 1) rescaling and targeting of micro-politics; 2) moving from secluded to open communities; 3) rethinking collective agency with the help of a new movement theory; 4) reversing dominant discourses and opening up discursive space; and 5) redefining militancy and shelving of violent confrontation. The study builds on activist interviews and ethnographic research in Stockholm and Malmö.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Adrienne Sörbom

Kerstin Jacobsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

This thesis studies different aspects of reproductive behaviour on the international, national, and local levels in post-communist countries. The main focus is Ukraine, where fertility rates are very low and the population is in severe decline. The studies contribute new knowledge about the applicability of a family policy typology developed on the basis of Western countries’ experience for post-communist countries, and about the influence of family policies on fertility levels in these countries. Moreover, the studies investigate whether and how macro-level influences impact on individuals’ reproductive behaviour. Four articles are included in the thesis:Family policies in Ukraine and Russia in comparative perspective analyses the institutional set-up of family policies in both countries and compares the findings to 31 other countries. The results show that Ukrainian family policies support a male-breadwinner type of family, while the benefit levels of Russian family policies are low, compelling families to rely on relatives or the childcare market.Family policies and fertility - Examining the link between family policy institutions and fertility rates in 33 countries 1995-2010 comparatively explores whether family policies have an effect on fertility rates across the case-countries. Pooled time-series regression analysis demonstrates that gender-egalitarian family policies are connected to higher fertility rates, but that this effect is smaller at higher rates of female labour force participation.To have or not to have a child? Perceived constraints on childbearing in a lowest-low fertility context investigates the influence of the perception of postmodern values, childcare availability and environmental pollution on individuals’ fertility intentions in a city in Eastern Ukraine. It is shown that women who already have a child perceive environmental pollution as a constraint on their fertility intentions.Prevalence and correlates of the use of contraceptive methods by women in Ukraine in 1999 and 2007 examines changes in the prevalence and the correlates of the use of contraceptive methods. The use of modern contraceptive methods increased during the period and the use of traditional methods decreased, while the overall prevalence did not change. Higher exposure to messages about family planning in the media is correlated with the use of modern contraceptive methods.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ilkka Henrik Mäkinen

Katharina Wesolowski


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

CBEESSCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Drug And Alcohol Dependence 2015, 150 : 105-111.

BACKGROUND: Despite evidence that many people engage in solitary drinking and that it might be associated with negative consequences, to date, little research has focused on this form of drinking behaviour. This study examined the prevalence and factors associated with solitary drinking, and assessed whether it is linked with hazardous alcohol use among males in nine countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU).METHODS: Data came from a cross-sectional population-based survey undertaken in 2010/11 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. Information was obtained on the frequency of solitary drinking among male regular drinkers (i.e., those consuming alcoholic drinks at least once a month), and on problem drinking (CAGE) and heavy episodic drinking (HED). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables.RESULTS: The prevalence of occasional and frequent solitary drinking ranged from 8.4% (Georgia) to 42.4% (Azerbaijan), and 3.1% (Kazakhstan) to 8.2% (Armenia), respectively. Solitary drinking was associated with being older, divorced/widowed, living alone, having a bad/very bad household financial situation, lower levels of social support, and poor self-rated health. Occasional solitary drinking was linked to problem drinking and HED, while frequent solitary alcohol use was related to problem drinking.CONCLUSIONS: Solitary drinking is relatively common among male regular drinkers in the fSU and is linked to older age, social and economic disadvantage, and hazardous alcohol use.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ai Koyanagi

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Public Health 2015, 29 (4): 403-410.

OBJECTIVES: To examine which factors are associated with feeling lonely in Moscow, Russia, and to determine whether loneliness is associated with worse health.STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.METHODS: Data from 1190 participants were drawn from the Moscow Health Survey. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine which factors were associated with feeling lonely and whether loneliness was linked to poor health.RESULTS: Almost 10% of the participants reported that they often felt lonely. Divorced and widowed individuals were significantly more likely to feel lonely, while not living alone and having greater social support reduced the risk of loneliness. Participants who felt lonely were more likely to have poor self-rated health (odds ratio [OR]: 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.38-3.76), and have suffered from insomnia (OR: 2.43; CI: 1.56-3.77) and mental ill health (OR: 2.93; CI: 1.88-4.56).CONCLUSIONS: Feeling lonely is linked to poorer health in Moscow. More research is now needed on loneliness and the way it affects health in Eastern Europe, so that appropriate interventions can be designed and implemented to reduce loneliness and its harmful impact on population well-being in this setting.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ai Koyanagi

Andrew Stickley

Mall LeinsaluSara Ferlander

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Today, individuals can relatively easily meet and communicate with each other over great distances due to increased mobility and advances in communication technology. This also allows intimate relationships to be maintained over large geographical distances. Despite these developments, long-distance relationships (LDRs), i.e. intimate relationships maintained over geographical distance, remain understudied. The present thesis aims to fill this knowledge gap and investigates how intimate partners who live so far away from each other that they cannot meet every day make their relationship ongoing beyond face-to-face interaction.Theoretically, this study departs from a symbolic interactionist viewpoint that invites us to study phenomena from the actor’s perspective. Conceptually, the thesis builds on the recent development in sociology of intimate lives that sees intimacy as a relational quality that has to be worked on to be sustained, and that focuses on the practices that make a relationship a relationship. Empirically, the thesis is based upon 19 in-depth interviews with individuals from Latvia with long-distance relationship experience.The thesis consists of four articles. Article I studies the context in which LDRs in Latvia are maintained, focusing on the normative constraints that complicate LDR maintenance. Article II analyses how intimacy is practiced over geographical distance. Article III examines how long-distance partners manage the experience of the time they are together and the time they are geographically apart. Article IV explores the aspect of idealization in LDRs. Overall, the thesis argues for the critical role of imagination in relationship maintenance. The relationship maintenance strategies identified within the articles are imagination-based mediated communication (creating sensual/embodied intimacy, emotional intimacy, daily intimacy and imagined individual intimacy); time-work strategies that enable long-distance partners to deal with the spatiotemporal borders of the time together and the time apart; and creating bi-directional idealization. The thesis is also one of the few works in the field of intimate lives in Eastern Europe and analyses the normative complications that long-distance partners face in their relationship maintenance in Latvia.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Kerstin Jacobsson

Iveta Jurkane-Hobein


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Alcoholism 2015, 39 (3): 540-547.

BACKGROUND: Binge drinking may be linked to problematic eating behavior, although as yet, little research has been conducted on this association. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between binge drinking and eating problems in Russian adolescents.METHODS: Data were drawn from the Social and Health Assessment, a cross-sectional school-based survey of 6th to 10th grade students (aged 12 to 17 years old) carried out in Arkhangelsk, Russia. Information was collected on various eating problems (worries about weight, feeling fat, excessive eating, fasting and excessive exercise, and purging behaviors) and binge drinking (5 or more drinks in a row). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between binge drinking and eating problems.RESULTS: Among the 2,488 adolescents included in the statistical analysis, nearly 50% of girls expressed worries about their weight, while 35.0 and 41.5% of adolescent boys and girls reported excessive eating, respectively. The prevalence of purging behaviors (vomiting/using laxatives) was, however, much lower among both sexes (females-2.6%; males-3.3%). In a regression model adjusted for demographic factors and depressive symptoms, among girls, binge drinking was associated with 5 of the 6 eating problems with odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 1.21 (upset about weight gain) to 1.68 (excessive eating). For boys, binge drinking was linked to feeling overweight (OR: 1.47, confidence interval [CI]: 1.20 to 1.81) and vomiting/used laxatives (OR: 4.13, CI: 1.58 to 10.80).CONCLUSIONS: Many adolescents in Russia report problematic eating attitudes and behaviors, and eating problems are associated with binge drinking. More research is now needed in this setting to better understand adolescent eating problems and their association with alcohol misuse, so that contextually suitable interventions can be implemented to reduce these behaviors and mitigate their potentially detrimental effects.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ai Koyanagi

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Europe-Asia Studies 2015, 67 (10): 1547-1570.

This essay examines the prevalence and the correlates of the use of contraceptive methods in Ukraine in 1999 and 2007. Between those years, the overall use of contraceptive methods decreased slightly. However, the use of modern contraceptive methods, and especially the use of condoms, increased considerably, while the use of traditional contraceptive methods decreased. Higher exposure to messages about family planning in the media was correlated with the use of modern contraceptive methods. It is posited that the results suggest that state policies influence individual behaviour in contraception.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Katharina Wesolowski


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

CBEESSCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Post-Soviet Affairs 2015, 31 (3): 201-223.

Building on data from a survey (n = 4000) conducted in the eastern Ukrainian city of Luhansk in late 2013, this article explores the link between national identity and foreign policy preferences in the Donbas, suggesting that they are increasingly conflated in distinct geopolitical identities. Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression are used to compare the characteristics of pro-West and uncertain individuals with those of the pro-Russian/Soviet individuals, with preferences on North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and European Union (EU) accession underlying this distinction. The results show that geopolitical identities in Luhansk have a complex political stratigraphy that includes demographic, socioeconomic, cultural, and attitudinal components. The pro-West constituency is younger, not Russian but often including members of other ethnic groups, well educated, more tolerant toward sexual minorities, generally more satisfied with life, and it also speaks better English. Conversely, those with pro-Russia/Soviet geopolitical identities are older, Russian, low educated, less fluent in English, intolerant, and unsatisfied with their lives. Uncertainty is more randomly distributed among social groups, indicating different underlying causes related to the source of the respondents’ uncertainty.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Michael Gentile


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Sexuality & Culture 2015, 19 (2): 388-406.

Not all couples live together; some partners live far from each other, causing potential challenges to relationship maintenance in terms of keeping the relationship ongoing. In the present study, complications in relationship maintenance experienced by heterosexual long-distance partners in post-Soviet Latvia are analysed. The complications are examined in the light of social norms as conceptualized by Parsons and Shils (Toward a general theory of action. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1962) in their notion of dominant value orientations. The article suggests that the norm conflicts experienced by the long-distance partners are illustrative of the value transitions in societies undergoing rapid social change, such as in Latvia. The analysis is based on 19 in-depth interviews with individuals with long-distance relationship (LDR) experience. The social norms complicating or hindering LDR maintenance were found to be generation-specific and gender-specific. The interviewees born and raised in Soviet Latvia referred to collective-oriented norms while the interviewees born in the independent neo-liberal Latvia referred to their own interests that complicated their LDR maintenance.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Iveta Jurkane-Hobein


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

2015, : -.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Iveta Jurkane-Hobein


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Innovative Issues and Approaches in Social Sciences 2015, 8 (1): 223-241.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Iveta Jurkane-Hobein


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Qualitative Sociology 2015, 38 (2): 185-203.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Iveta Jurkane-Hobein


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Tobacco Control 2015, 24 (2): 190-197.

BACKGROUND: The US Food and Drug Administration has established a policy of substantially discounting the health benefits of reduced smoking in its evaluation of proposed regulations because of the cost to smokers of the supposed lost pleasure they suffer by no longer smoking. This study used data from nine countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) to explore this association in a setting characterised by high rates of (male) smoking and smoking-related mortality.METHODS: Data came from a cross-sectional population-based study undertaken in 2010/2011 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Information was collected from 18 000 respondents aged ≥18 on smoking status (never, ex-smoking and current smoking), cessation attempts and nicotine dependence. The association between these variables and self-reported happiness was examined using ordered probit regression analysis.RESULTS: In a pooled country analysis, never smokers and ex-smokers were both significantly happier than current smokers. Smokers with higher levels of nicotine dependence were significantly less happy than those with a low level of dependence.CONCLUSIONS: This study contradicts the idea that smoking is associated with greater happiness. Moreover, of relevance for policy in the fSU countries, given the lack of public knowledge about the detrimental effects of smoking on health but widespread desire to quit reported in recent research, the finding that smoking is associated with lower levels of happiness should be incorporated in future public health efforts to help encourage smokers to quit by highlighting that smoking cessation may result in better physical and emotional health.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ai Koyanagi

Andrew Stickley

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 2015, 50 (4): 539-547.

Purpose: The psychological effects of community violence exposure among inner-city youth are severe, yet little is known about its prevalence and moderators among suburban middle-class youth. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of community violence exposure among suburban American youth, to examine associated posttraumatic stress and to evaluate factors related to severe vs. less severe posttraumatic stress, such as co-existing internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as the effects of teacher support, parental warmth and support, perceived neighborhood safety and conventional involvement in this context. Method: Data were collected from 780 suburban, predominantly Caucasian middle-class high-school adolescents in the Northeastern US during the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) study. Results: A substantial number of suburban youth were exposed to community violence and 24 % of those victimized by community violence developed severe posttraumatic stress. Depressive symptoms were strongly associated with higher levels and perceived teacher support with lower levels of posttraumatic stress. Conclusion: Similar to urban youth, youth living in suburban areas in North American settings may be affected by community violence. A substantial proportion of these youth reports severe posttraumatic stress and high levels of comorbid depressive symptoms. Teacher support may have a protective effect against severe posttraumatic stress and thus needs to be further assessed as a potential factor that can be used to mitigate the detrimental effects of violence exposure.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

S. Löfving–Gupta

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

American Journal of Health Behavior 2015, 39 (1): 99-108.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the factors associated with weapon carrying in school among Czech, Russian, and US adolescents.METHODS: Logistic regression was used to analyze data drawn from the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA).RESULTS: Violent behavior (perpetration / victimization) was linked to adolescent weapon carrying in all countries. Substance use was associated with weapon carrying among boys in all countries. Greater parental warmth reduced the odds for weapon carrying among Czech and Russian adolescents. Associating with delinquent peers was important for weapon carrying only among US adolescents.CONCLUSIONS: Factors associated with weapon carrying in school vary among countries although violent behavior and substance use may be associated with weapon carrying across countries.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ai Koyanagi

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

European Journal of Public Health 2015, 25 (2): 216-218.

The recent tobacco excise tax increase and economic crisis reduced cigarette affordability in Ukraine dramatically. Using survey data from Stakhanov (n = 1691), eastern Ukraine, we employed logistic regression analysis to examine whether socio-economic status was associated with the continuation of smoking in this environment in 2009. Low education (in women) and ownership of household assets (in men) were negatively associated with smoking continuation, whereas a positive association was found for personal monthly income. Our findings suggest that in a low-income setting where efficient cessation services are absent, reduced cigarette affordability may have only a limited effect in cutting down smoking.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Anton E Kunst

Andrew Stickley

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

VOLUNTAS - International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 2015, 26 (4): 1438-1459.

As a consequence of European integration and the EU's expanded social policy, more citizens' interests are today organized at EU level. In the case of the women's movement, there is an umbrella organization-the European Women's Lobby (EWL)-in place in Brussels coordinating national women's movements. The EWL demands from its members that they be nationwide and representative umbrellas, which has structuring effects on the women's movements at domestic level. This article proposes to study the Europeanization of civil society through the lens of meta-organization theory (Ahrne & Brunsson 2008). Europeanization can thus be understood as a process which imposes meta-organizational structures on civil society. Through a case study of the Swedish Women's Lobby, this article analyses the consequences for the women's movement in Sweden of the meta-organizational structure brought into being by Europeanization.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Eva Karlberg

Kerstin Jacobsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2015, 69 : 207-217.

BACKGROUND: Over the last decades of the 20th century, a widening of the gap in death rates between upper and lower socioeconomic groups has been reported for many European countries. For most countries, it is unknown whether this widening has continued into the first decade of the 21st century.METHODS: We collected and harmonised data on mortality by educational level among men and women aged 30-74 years in all countries with available data: Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, England and Wales, Belgium, France, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Hungary, Lithuania and Estonia.RESULTS: Relative inequalities in premature mortality increased in most populations in the North, West and East of Europe, but not in the South. This was mostly due to smaller proportional reductions in mortality among the lower than the higher educated, but in the case of Lithuania and Estonia, mortality rose among the lower and declined among the higher educated. Mortality among the lower educated rose in many countries for conditions linked to smoking (lung cancer, women only) and excessive alcohol consumption (liver cirrhosis and external causes). In absolute terms, however, reductions in premature mortality were larger among the lower educated in many countries, mainly due to larger absolute reductions in mortality from cardiovascular disease and cancer (men only). Despite rising levels of education, population-attributable fractions of lower education for mortality rose in many countries.CONCLUSIONS: Relative inequalities in premature mortality have continued to rise in most European countries, and since the 1990s, the contrast between the South (with smaller inequalities) and the East (with larger inequalities) has become stronger. While the population impact of these inequalities has further increased, there are also some encouraging signs of larger absolute reductions in mortality among the lower educated in many countries. Reducing inequalities in mortality critically depends upon speeding up mortality declines among the lower educated, and countering mortality increases from conditions linked to smoking and excessive alcohol consumption such as lung cancer, liver cirrhosis and external causes.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Johan P Mackenbach

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Social Science and Medicine 2015, 127 : 51-62.

Link and Phelan have proposed to explain the persistence of health inequalities from the fact that socioeconomic status is a "fundamental cause" which embodies an array of resources that can be used to avoid disease risks no matter what mechanisms are relevant at any given time. To test this theory we compared the magnitude of inequalities in mortality between more and less preventable causes of death in 19 European populations, and assessed whether inequalities in mortality from preventable causes are larger in countries with larger resource inequalities. We collected and harmonized mortality data by educational level on 19 national and regional populations from 16 European countries in the first decade of the 21st century. We calculated age-adjusted Relative Risks of mortality among men and women aged 30-79 for 24 causes of death, which were classified into four groups: amenable to behavior change, amenable to medical intervention, amenable to injury prevention, and non-preventable. Although an overwhelming majority of Relative Risks indicate higher mortality risks among the lower educated, the strength of the education-mortality relation is highly variable between causes of death and populations. Inequalities in mortality are generally larger for causes amenable to behavior change, medical intervention and injury prevention than for non-preventable causes. The contrast between preventable and non-preventable causes is large for causes amenable to behavior change, but absent for causes amenable to injury prevention among women. The contrast between preventable and non-preventable causes is larger in Central & Eastern Europe, where resource inequalities are substantial, than in the Nordic countries and continental Europe, where resource inequalities are relatively small, but they are absent or small in Southern Europe, where resource inequalities are also large. In conclusion, our results provide some further support for the theory of "fundamental causes". However, the absence of larger inequalities for preventable causes in Southern Europe and for injury mortality among women indicate that further empirical and theoretical analysis is necessary to understand when and why the additional resources that a higher socioeconomic status provides, do and do not protect against prevailing health risks.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

J. P. Mackenbach

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2015

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Population, Space and Place 2015, 21 (1): 86-101.

The influence of perceived macro-level constraints on childbearing on women’s fertility decision-making on the micro level was analysed in Stakhanov, a city with a shrinking population in Eastern Ukraine. The perceived macro-level constraints employed in the study were related to childcare arrangements, value changes regarding family formation, and pollution of the environment and health concerns. To study the influence of those constraints, logistic regression analyses were conducted whereby first-birth and second-birth intentions were analysed separately. None of the constraints influenced childless women’s first-birth intentions. Instead, sociodemographic factors such as age and civil status appeared as significant predictors. That none of the constraints influenced childless women’s fertility intentions is interpreted to be an indicator of the strong norm of having at least one child in Ukraine.For women with one child, the fact that pollution of the environment and health concerns connected to childbirth were perceived as a constraint on childbearing at the national level was significantly associated with lower second-birth intentions. Women in Ukraine seem to perceive environmental pollution as a constraint on their fertility, possibly influenced by public discourse related to the health consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster. Moreover, the inhabitants of Stakhanov itself have experienced environmental pollution at close range. Those factors together could explain why environmental pollution and poor health were seen as constraints on childbearing at the national level, and the negative influence these had on second-birth intentions.It is argued that environmental pollution should be considered a factor influencing fertility decision-making. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Katharina Wesolowski


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

CBEESSCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Archives of Suicide Research 2015, 19 (1): 117-130.

Russia has one of the highest suicide mortality rates in the world. This study investigates the development of Russian suicide mortality over a longer time period in order to provide a context within which the contemporary high level might be better understood. Annual sex- and age-specific suicide-mortality data for Russia for the period 1870-2007 were studied, where available. Russian suicide mortality increased 11-fold over the period. Trends in male and female suicide developed similarly, although male suicide rates were consistently much higher. From the 1990s suicide has increased in a relative sense among the young (15-34), while the high suicide mortality among middle-aged males has reduced. Changes in Russian suicide mortality over the study period may be attributable to modernisation processes.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Andrew Stickley

Ilkka Henrik Mäkinen

Tanya Jukkala

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2015

School/Centre

CBEESSCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Nordisk Østforum 2014, 3 : 278-281.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Zhanna Kravchenko

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2014

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Culture Unbound. Journal of Current Cultural Research 2014, 6 : 305-326.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Kerstin Jacobsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2014

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Det hållbara samhället. Stockholm : Liber, 2014. 288-304.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Johan Lindgren

Magnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2014

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: On conference website. : .

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Adrienne Sörbom

Jan Jämte


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2014

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: RC36 Alienation Theory and Research (host committee). : .

The report is going to consider ‘tolerance’ as an ideological frame. A critical assessment will be done of tolerance on the part of Belarusian people.It is going to be shown that a) tolerance as an invariably beneficent trait of the Belarusian people is quite mistaken, b) that the ‘tolerance’ frame interferes with democratic governance principles as accepted and practiced worldwide, c) that responses to public dissatisfaction (part and parcel of normal governance systems) in Belarus are complicated due to persistence of the ‘tolerance’ frame; and d) that for the more fortunate and sustainable democratic outcomes in Belarus a regular public/authority feedback should be restored by getting rid of ‘tolerance’ as part of the ideological apparatus.The idea of this paper concerns ‘tolerance’ as it enters democratic governance schemes and might be leading to their malfunction. The word tolerance is widely used in liberal democracies and is ascribed a positive meaning. However, it appears that tolerance is not necessarily a virtue. The word tolerance has negative connotations as it acknowledges a problem. The danger with the ideological frame ‘tolerance’ is that it might enter democratic governance models where it can effectively block public responses to dissatisfaction. This way, the system is incapable of conveying public dissatisfaction, and the stimulus is removed for the authorities to improve their work. This might be evident in Belarus, where people have little opportunity to convey their dissatisfaction, given that they are considered as well as consider themselves ‘tolerant’. In this case, their tolerance, being mere holding on, is a potential volcano.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Aleh Ivanou

Nikolay Zakharov

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2014

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Dagens Nyheter 2014, 5 apri : 6-.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Håkan Thörn

Adrienne SörbomJoakim EkmanMagnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2014

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Political ScienceSociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

BMC Public Health 2014, 14 : -.

BACKGROUND: Cause-of-death data linked to information on socioeconomic position form one of the most important sources of information about health inequalities in many countries. The proportion of deaths from ill-defined conditions is one of the indicators of the quality of cause-of-death data. We investigated educational differences in the use of ill-defined causes of death in official mortality statistics.METHODS: Using age-standardized mortality rates from 16 European countries, we calculated the proportion of all deaths in each educational group that were classified as due to "Symptoms, signs and ill-defined conditions". We tested if this proportion differed across educational groups using Chi-square tests.RESULTS: The proportion of ill-defined causes of death was lower than 6.5% among men and 4.5% among women in all European countries, without any clear geographical pattern. This proportion statistically significantly differed by educational groups in several countries with in most cases a higher proportion among less than secondary educated people compared with tertiary educated people.CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence for educational differences in the distribution of ill-defined causes of death. However, the differences between educational groups were small suggesting that socioeconomic inequalities in cause-specific mortality in Europe are not likely to be biased.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ivana Kulhánová

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2014

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Baltic Worlds 2014, online (June 27): -.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Ekaterina TarasovaKarin Edberg

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2014

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Political ScienceSociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: Configuring Value Conflicts in Markets. Cheltenham : Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014. 159-177.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Christina Garsten

Adrienne Sörbom

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2014

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Fokus 14. : Myndigheten för ungdoms- och civilsamhällesstudier, 2014. 157-170.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Lisa Kings

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2014

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Baltic Worlds 2014, VII (4): 60-.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Dominika Polanska

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2014

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Interface 2014, 6 (2): 328-356.

Squatting has been present in Central and Eastern Europe since the fall of state socialism and Poland is pointed out as exceptional in the development of squatting in the area. However, looking closer at the squatting environment in Warsaw reveals that the movements’ successes are a result of a cross-movement alliance with the tenants’ movement. The cooperation between squatters and tenants have in a short period of time gained a strong negotiating position vis-à-vis local authorities in Warsaw. The objective of this article is to analyse the mechanisms behind the cooperation of squatters’ and the tenants’ movements and in particular the cognitive processes behind the formation of an alliance. Specific research questions posed in the article cover how the cooperation between the squatting movement and the tenants’ movement emerge in the city, and what cognitive processes characterize the cooperation. The empirical material for the study consists of altogether 40 semi-structured interviews with squatters and activists in the tenants’ movement in the city. It is argued in the article that the development of alliance formation includes processes of defining common goals, underplaying of differences, and recognizing common strength. Moreover, in order to reach the point when the alliance is formed the process of recognition of common strength needs to be successful in both movements resulting in a shared perception of empowerment.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Dominika Polanska

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2014

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Canadian journal of psychiatry 2014, 59 (10): 539-547.

Objectives: To compare frequencies of suicide attempt repetition in immigrants and local European populations, and the timing of repetition in these groups. Method: Data from 7 European countries, comprising 10 574 local and 3032 immigrant subjects, were taken from the World Health Organization European Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour and the ensuing Monitoring Suicidal Behaviour in Europe (commonly referred to as MONSUE) project. The relation between immigrant status and repetition of suicide attempt within 12-months following first registered attempt was analyzed with binary logistic regression, controlling for sex, age, and method of attempt. Timing of repetition was controlled for sex, age, and the recommended type of aftercare. Results: Lower odds of repeating a suicide attempt were found in Eastern European (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.41 to 0.61, P < 0.001) and non-European immigrants (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.51 to 0.90, P < 0.05), compared with the locals. Similar patterns were identified in the sex-specific analysis. Eastern European immigrants tended to repeat their attempt much later than locals (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.93, P < 0.05). In general, 32% of all repetition occurred within 30 days. Repetition tended to decrease with age and was more likely in females using harder methods in their index attempt (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.54, P < 0.01). Large variations in the general repetition frequency were identified between the collecting centres, thus influencing the results. Conclusions: The lower repetition frequencies in non-Western immigrants, compared with locals, in Europe stands in contrast to their markedly higher tendency to attempt suicide in general, possibly pointing to situational stress factors related to their suicidal crisis that are less persistent over time. Our findings also raise the possibility that suicide attempters and repeaters constitute only partially overlapping populations.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

C. B. Lipsicas

Ilkka Henrik Mäkinen


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2014

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: The City Is Ours. Oakland CA : PM Press, 2014. 233-253.

Squatters and autonomous movements have been in the forefront of radical politics in Europe for nearly a half-century—from struggles against urban renewal and gentrification, to large-scale peace and environmental campaigns, to spearheading the antiausterity protests sweeping the continent. Through the compilation of the local movement histories of eight different cities—including Amsterdam, Berlin, and other famous centers of autonomous insurgence along with underdocumented cities such as Poznan and Athens—The City Is Ours paints a broad and complex picture of Europe’s squatting and autonomous movements. Each chapter focuses on one city and provides a clear chronological narrative and analysis accompanied by photographs and illustrations. The chapters focus on the most important events and developments in the history of these movements. Furthermore, they identify the specificities of the local movements and deal with issues such as the relation between politics and subculture, generational shifts, the role of confrontation and violence, and changes in political tactics. 

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Grzegorz Piotrowski

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2014

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: De arbetslösa i Marienthal /Marie Jahoda, Paul F. Lazarsfeld & Hans Zeisel. Lund : Arkiv förlag & tidskrift, 2014. 173-188.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Paavo Bergman


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2014

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

International Sociology 2014, 29 (6): 565-583.

While corroborating the fact that the majority of protesters attend demonstrations together with friends, family and/or fellow members of their organizations, this article shows that protesting alone remains an option for many people – under the right circumstances. Through multilevel analysis of survey data from participants in 69 demonstrations in eight Western European countries, the authors study lone protesters in different types of demonstrations. On the individual level, they show that protesting alone is closely linked to relative detachment from interpersonal mobilizing networks, as well as to short decision times. The authors also develop demonstration-level explanations for why lone protesters are more common in some demonstrations than in others. Precipitating events and inclusive social movement communities increase the proportion of lone demonstrators, which is also higher in static rallies than in moving demonstrations. These factors arguably make personal networks less crucial for protest mobilization.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Mattias Wahlström

Magnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2014

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2014, 23 (9): 773-781.

This study examined whether internalizing problems, parental warmth and teacher support were associated with adolescents' experience of future peer victimization in school. Data were drawn from two rounds of the longitudinal Social and Health Assessment (SAHA). Study subjects comprised 593 US urban adolescents (aged 13.8 +/- A 0.8 years; 56 % female). Results showed that there was a substantial degree of continuity in peer victimization over a 1-year period. The presence of internalizing (anxiety, depressive and somatic) symptoms at baseline was associated with an increased risk of peer victimization over time. Both parental warmth and teacher support were uniquely associated with a lower risk for peer victimization. Implications of these findings for prevention efforts are discussed.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Elisabeth Karlsson

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2014

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Ab Imperio 2014, 1 : 460-464.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Nikolay Zakharov

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2014

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Lund : Studentlitteratur AB, 2014.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Göran Ahrne

Apostolis Papakostas

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2014

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Social Science and Medicine 2014, 117 : 142-149.

Although higher education has been associated with lower mortality rates in many studies, the effect of potential improvements in educational distribution on future mortality levels is unknown. We therefore estimated the impact of projected increases in higher education on mortality in European populations. We used mortality and population data according to educational level from 21 European populations and developed counterfactual scenarios. The first scenario represented the improvement in the future distribution of educational attainment as expected on the basis of an assumption of cohort replacement. We estimated the effect of this counterfactual scenario on mortality with a 10-15-year time horizon among men and women aged 30-79 years using a specially developed tool based on population attributable fractions (PAF). We compared this with a second, upward levelling scenario in which everyone has obtained tertiary education. The reduction of mortality in the cohort replacement scenario ranged from 1.9 to 10.1% for men and from 1.7 to 9.0% for women. The reduction of mortality in the upward levelling scenario ranged from 22.0 to 57.0% for men and from 9.6 to 50.0% for women. The cohort replacement scenario was estimated to achieve only part (4-25% (men) and 10-31% (women)) of the potential mortality decrease seen in the upward levelling scenario. We concluded that the effect of on-going improvements in educational attainment on average mortality in the population differs across Europe, and can be substantial. Further investments in education may have important positive side-effects on population health.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ivana Kulhánová

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2014

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2014, 68 (11): 1072-1079.

BACKGROUND: The late-2000s financial crisis had a severe impact on the national economies on a global scale. In Europe, the Baltic countries were among those most affected with more than a 20% decrease in per capita gross domestic product in 2008-2009. In this study, we explored the effects of economic recession on self-rated health in Estonia and Lithuania using Finland, a neighbouring Nordic welfare state, as a point of reference.METHODS: Nationally representative cross-sectional data for Estonia (n=10 966), Lithuania (n=7249) and Finland (n=11 602) for 2004-2010 were analysed for changes in age-standardised prevalence rates of less-than-good self-rated health and changes in health inequalities using logistic regression analysis.RESULTS: The prevalence of less-than-good self-rated health increased slightly (albeit not statistically significantly) in all countries during 2008-2010. This was in sharp contrast to the statistically significant decline in the prevalence of less-than-good health in 2004-2008 in Estonia and Lithuania. Health disparities were larger in Estonia and Lithuania when compared to Finland, but decreased in 2008-2010 (in men only). In Finland, both the prevalence of less-than-good health and health disparities remained fairly stable throughout the period.CONCLUSIONS: Despite the rapid economic downturn, the short-term health effects in Estonia and Lithuania did not differ from those in Finland, although the recession years marked the end of the previous positive trend in self-rated health. The reduction in health disparities during the recession indicates that different socioeconomic groups were affected disproportionately; however, the reasons for this require further research.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Rainer Reile

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2014

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

European Journal of Public Health 2014, 24 (4): 572-577.

Background: Hazardous alcohol consumption is a leading cause of mortality in the former Soviet Union (fSU), but little is known about the social factors associated with this behaviour. We set out to estimate the association between individual- and community-level social capital and hazardous alcohol consumption in the fSU. Methods: Data were obtained from Health in Times of Transition 2010, a household survey of nine fSU countries (n = 18 000 within 2027 communities). Individual-level indicators of social isolation, civic participation, help in a crisis and interpersonal trust were aggregated to the community level. Adjusting for demographic factors, the association of individual- and community-level indicators with problem drinking (CAGE) and episodic heavy drinking was estimated using a population average model for the analysis of multi-level data. Results: Among men, individual social isolation [odds ratio (OR) = 1.20], community social isolation (OR = 1.18) and community civic participation (OR = 4.08) were associated with increased odds of CAGE. Community civic participation (OR = 2.91) increased the odds of episodic heavy drinking, while community interpersonal trust (OR = 0.89) decreased these odds. Among women, individual social isolation (OR = 1.30) and community civic participation (OR = 2.94) increased odds of CAGE. Conclusion: Our results provide evidence of the role of some elements of social capital in problem drinking in the fSU, and highlight the importance of community effects. The nature of civic organizations in the fSU, and the communities in which civic participation is high, should be further investigated to inform alcohol policy in the region.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

A. Murphy

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2014

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

European Journal of Criminology 2014, 11 (4): 410-428.

In the crime policy field, the crime victim is usually described as the direct opposite of the offender in terms of characteristics and needs. This article analyses crime policy descriptions of crime victims and offenders, with a special focus on how politicians address the issue of the victim-offender overlap. The material comprises a sample of legislative crime policy bills submitted by members of the Swedish parliament during 2005-10. In the bills, crime victims are described as good, innocent and in need of help, whereas the offender is seen as a bad, ruthless scoundrel. In between stands a group of victim-offenders; pitiable poor things. However, when responses to offenders are discussed, both poor things and scoundrels are to be punished severely. © The Author(s) 2013.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Anita Heber


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2014

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

BMC Public Health 2014, 14 : 583-.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Dorota Kaleta

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2014

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

BMC Public Health 2014, 14 : -.

Background: For some adolescents feeling lonely can be a protracted and painful experience. It has been suggested that engaging in health risk behaviours such as substance use and sexual behaviour may be a way of coping with the distress arising from loneliness during adolescence. However, the association between loneliness and health risk behaviour has been little studied to date. To address this research gap, the current study examined this relation among Russian and U.S. adolescents. Methods: Data were used from the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), a school-based survey conducted in 2003. A total of 1995 Russian and 2050 U.S. students aged 13-15 years old were included in the analysis. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between loneliness and substance use, sexual risk behaviour, and violence. Results: After adjusting for demographic characteristics and depressive symptoms, loneliness was associated with a significantly increased risk of adolescent substance use in both Russia and the United States. Lonely Russian girls were significantly more likely to have used marijuana (odds ratio [OR]: 2.28; confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-4.45), while lonely Russian boys had higher odds for past 30-day smoking (OR, 1.87; CI, 1.08-3.24). In the U.S. loneliness was associated with the lifetime use of illicit drugs (excepting marijuana) among boys (OR, 3.09; CI, 1.41-6.77) and with lifetime marijuana use (OR, 1.79; CI, 1.26-2.55), past 30-day alcohol consumption (OR, 1.80; CI, 1.18-2.75) and past 30-day binge drinking (OR, 2.40; CI, 1.56-3.70) among girls. The only relation between loneliness and sexual risk behaviour was among Russian girls, where loneliness was associated with significantly higher odds for ever having been pregnant (OR, 1.69; CI: 1.12-2.54). Loneliness was not associated with violent behaviour among boys or girls in either country. Conclusion: Loneliness is associated with adolescent health risk behaviour among boys and girls in both Russia and the United States. Further research is now needed in both settings using quantitative and qualitative methods to better understand the association between loneliness and health risk behaviours so that effective interventions can be designed and implemented to mitigate loneliness and its effects on adolescent well-being.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ai Koyanagi

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2014

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

This is a study of how mothers of young children relate to risk in everyday life, with an emphasis on the in­visible risks associated with modernity in general, and with food in particular. It explores variations and similarities in how mothers deal with risk in two cultural contexts: Sweden and Poland. The study is based on twenty qualitative interviews with university educated mothers of small children in Stockholm and Warsaw. While risks more generally challenge how we “get on” with our lives, mothers of young children in particular have a special relationship to risk. During pregnancy and breastfeeding they are subject to all kinds of risk minimization efforts, and mothers are ultimately held "infinitely responsible" for their children's welfare by society. Women's transition to parenthood then makes for a particularly in­teresting case as to how risks manifest in everyday life. The theoretical framework draws on modernization theory, combined with insights from cultural theory. In addition, various contributions from sociological and psychological risk research, family sociology and research on parenting and motherhood are used to highlight contextual aspects and to inter­pret the empirical results. Two aspects of the mothers’ relationship to risk and food are examined in this study: firstly, their risk constructs, i.e. what they perceive as ‘risky’ with regards to food; and, secondly, their risk management strategies, i.e. how they deal with identified risks on a practical and cognitive level. The overall risk management depicted in this study is characterized by reflexivity, critical thinking, infor­mation retrieval, attention to scientific evidence, purposely transferred trust, confidence and the ability to make fairly sophisticated tradeoffs between risks and other aspects of life. Neither the Swedish nor the Polish mothers then conform to popular notions of ‘security junkies’ or ‘paranoid parenting’. Nonetheless, the comparative approach demonstrates how contextual differences, such as general trust levels and family policy, influence both the risk constructs and the employment of different risk management strategies.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Kerstin Jacobsson

Erik Löfmarck


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2014

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

GeoJournal 2014, 79 (4): 421-432.

This paper reviews housing policy development in Lithuania in the light of previous literature which reinterprets Esping-Andersen’s work on welfare regimes and adopts it to study housing policy. It seeks to highlight the major features of the Lithuanian housing policy. The findings of this paper reveal that the Lithuanian housing regime exhibits many features which are common under the liberal one. Most significant of these are low de-commodification for those who have to buy or rent a home for the market price, increasing stratification based on income and the dominant position of the market in housing production, allocation and price determination. However, a detailed examination of the Lithuanian housing policy reveals that the housing policy system, despite having many features similar to the liberal one, has been operating in different social and economic settings as a result of unique historical experience of the communist housing policy (massive production of low quality apartment blocks during the communist era, which currently need substantial renovation) and consequently drastic changes in the housing field since 1990s (massive privatization of the housing stock and decentralization of the housing management system). The Lithuanian housing policy regime could be characterized as a regime with the higher owner-occupation compared to other welfare state regimes, but the lower economic power of the owners to take care of their property maintenance, repair and renovation.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Jolanta Aidukaite


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2014

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Health and Place 2014, 27 : 205-211.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess whether alcohol-related community characteristics act collectively to influence individual-level alcohol consumption in the former Soviet Union (fSU).METHODS AND RESULTS: Using multi-level data from nine countries in the fSU we conducted a factor analysis of seven alcohol-related community characteristics. The association between any latent factors underlying these characteristics and two measures of hazardous alcohol consumption was then analysed using a population average regression modelling approach. Our factor analysis produced one factor with an eigenvalue >1 (EV=1.28), which explained 94% of the variance. This factor was statistically significantly associated with increased odds of CAGE problem drinking (OR=1.40 (1.08-1.82)). The estimated association with EHD was not statistically significant (OR=1.10 (0.85-1.44)).CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that a high number of beer, wine and spirit advertisements and high alcohol outlet density may work together to create an 'alcogenic' environment that encourages hazardous alcohol consumption in the fSU.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Adrianna Murphy

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2014

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Women's Studies 2014, 42 : 1-8.

Using data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study 2005/2006, and World Health Organization (WHO), this study examined the relationship between girls' informal social capital and female suicide rates in adolescence and young adulthood in 30 European and North American countries. Regression analyses using normal, robust and bias-corrected confidence intervals were used for this purpose. Informal social capital (involvement with friends after school) among 15 year-old girls explained,9% of the total variation in the young female suicide rate. This effect was of approximately the same magnitude as that of the corresponding male suicide rate. Although the findings of this study provide support for the common notion that female suicide can be understood in relation to male suicide, the association we observed between female informal social capital in adolescence and early adult female suicide highlights the need for more female-specific studies on suicide.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Yerko Rojas

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2014

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

European Journal of Public Health 2014, 24 (1): 63-65.

This report describes the investigation of care recommendations in the medical system across European countries to immigrants who attempted suicide. Data from seven European countries with 8865 local and 2921 immigrant person-cases were derived from the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour and ensuing MONSUE (Monitoring Suicidal Behaviour in Europe) project. The relationship between immigrant status and type of aftercare recommended was analysed with binary logistic regression, adjusting for gender, age, method of attempt and the Centre collecting the data. Clear disparities were identified in the care recommendation practices toward immigrants, compared with hosts, over and above differing policies by the European Centres.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Cendrine Bursztein Lipsicas

Ilkka Henrik Mäkinen


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2014

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

GeoJournal 2014, 79 (4): 449-465.

Much has been said, yet little remains known, about the impacts of the changes associated with post-socialist transition on housing inequalities in metropolitan Central and Eastern Europe. To some extent, this depends on the scarcity of 'hard evidence' about the socialist epoch against which the subsequent developments may be gauged. Based on a case study of Bucharest, the Romanian capital and one of the region's major cities, this study investigates various lines of housing inequality using data from a 20 % sample of the national censuses of 1992 and 2002. With only minor changes having taken place since the revolutionary events of late 1989, the year 1992 provides an accurate picture of the housing inequalities inherited from the socialist epoch, whereas the new societal order had largely been established by 2002. We use linear regression and binary logistic regression modeling to identify the factors that predict living space and level of facilities. The results suggest that the first decade of transition did not exert any major influences on the housing inequalities inherited from socialism, with the exception of notable improvements at the very top of the social pyramid. This finding is at odds with the literature that highlights the (suggested) effects of socio-economic polarization on the residential structure of cities after socialism. However, the results from 1992 indicate that housing was segmented along socio-economic lines already under socialism, and perhaps more so than one would have expected in the light of the literature on housing inequalities during this period.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Szymon Marcińczak

Michael Gentile


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2014

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

GeoJournal 2014, 79 (4): 401-405.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Sasha Tsenkova

Dominika Polanska

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2014

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

GeoJournal 2014, 79 (4): 513-525.

This article compares current Russian and Swedish policy discourses on state commitment to facilitating young adults' access to housing by analyzing national, regional and municipal strategic documents. Both countries previously embraced the idea of housing as a commodified yet universal entitlement and exercised strong public regulation of housing redistribution, but are now establishing selective policies that support young people who comply with prescribed life-course norms. Thus, a life-course trajectory becomes integrated into the policy discourse, and a stable residential autonomy is considered a 'crowning biographical event', following a successful employment record and the establishment of a family unit. Notwithstanding important differences in policy formulation and realization, housing policies in Russia and Sweden are aimed to integrate emerging adults into market relations by increasing housing ownership through credit loans and stimulating individual responsibility for welfare provision.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Zhanna Kravchenko

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2014

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

VOLUNTAS - International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 2014, 25 (4): 949-967.

This paper is a contribution to the ongoing discussion concerning factors determining the development of civil society in a post-state socialist context. It examines the financial mechanisms designed to promote civic engagement in Poland, including EU grants and the so-called ‘percentage law’ that allows citizens to support NGOs of their choice with 1 % of their taxes. A detailed analysis of these mechanisms demonstrates that they are advantageous for some types of non-governmental organizations and not for others. Instead of enhancing the situation of the whole sector, they tend to support NGOs that already have substantial resources and hold a strong position vis-à-vis the state. Moreover, organizations and groups fighting for issues considered to be controversial—such as women’s NGOs advocating for the right to abortion or criticizing authorities for their lack of concern when it comes to violence against women—have limited chances to gain financial support from both the state and those sources that are independent from the state. This shows how seemingly gender-neutral institutional arrangements may bring gendered results. The following analysis is based on available statistics (several reports provided by the Klon-Jawor Association, Social Diagnosis Reports from 2007 and 2011) and qualitative data (semi-structured interviews and discourse analysis of the Polish media).

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Elzbieta Korolczuk

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2014

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Nicotine & tobacco research 2014, 16 (5): 507-518.

Introduction: Smoking is an important determinant of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in many countries. As the smoking epidemic progresses, updates on the development of mortality inequalities attributable to smoking are needed. We provide estimates of relative and absolute educational inequalities in mortality from lung cancer, aerodigestive cancers, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/asthma in Europe and assess the contribution of these smoking-related diseases to inequalities in all-cause mortality.Methods: We use data from 18 European populations covering the time period 1998–2007. We present age-adjusted mortality rates, relative indices of inequality, and slope indices of inequality. We also calculate the contribution of inequalities in smoking-related mortality to inequalities in overall mortality.Results: Among men, relative inequalities in mortality from the 3 smoking-related causes of death combined are largest in the Czech Republic and Hungary and smallest in Spain, Sweden, and Denmark. Among women, these inequalities are largest in Scotland and Norway and smallest in Italy and Spain. They are often larger among men and tend to be larger for COPD/asthma than for lung and aerodigestive cancers. Relative inequalities in mortality from these conditions are often larger in younger age groups, particularly among women, suggesting a possible further widening of inequalities in mortality in the coming decades. The combined contribution of these diseases to inequality in all-cause mortality varies between 13% and 32% among men and between −5% and 30% among women.Conclusion: Our results underline the continuing need for tobacco control policies, which take into account socioeconomic position.              

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

MC Kulik

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2014

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Annat forskningsområde

European Societies 2014, 16 (2): 320-321.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Dominika Polanska

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2014

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Annat forskningsområde

In: The Wiley-Blackwell encyclopedia of social and political movements. Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell, 2013. 383-388.

Social movements in Eastern Europe have a long history. Despite problems with defining the region, most scholars tend to locate it in the postsocialist countries of Europe, which re-gained independence after the fall of the Iron Curtain. One of the most significant movements in the world during this period was Solidarność, which emerged in Poland in 1980. Solidarność developed from a trade union and reportedly had 9–10 million members (approximately 25% of the population). In the Fall of Nations in 1989/1990 hundreds of thousands of people went into the streets protesting against the communist regimes, and this contributed to the collapse of the Iron Curtain. A large variety of movements evolved from that time, with some becoming quite vibrant. Although there are important differences among the countries in Eastern Europe that shape social movements, some parts of the movements’ histories and characteristics are common. These differences and commonalities, crucial for the composition of the movements and their repertoires of action, are a result of the movements’ histories, legal systems, and political situations.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Grzegorz Piotrowski

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: The Wiley-Blackwell encyclopedia of social and political movements. Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell, 2013. -.

Solidarity (Solidarność in Polish) is a social movement, based on a trade union, that emerged in Poland in 1980. It was not only the biggest social mobilization in history (it is estimated that approximately 9–10 million people became members of Solidarity in a country of 38 million), but many commentators stress its leading role in overthrowing the communist regime in Poland and also in the rest of Eastern Europe.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Grzegorz Piotrowski

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Sociologija 2013, 32 (1): 136-151.

This paper reviews activities of community organizations in the post-Soviet city of Vilnius. The particular attention is paid to the reasons for mobilization of the local communities; the leadership and motivation; the reasons for non-participation; and the communication with the local authorities. The findings of this paper show that mobilizations are not taking place on the massive scale. However, they are being institutionalized and have achieved noteworthy results. Communities mobilize against illegal or unwanted constructions close to their vicinity or to defend green zones in the city. The successful movement is centered around a charismatic leader who devotes his/her time and non-material and material resources to attain results. The explanations for non-participation can be found in difficult economical conditions of the majority of the population; low level of civil society; increasing individualization and income inequalities. The findings of this paper also demonstrate that the political and institutional structure is fairly unfavorable for local activists. The community organizations are not supported by the local governmental structures in a substantial way. On the contrary, they are faced, in most of the cases, with the authority’s alienation and confrontation.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Jolanta Aidukaite


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Zhurnal sotsiologii i sotsial’noi antropologii 2013, 16 (2): 83-102.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Sven Hort

Zhanna Kravchenko

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Leslie Pray

Ilkka Henrik Mäkinen


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2013

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Baltic Rim Economies : Quarterly Review 2013, 1 : 41-42.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ilkka Henrik Mäkinen


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2013

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Beyond NGO-ization. Farnham : Ashgate, 2013. 169-189.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Nikolay Zakharov

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Baltic Worlds 2013, VI (3-4): 33-34.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Dominika Polanska

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2013

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: The Golden Chain. New York : Berghahn Books, 2013. 240-258.

The article analyzes some aspects of the development of civil society networks in Poland since the collapse of socialism. I scrutinize the interplay between the concepts of family and the state policies in order to demonstrate how discourses on gender in Poland are mediated by the Catholic Church and its alliance with the state. Focusing on women’s participation in public life and women’s rights leads not only to an understanding of relations between the sexes, but to a deeper analysis of the relations between the state, civil society and family within a specific cultural context.The examples discussed in the text suggest that civil society networks may emerge in democratic countries, even if they are discouraged by state policies, and members of society can at times challenge the notions of gendered citizenship and make use of their ‘private’ identities in order to gain certain political goals. Nonetheless, these examples also reveal the limitations of such strategies. The imbalance of power between the state apparatus and civil society activists is enormous, and without stabile and substantial resources and built-in mechanisms of support, the struggles of the latter often turn out to be frustrating and not fully successful.Unfortunately, in the case of Poland the very roots of the newly established democratic order are patriarchal, and the sphere of formal politics is informed by the idea of a country as a nation rather than as a democratic society. The nation in turn is often imagined as a patriarchal family where ‘real’ women and men occupy their ‘natural’ places: women within the private sphere, bearing and rearing children, and men in the public sphere, protecting ‘womenandchildren’ and making all vital political decisions (Enloe 1991). As a result, instead of a classic triangle of the state, the market and civil society, Poles in general and Polish women in particular are trapped between the nation, the market and the church.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Elzbieta Korolczuk

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2013

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: Beyond NGO‐ization?. Farnham : Ashgate, 2013. 49-70.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Renata E. Hryciuk

Elzbieta Korolczuk

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2013

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: . : .

Since the 1990s Russia saw many social movements emerging due to developing spaces of social activism and a rising concern of citizens for their immediate surroundings. Although the Putin reign closed many opportunities, social activism in spaces which are not directly connected to political concerns survived and developed further. The example of the animal rights movement shows how its main concern for shelter and survival of homeless animals units a wide range of Russian citizens and mostly stays under the radar of state security organs. However, the access to information to world-wide developments supported the emergence of more radical forms of activism for universal rights of animals, such as animal liberation, property destruction and street protests. These currents were brought in by followers of vegan/vegetarian lifestyles and by anarchists, which propose oppositional positions and radical critiques on society as a whole.The paper gives an overview over the main concerns of the Russian animal rights movement and shows how demands and critiques differ according to ideological backgrounds and social positions of their agents. On the one hand, ideological cleavages among concerned citizens and activists cause also differences in organizational approaches to social activism, which makes cooperation and mutual support difficult. But on the other, the Russian movement for the rights of animals succeeds in supporting the diffusion of international lifestyle values and forms of social activism.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Christian Fröhlich


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Forschungsjournal Soziale Bewegungen 2013, 26 (4): 58-64.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Christian Fröhlich


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

International Journal of Public Health 2013, 58 (6): 837-844.

We set out to identify the contribution of various causes of death to regional differences in life expectancy in Ukraine. Mortality data by oblast (province) were obtained from the State Statistical Committee of Ukraine. The contribution of various causes of death to differences in life expectancy between East, West and South Ukraine was estimated using decomposition. In 2008, life expectancy for men in South (61.8 years) and East Ukraine (61.2 years) was lower than for men in West Ukraine (64.0 years). A similar pattern was observed among women. This was mostly due to deaths from infectious disease and external causes among young adults, and cardio- and cerebro-vascular deaths among older adults. Deaths from TB among young adults contribute most to differences in life expectancy. Deaths due to infectious disease, especially TB, play an important role in the gap in life expectancy between regions in Ukraine. These deaths are entirely preventable-further research is needed to identify what has 'protected' individuals in Western Ukraine from the burden of deaths experienced by their Southern and Eastern counterparts.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Adrianna Murphy

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: . : .

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Grzegorz Piotrowski

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2013

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Ett konkurrenskraftigt EU till rätt pris. Stockholm : Santérus Förlag, 2013. 115-144.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Mattias Bengtsson

Kerstin Jacobsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Area (London 1969) 2013, 45 (4): 426-432.

To the regret of many scholars, science and politics often overlap, and nowhere as clearly as inside countries ruled by authoritarian governments, where research tends to attract the surveillance of repressive authorities and, more specifically, of the secret services (known as the 'organ' within post-communist space). While such surveillance places significant ethical and methodological challenges on field research, it is rarely discussed in the literature. This paper discusses what may happen when the organ takes interest in fieldwork. Based on the author's experiences in a range of post-communist countries, the aim is to present and discuss the related risks, and to show how these may materialise in relation to the organ's (c)overt activities.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Michael Gentile


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Nicotine & tobacco research 2013, 15 (9): 1628-1633.

Introduction: Smoking rates and corresponding levels of premature mortality from smoking-related diseases in the former Soviet Union (fSU) are among the highest in the world. To reduce this health burden, greater focus on smoking cessation is needed, but little is currently known about rates and characteristics of cessation in the fSU. Methods: Nationally representative household survey data from a cross-sectional study of 18,000 respondents in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine were analyzed to describe patterns of desire and action taken to stop smoking, quit ratios (former ever-smokers as a percent of ever-smokers, without a specified recall period), and help used to stop smoking. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze characteristics associated with smoking cessation and desire to stop smoking. Results: Quit ratios varied from 10.5% in Azerbaijan to 37.6% in Belarus. About 67.2% of respondents expressed a desire to quit, and 64.9% had taken action and tried to stop. The use of help to quit was extremely low (12.6%). Characteristics associated with cessation included being female, over 60, with higher education, poorer health, lower alcohol dependency, higher knowledge of tobacco's health effects, and support for tobacco control. Characteristics associated with desire to stop smoking among current smokers included younger age, poorer health, greater knowledge of tobacco's health effects, and support for tobacco control. Conclusions: Quit ratios are low in the fSU but there is widespread desire to stop smoking. Stronger tobacco control and cessation support are urgently required to reduce smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Katharine Footman

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Interface: a journal for and about social movements 2013, 5 (2): 399-421.

Most of the research on the alterglobalist, also known as the global justice, movement has focused on Western Europe and North America, with occasional research on other parts of the world. There has been little research done on this movement in the postsocialist countries of Central and Eastern Europe. This paper attempts to fill this gap by exploring the key events of the movement as well as the genealogy of grassroots social activism in the region. It offers insight into a movement that developed in a region that, due to its history, has been rather hostile to leftist ideologies and groups. This paper examines the development of the alterglobalist movement in the region and traces its inspirations and path dependencies. It also poses questions about the nature of the movement and ways to analyse it – whether as a politicized social movement or a subculture and lifestyle choice. The close connections of Central and Eastern European grassroots social movements to subcultures and counterculture might suggest a new and fresh perspective for studying social movements.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Grzegorz Piotrowski

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2013

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

European Journal of Epidemiology 2013, 28 : 959-971.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

MC Kulik

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2013

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Annat forskningsområde

Ephemera 2013, 13 (4): 825-850.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Christina Garsten

Kerstin Jacobsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Tobacco Control 2013, 22 (6): e12-.

Aims To describe levels of knowledge on the harmful effects of tobacco and public support for tobacco control measures in nine countries of the former Soviet Union and to examine the characteristics associated with this knowledge and support.Methods Standardised, cross-sectional nationally representative surveys conducted in 2010/2011 with 18?000 men and women aged 18years and older in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Respondents were asked a range of questions on their knowledge of the health effects of tobacco and their support for a variety of tobacco control measures. Descriptive analysis was conducted on levels of knowledge and support, along with multivariate logistic regression analysis of characteristics associated with overall knowledge and support scores.Results Large gaps exist in public understanding of the negative health effects of tobacco use, particularly in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Moldova. There are also extremely high levels of misunderstanding about the potential effects of light' cigarettes. However, there is popular support for tobacco control measures. Over three quarters of the respondents felt that their governments could be more effective in pursuing tobacco control. Higher levels of education, social capital (membership of an organisation) and being a former or never-smoker were associated with higher knowledge on the health effects of tobacco and/or being more supportive of tobacco control measures.Conclusions Increasing public awareness of tobacco's health effects is essential for informed decision-making by individuals and for further increasing public support for tobacco control measures.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Bayard Roberts

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2013

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: . : .

The aim of this paper is to identify the relationship towards democracy amongst anarchist and autonomist movement activists. Using the case of activists in Sweden, we scrutinize the relationship to the idea and practice of democracy found in contemporary radical left. How is democracy framed in groups such as these? By so doing we wish to add to and develop the research field on left movements and parties that sometimes are labeled “extreme”. We believe that the “extremism” concept is troublesome in several ways, mainly since it is an ‘asymmetrical concept’ in Koselleck’s sense. In spite of this acknowledgement, we will tentatively use it, in order to mirror and thereby capture how “democracy”, as an idea and practice, is framed by anarchist and autonomous activists. In the paper we compare the notion of extremism with the ideas of autonomous and anarchist activist activists in Sweden. The five common elements attributed to the concept of extremism could not be found in the interviews. To the contrary, using the concept in order to find extremism showed a pattern of values usually attributed to the concept of ”deliberative democracy”. 

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Adrienne SörbomMagnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Ekonomisk Debatt 2013, 7 : 86-89.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Apostolis Papakostas

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Public Health Nutrition 2013, 16 (11): 1924-1932.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Sarah Krull Abe

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Vanor och attityder i förändring. Göteborg : SOM-institutet, 2013. 105-120.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Magnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Global Environmental Politics 2013, 13 (4): 101-122.

Did the protests surrounding recent climate summits mark the emergence of a climate justice movement? We analyze responses to surveys of three large demonstrations in Copenhagen, Brussels, and London, organized in connection with the 2009 UN Climate Change Conference (COP-15) to determine who demonstrated, and how and why the collective action frames employed by demonstrators varied. The demonstrations were products of the mobilization of broad coalitions of groups, and we find significant variation in demonstrators' prognostic framings—the ways in which they formulated solutions to climate problems. Most notably, there was a tension between system-critical framings and those oriented around individual action. A large proportion of demonstrators expressed affinity with the global justice movement (GJM), but we find little evidence of an emerging “climate justice” frame among rank-and-file protesters. Individual variations in framing reflect differences between the mobilization contexts of the three demonstrations, the perspectives and values of individual participants, and the extent of their identification with the GJM.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Mattias Wahlström

Magnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: . : .

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Grzegorz PiotrowskiMagnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Partecipazione e conflitto 2013, 6 (3): 30-53.

This paper analyses if and how the Sweden Democrats (the SD), the Danish People’s Party (the DPP) and the Progress Party (the PP) in Norway use myths of national exclusiveness and myths about the common people to radicalize popularly held sentiments to attract votes and gain political credibility in political space. The specific contribution is that we consider national myths to be a relevant political opportunity structure in the political competition of the votes. We conclude that both the SD and the DPP make use of national myths to gain credibility in the political space, in order to sustain populist mobilization in these countries. However, this is not the case with the PP in Norway. One possible explanation is that already before the PP emerged, other political parties in Norway, such as the Centre Party, occupied the niche of national myths in the electoral market.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Anders Hellström

Magnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

PLoS ONE 2013, 8 (7): -.

Background: Research suggests that the prevalence of loneliness varies between countries and that feeling lonely may be associated with poorer health behaviours and outcomes. The aim of the current study was to examine the factors associated with loneliness, and the relationship between feeling lonely and health behaviours and outcomes in the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU) - a region where loneliness has been little studied to date.Methods: Using data from 18,000 respondents collected during a cross-sectional survey undertaken in nine FSU countries Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine - in 2010/11, country-wise logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine: the factors associated with feeling lonely; the association between feeling lonely and alcohol consumption, hazardous drinking and smoking; and whether feeling lonely was linked to poorer health (i.e. poor self-rated health and psychological distress).Results: The prevalence of loneliness varied widely among the countries. Being divorced/widowed and low social support were associated with loneliness in all of the countries, while other factors (e.g. living alone, low locus of control) were linked to loneliness in some of the countries. Feeling lonely was connected with hazardous drinking in Armenia, Kyrgyzstan and Russia but with smoking only in Kyrgyzstan. Loneliness was associated with psychological distress in all of the countries and poor self-rated health in every country except Kazakhstan and Moldova.Conclusions: Loneliness is associated with worse health behaviours and poorer health in the countries of the FSU. More individual country-level research is now needed to formulate effective interventions to mitigate the negative effects of loneliness on population well-being in the FSU.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ai Koyanagi

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2013

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Drug And Alcohol Dependence 2013, 133 (15): 838-844.

BACKGROUND: Some evidence suggests that in recent years the prevalence of heavy drinking has increased among Russian adolescents. However, as yet, little is known about either heavy alcohol consumption or its relationship with other adolescent health risk behaviours in Russia. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate the association between binge drinking and health risk behaviours among adolescents in Russia.METHODS: Data were drawn from the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), a survey carried out in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2003. Information was obtained from a representative sample of 2868 adolescents aged 13-17 regarding the prevalence and frequency of binge drinking (five or more drinks in a row in a couple of hours) and different forms of substance use, risky sexual behaviour and violent behaviour. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between binge drinking and adolescent involvement in various health risk behaviours.RESULTS: Adolescent binge drinking was associated with the occurrence of every type of health risk behaviour - with the sole exception of non-condom use during last sex. In addition, there was a strong association between the number of days on which binge drinking occurred and the prevalence of many health risk behaviours.CONCLUSIONS: Binge drinking is associated with a variety of health risk behaviours among adolescents in Russia. Public health interventions such as reducing the affordability and accessibility of alcohol are now needed to reduce binge drinking and its harmful effects on adolescent well-being.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ai Koyanagi

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2013

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 2013, 7 (1): -.

BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence from countries around the world suggests that school-based peer victimisation is associated with worse health outcomes among adolescents. So far, however, there has been little systematic research on this phenomenon in the countries of the former Soviet Union. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between peer victimisation at school and a range of different psychological and somatic health problems among Russian adolescents.METHODS: This study used data from the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) - a cross-sectional survey undertaken in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2003. Information was collected from 2892 adolescents aged 12-17 about their experiences of school-based peer victimisation and on a variety of psychological and somatic health conditions. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between victimisation and health.RESULTS: Peer victimisation in school was commonplace: 22.1% of the students reported that they had experienced frequent victimisation in the current school year (girls - 17.6%; boys - 28.5%). There was a strong relationship between experiencing victimisation and reporting worse health among both boys and girls with more victimisation associated with an increased risk of experiencing worse health. Girls in the highest victimisation category had odds ratios ranging between 1.90 (problems with eyes) and 5.26 (aches/pains) for experiencing somatic complaints when compared to their non-victimised counterparts, while the corresponding figures for boys were 2.04 (headaches) and 4.36 (aches/pains). Girls and boys who had the highest victimisation scores were also 2.42 (girls) and 3.33 (boys) times more likely to report symptoms of anxiety, over 5 times more likely to suffer from posttraumatic stress and over 6 times more likely to experience depressive symptoms.CONCLUSION: Peer victimisation at school has a strong association with poor health outcomes among Russian adolescents. Effective school-based interventions are now urgently needed to counter the negative effects of victimisation on adolescents' health in Russia.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ai Koyanagi

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Social Science and Medicine 2013, 91 : 76-83.

Previous research suggests that criminal victimisation can impact negatively on both physical and psychological health. However, as yet, little is known about crime and its effects on population health in the former Soviet Union (fSU) - despite a sharp growth in crime rates in the countries in this region after the collapse of the communist system. Given this gap in current knowledge, this study examined two forms of crime, theft and violent victimisation, in nine fSU countries - Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Using nationally representative data from the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) study collected from 18,000 respondents in 2010/11, the study had two main objectives: (1) to identify which demographic and socioeconomic factors are associated with being a victim of crime; (2) to examine the relation between criminal victimisation and two health outcomes - self-rated health and psychological distress. We found that similar factors were associated with experiencing both forms of crime among respondents. Those who were younger, not married and who consumed alcohol more frequently were at increased risk of victimisation, while greater social capital was associated with lower odds for victimisation. Low education increased the risk of experiencing violence by 1.5 times. Victimisation was strongly associated with poorer health: victims of violence were 2.5 and 2.9 times more likely to report poor self-rated health and psychological distress, respectively, while the corresponding figures for theft victimisation were 1.9 and 1.8. The strong association we observed between criminal victimisation and poorer individual health suggests that, in addition to policies that reduce rates of crime, more research is now urgently needed on victimisation. Specifically, researchers should ascertain whether the association with poor health is causal, determine its potential mechanisms, and evaluate interventions that might mitigate its impact on health that are contextually appropriate in the fSU.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ai Koyanagi

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

BMC Public Health 2013, 13 : -.

Background: Alcohol consumption, smoking and weight problems are common risk factors for different health problems. We examine how these risk factors are associated with the use of health care services.Methods: Data for 6500 individuals in the 25-64 age group came from three cross-sectional postal surveys conducted in 2004, 2006, and 2008 in Estonia. The effect of alcohol consumption, smoking and weight problems on the use of primary and specialist care services, hospitalizations and ambulance calls was analysed separately for men and women by using binary logistic regression.Results: Overweight and/or obesity were strongly related to the use of primary care and out-patient specialist services for both genders, and to hospitalizations and ambulance calls for women. Current smoking was related to ambulance calls for both genders, whereas smoking in the past was related to the use of primary care and specialist services among men and to hospitalizations among women. Beer drinking was negatively associated with all types of health care services and similar   association was found between wine drinking and hospitalizations. Wine drinking was positively related to specialist visits. The frequent drinking of strong alcohol led to an increased risk for ambulance calls. Drinking light alcoholic drinks was positively associated with all types of health care services (except ambulance calls) among men and with the use of specialist services among women.Conclusions: Overweight and smoking had the largest impact on health care utilization in Estonia. Considering the high prevalence of these behavioural risk factors, health policies should prioritize preventive programs that promote healthy lifestyles in order to decrease the disease burden and to reduce health care costs.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Kaire Vals

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Laboratorium 2013, 5 (3): 43-65.

This article analyzes representations of urban space by exploring city planning during the last half century in Stockholm and Leningrad/Saint Petersburg. City plans that constitute the empirical foundation of the article were enforced during the nodal points—1950s–1960s and early 2000s—of the historical development of both countries and reflect specificities of their ideological and sociopolitical heritage. Our study explores how representations of space—crystallized as ideas about goals and possibilities for spatial planning—have changed over time and how they reflect larger political, economic, and ideological transformations in Sweden and Russia. Two overarching themes are identified in our analysis. First, the ideal of equality, which dominated both the socialist and social democratic ideologies in the 1950s–1960s and provided opportunities for extensive normative control and manipulation of social life by means of a planned physical environment. Second, the ideal of the“European/global” city is distinguished in the early 2000s as a means of promoting economic development by incorporating new actors and shifting the focus to a more market-oriented approach to planning.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Lisa KingsZhanna Kravchenko

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Environment and planning A 2013, 45 (5): 1240-1257.

The growing recognition of the importance of indoor environments as 'active political-ecological spaces' has rarely been followed up by a systematic empirical engagement with the constituent dynamics and conceptual issues associated with infrastructural deprivation in this domain, particularly in non-Western contexts. Therefore, we investigate the relationship between self-reported perceptions of thermal comfort in the home, on the one hand, and a range of sociodemographic, housing, and health-related variables, on the other, via a quantitative analysis of a large-scale survey undertaken in the Eastern Ukrainian town of Stakhanov. Using the perceived level of thermal comfort as a starting point for its empirical explorations, we estimate the number and type of households who feel that they are receiving inadequate energy services in the home. Special attention is paid to the role of buildings in shaping the perceptions of thermal comfort.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ilkka Henrik Mäkinen

Michael Gentile

Saska Petrova

Stefan Bouzarovski


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

International Journal of Public Health 2013, 58 (4): 555-564.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

R Reile

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Urban geography 2013, 34 (3): 327-352.

The state of the art in research on residential segregation and concentr= ion in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) largely focuses on process descri= ion (e.g., the multitude of works on gentrification and suburbanization).= ven though major advances in the conceptualization and measurement of seg= gation have been made, works that scrutinize the patterns of segregation = d/or concentration in CEE are rare, while studies that simultaneously exp= re and link segregation patterns under socialism and after are virtually = nexistent. Relying on Polish census-tract level data on the educational s= ucture of population in 1978, 1988, and 2002, this study explores the pat= rns of social segregation and concentration in the three major Polish cit= s (Warsaw, Cracow, and od), representing different paths of development u= er socialism and after. The results show that the population of the three= ajor Polish cities was still socially heterogeneous at the census tract l= el in 2002. ! he results also reveal that the level of social residential segregation i= the three cities has been decreasing steadily since 1978, irrespective of= he prevailing economic system.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Szymon Marcinczak

Michael Gentile


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2013

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Post-Soviet Affairs 2013, 29 (2): 173-195.

Social or public housing is an important component of the housing supply= n most European countries. Nowhere, however, has the notion of social hou= ng been taken as far as in the countries that formerly were ruled by soci= ist regimes, most notably the Soviet Union. For this reason, it may be ar= ed that the development of theorizations on housing has much to learn fro= this large but inconclusively studied example. One of the avowed virtues = socialism was that the system, in theory, guaranteed its subjects equal = ghts to housing. That this was not quite the case is well known in the li= rature, but in fact no robust evidence to support this view (or the contr= y) has been presented so far. Therefore, this paper's aim is to investiga= the functioning of the Soviet system of housing allocation, assessing it= claims to social equity and justice. Based on a detailed case study of ab= t 3500 Soviet-era housing allocation decisions made in Daugavpils, Latvia= at five poin! s in time covering various stages in the development of Soviet power (ful= coverage of decisions made in 1953, 1960, 1970, 1980, and January-April 1= 0), we illustrate how much living space was allocated to whom. In additio= we detail the characteristics of the waiting times involved. We apply bo= descriptive and regression methods on our data-set, making a significant= ontribution to what is known about the outcome of housing allocation unde= socialism and, at a more general level, under strictly supply-constrained= onditions.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Örjan Sjöberg

Michael Gentile


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2013

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

European Journal of Public Health 2013, 23 (2): 279-284.

Background: Studies report high rates of suicide attempts for female immigrants. This study assesses variations in the distribution of suicide attempts across gender in immigrant and non-immigrant groups in Europe. Method: Data on 64 native and immigrant groups, including 17 662 local and 3755 immigrant person-cases collected, between 1989 and 2003, in 24 million person-years were derived from the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour. Female-to-male ratios of suicide attempt rates (SARs) were calculated for all groups. Results: The cases were combined into four major categories: hosts; European and other Western immigrants; non-European immigrants; and Russian immigrants. The non-European immigrants included higher female SARs than the Europeans, both hosts and immigrants. Unlike the other groups, the majority of suicide attempters among the Russian immigrants in Estonia and Estonian hosts were male. This was also true for immigrants from Curacao, Iran, Libya and Sri Lanka. When the single groups with a male majority were excluded, the correlation between female and male SARs was relatively high among the European immigrants (r = 0.74, P < 0.0005) and lower among the non-European immigrants (r = 0.55, P < 0.03). Generalized estimating equation analysis yielded a highly significant difference (P < 0.0005) in gender ratios of suicide attempts between hosts (ratio 1.52) and both non-European immigrants (ratio 2.32) and Russian immigrants (0.68), but not the European immigrants. Conclusions: The higher suicide attempt rates in non-European immigrant females compared with males may be indicative of difficulties in the acculturation processes in Europe. Further understanding of factors underlying suicidal behaviour in immigrant and minority groups is necessary for planning effective prevention strategies.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Cendrine Bursztein Lipsicas

Ilkka Henrik Mäkinen


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

European Journal of Public Health 2013, 23 (2): 340-344.

Background: The public health perspective on alcohol comprises two main tenets: (i) population drinking impacts on alcohol-related harm and (ii) population drinking is affected by the physical and economic availability of alcohol, where alcohol taxes are the most efficient measure for regulating consumption. This perspective has received considerable empirical support from analyses of contemporary data mainly from Europe and North America. However, as yet, it has been little examined in a historical context. The aims of the present article are to use data from tsarist Russia to explore (i) the relation between changes in the tax on alcohol and per capita alcohol consumption and (ii) the relation between per capita alcohol consumption and alcohol mortality. Methods: The material comprised annual data on alcohol taxes, alcohol consumption and alcohol mortality. The tax and alcohol consumption series spanned the period 1864-1907 and the mortality data covered the period 1870-94. The data were analysed by estimating autoregressive integrated moving average models on differenced data. Results: Changes in alcohol taxes were significantly associated with alcohol consumption in the expected direction. Increases in alcohol consumption, in turn, were significantly related to increases in alcohol mortality. Conclusion: This study provides support for the utility of the public health perspective on alcohol in explaining changes in consumption and alcohol-related harm in a historical context. We discuss our findings from tsarist Russia in the light of experiences from more recent alcohol policy changes in Russia.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Thor Norström

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2013

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013, 13 : -.

Background: Research suggests that since the collapse of the Soviet Union there has been a sharp growth in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in some former Soviet countries. However, as yet, comparatively little is known about the use of CAM in the countries throughout this region. Against this background, the aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of using alternative (folk) medicine practitioners in eight countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) and to examine factors associated with their use. Methods: Data were obtained from the Living Conditions, Lifestyles and Health (LLH) survey undertaken in eight former Soviet countries (Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine) in 2001. In this nationally representative cross-sectional survey, 18428 respondents were asked about how they treated 10 symptoms, with options including the use of alternative (folk) medicine practitioners. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with the treatment of differing symptoms by such practitioners in these countries. Results: The prevalence of using an alternative (folk) medicine practitioner for symptom treatment varied widely between countries, ranging from 3.5% in Armenia to 25.0% in Kyrgyzstan. For nearly every symptom, respondents living in rural locations were more likely to use an alternative (folk) medicine practitioner than urban residents. Greater wealth was also associated with using these practitioners, while distrust of doctors played a role in the treatment of some symptoms. Conclusions: The widespread use of alternative (folk) medicine practitioners in some fSU countries and the growth of this form of health care provision in the post-Soviet period in conditions of variable licensing and regulation, highlights the urgent need for more research on this phenomenon and its potential effects on population health in the countries in this region.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ai Koyanagi

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2013

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Addictive Behaviours 2013, 38 (4): 1988-1995.

Despite evidence that alcohol misuse has been having an increasingly detrimental effect on adolescent wellbeing in Russia in recent years this phenomenon has been little researched. Using data from 2112 children from the Arkhangelsk Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) 2003, this study examined which factors acted as 'risk' or 'protective' factors for adolescent binge drinking within three domains we termed the 'family environment', the 'alcohol environment' and 'deviant behaviour'. The results showed that in the presence of comparatively moderate levels of binge drinking among both boys and girls, being able to access alcohol easily, being unaware of the risks of binge drinking and having peers who consumed alcohol increased the risk of adolescent binge drinking - as did playing truant, smoking and marijuana use, while parental warmth was protective against binge drinking for girls. Our finding that risk and protective factors occur across domains suggests that any interventions targeted against adolescent binge drinking may need to simultaneously focus on risk behaviours in different domains, while at the same time, broader social policy should act to limit the availability of alcohol to adolescents in Russia more generally.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ai Koyanagi

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2013

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Alcohol and Alcoholism 2013, 48 (2): 215-221.

Aims: This study compared the level of alcohol mortality in tsarist and contemporary Russia. Methods: Cross-sectional and annual time-series data from 1870 to 1894, 2008 and 2009 on the mortality rate from deaths due to 'drunkenness' were compared for men in the 50 provinces of tsarist 'European Russia': an area that today corresponds with the territory occupied by the Baltic countries, Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine and the Russian provinces to the west of the Ural Mountains. Results: In 1870-1894, the male death rate from 'drunkenness' in the Russian provinces (15.9 per 100,000) was much higher than in the non-Russian provinces. However, the rate recorded in Russia in the contemporary period was even higher-23.3. Conclusions: Russia has had high levels of alcohol mortality from at least the late 19th century onwards. While a dangerous drinking pattern and spirits consumption may underpin high alcohol mortality across time, the seemingly much higher levels in the contemporary period seem to be also driven by an unprecedented level of consumption, and also possibly, surrogate alcohol use. This study highlights the urgent need to reduce the level of alcohol consumption among the population in order to reduce high levels of alcohol mortality in contemporary Russia.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Evgeny Andreev

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2013

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Nicotine & tobacco research 2013, 15 (1): 271-276.

Introduction: Despite the high prevalence of smoking in the former Soviet Union (fSU), particularly among men, there is very little information on nicotine dependence in the region. The study aim was to describe the prevalence of nicotine dependence in 9 countries of the fSU and to examine the psychosocial factors associated with nicotine dependence. Methods: Cross-sectional, nationally representative surveys using multistage random sampling were conducted in 2010 with men and women aged 18 years and over in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. The main outcome of interest was nicotine dependence using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence. Multivariate regression analysis was then used to explore the influence of a range of psychosocial factors on higher nicotine dependence. Results: Mean nicotine dependence among men in the region as a whole was 3.96, with high dependence ranging from 17% in Belarus to 40% in Georgia. Among women, mean dependence was 2.96, with a prevalence of high dependence of 11% for the region. Gender (men), younger age of first smoking, lower education level, not being a member of an organization, bad household economic situation, high alcohol dependence, and high psychological distress showed significant associations with higher nicotine dependence. Conclusions: High nicotine dependence among men was recorded in a number of study countries. Findings highlight the need for tobacco programmes to target early age smokers and less educated and poorer groups and suggest common ground for programmes seeking to reduce nicotine dependence, harmful alcohol use, and psychological distress.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Bayard Roberts

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2013

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Nordisk Østforum 2013, 27 (1): 7-30.

The aim of this article is to examine the reasons behind the growing popularity ofgated communities in Poland by applying cultural, institutional and economic explanationsin the Polish context. The empirical material consists of interviews, newspaperarticles, legal acts concerning housing, official documents and a questionnaire. Thedivide between the public and private spheres is central to the explanatory model, andit is argued that it is this that has played a central role in the emergence and popularityof gated forms of housing in Poland. The introduction of a market economy and subsequentsocio-economic inequalities has resulted in specific forms of individual strategiesregarding housing preferences. It is suggested here that this specific form ofindividualism, connected with institutional shortcomings, cultural legacies and thepresent housing market, is reflected in the enclosed and private living spaces of today’s Poles.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Dominika Polanska

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2013

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Attaining Whiteness is the first book-length sociological study of how ideas about race resonate in post-Soviet Russia. The book charts how tropes of self, hybridity, and maturity constitute important symbolic vehicles for applying the idea of race to the drawing of differences. A new theoretical framework is developed that casts light on fields of study that have not yet received sufficient attention in Western European and American research concerning racial issues. This study of racialization takes a step towards providing a better understanding of how the discourses of race are extended and transformed through the production of social knowledge and social relations. This volume addresses the resilience of genetic criteria for defining cultures and behaviors in both the sciences and humanities in Russia, and also examines the ongoing and pervasive policy of racialized exclusion. The study argues that the concepts and practices of race, whiteness, and Russianness operate ambivalently insofar as they both hold the social fabric together, organizing the perception of the “Other”, but also undermine the unity of society. Racialization thus fosters, first, the sense that Russia belongs to the core of civilization as opposed to the Third World; second, the formulation of policies towards the internal peripheries that support social control informed by the notion of human material; and, finally, the promotion of exclusionary ethnic self-identifications that employ the discourse of hybridity.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Vessela Misheva

Mark BassinNikolay Zakharov

Paavo Bergman

Sven Hort


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

This work constitutes a macro-sociological study of suicide. The empirical focus is on suicide mortality in Russia, which is among the highest in the world and has, moreover, developed in a dramatic manner over the second half of the 20th century. Suicide mortality in contemporary Russia is here placed within the context of development over a longer time period through empirical studies on 1) the general and sex- and age-specific developments in suicide over the period 1870–2007, 2) underlying dynamics of Russian suicide mortality 1956–2005 pertaining to differences between age groups, time periods, and particular generations and 3) the continuity in the aggregate-level relationship between heavy alcohol consumption and suicide mortality from late Tsarist period to post-World War II Russia. In addition, a fourth study explores an alternative to Émile Durkheim’s dominating macro-sociological perspective on suicide by making use of Niklas Luhmann’s theory of social systems. With the help of Luhmann’s macro-sociological perspective it is possible to consider suicide and its causes also in terms of processes at the individual level (i.e. at the level of psychic systems) in a manner that contrasts with the ‘holistic’ perspective of Durkheim. The results of the empirical studies show that Russian suicide mortality, despite its exceptionally high level and dramatic changes in the contemporary period, shares many similarities with the patterns seen in Western countries when examined over a longer time period. Societal modernization in particular seems to have contributed to the increased rate of suicide in Russia in a manner similar to what happened earlier in Western Europe. In addition, the positive relationship between heavy alcohol consumption and suicide mortality proved to be remarkably stable across the past one and a half centuries. These results were interpreted using the Luhmannian perspective on suicide developed in this work. 

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Vessela Misheva

Ilkka Henrik Mäkinen

Paavo Bergman

Tanya Jukkala

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

CBEESSCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Acta Sociologica 2013, 56 (1): 55-68.

Social movement activism requires emotional motivation and entails emotional costs, and, because of this, activists tend to be deeply involved in the management of emotions – or emotion work – and not just in connection with protest events, but also on an everyday basis. Based on a case study of animal rights activism in Sweden, this article identifies five types of emotion work that animal rights activists typically perform: containing, ventilation, ritualization, micro-shocking and normalization of guilt. The emotion work performed by activists, it is argued, is best understood from a moral-sociological perspective building on Durkheim’s sociology of morality, based on which the article then outlines key elements of a comprehensive theoretical framework for the study of emotion work in social movements.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Jonas Lindblom

Kerstin Jacobsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv 2013, 19 (1): 9-24.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ida Seing

Kerstin Jacobsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Beyond NGO-ization. Farnham : Ashgate, 2013. 27-48.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Kerstin Jacobsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2013

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Beyond NGO-ization. Farnham : Ashgate, 2013. 1-26.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Steven Saxonberg

Kerstin Jacobsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2013

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Farnham : Ashgate, 2013.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Steven Saxonberg

Kerstin Jacobsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2013

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Nordisk Østforum 2013, 27 (1): 98-101.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Lisa KingsZhanna Kravchenko

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2013

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Sosiologi i dag 2013, 43 (1): 58-78.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Tanya Jukkala

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Critical Sociology 2013, 39 (3): 421-437.

The debate on global governance points to shifts in the type and nature of regulation as well asin the set of actors involved. The article introduces a novel way of conceptualizing the changes,namely a move towards post-political forms of regulation (see also Garsten and Jacobsson, 2007).Drawing on Chantal Mouffe’s notion of ‘the post-political vision’, the article argues that manycontemporary forms of regulation are premised on consensual relationships as the basis forregulatory activity. These regulatory practices tend to narrow down the conflictual space, therebyexerting a form of soft power. Moreover, in the post-political forms of regulation, unequal powerrelations tend to be rendered invisible. The empirical cases discussed are voluntary regulatoryarrangements, more specifically the Open Method of Coordination of the EU (OMC) and CSR(Corporate Social Responsibility) initiatives.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Christina Garsten

Kerstin Jacobsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Critical Sociology 2013, 39 (3): 453-478.

Taking the contemporary political activism of ‘the Global Justice Movement’ as an illustrative case, this article scrutinizes some influential theoretical ideas about the consequences of ‘individualization’ for collective political action. Quite often, this process is seen as implying a new politics of individual life style – ‘life politics’ – which is associated with new social movements and claimed to have gained importance since the 1960s, on the expense of the collective ‘emancipatory politics’ being associated with ‘old social movements’ such as the Labor Movement. In the light of the article’s empirical findings, this alleged division between life politics and emancipatory politics is questioned, and it is argued that these two kinds of politics should be understood as intertwined practices. The article’s theoretically grounded analysis is based on quantitative data from a survey of participants at the fifth European Social Forum. These data are interpreted and further explored using qualitative interviews with activists.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Adrienne SörbomMagnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2013

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: Nationalencyklopedin. 36, 2011. Malmö : Nationalencykolpedin, 2012. 208-210.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Magnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: I framtidens skugga. Göteborg : SOM-institutet, 2012. 79-94.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Magnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

The Journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology 2012, 15(6) (65): 194-205.

This article argues the need for a closer analysis of the discourse of modernization in contemporary Russia. It offers explanations for the popularity of modernization theory postulates in Russia and examines their strengths and weaknesses. As I have shown, there prevails in Russian scholarly discourse an inventive combination of the main theses of the theory of modernization with an idea of Russia as a local civilization. Each of these two elements is normatively and ideologically loaded and closely connected with how the past is evaluated. They are both used in the ongoing ‘battle for identity’. It is suggested that modernization in Russia should be seen primarily as social representation, and not as an objective process of historical development. At the same time, the article identifies substantive elements of modernization theory which can serve as the foundations for a new theoretical approach. Such an approach will assist in a better understanding of objective social development processes.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Nikolay Zakharov

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: Pożegnanie z Matką-Polką?. Warsaw : University of Warsaw Press, 2012. 8-20.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Renata E. Hryciuk

Elzbieta Korolczuk

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2012

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: . : .

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Christian Fröhlich


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

East European Politics 2012, 28 (4): 329-331.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Steven Saxonberg

Kerstin Jacobsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2012

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Warsaw : University of Warsaw Press, 2012.

The first decade of the 21th century has witnessed growing controversies over practices of mothering. On the one hand, the heated debates around abortion, infertility and IVF treatment have reflected the persistent patriarchal construction of motherhood and family well embedded within Polish political discourse. On the other hand, the efforts to counteract dominant discourses and discriminating policies (e.g. the emergence of grass-roots initiatives and organizations dealing with motherhood / parenthood such as Birth In a Dignified Way Foundation or MaMa Foundation) demonstrate growing female agency and consequently potential for social change.Significantly, these new trends and the effects of social transformation seem to be have limited influence on the academic discourse on motherhood. The concept of the Polish Mother which has been continuously used (and abused) in various cultural analyses of the Polish context, still awaits critical analysis. It serves both as a basis for the hegemonic narrative on motherhood in Poland, and as a role model for contemporary women. We believe that it needs to be deconstructed. Therefore, the aim of the book is to answer the following question: shall we say farewell to the Polish Mother?The edited volume is to present the critical analyses of “old” and “new” practices, discourses and representations of motherhood in the interdisciplinary perspective. The texts are based on the outcomes of original research projects conducted by leading Polish scholars, and personal experience of activists and women working in NGOs. Thus, it can be used in various contexts, e.g. in academic teaching, journalism, professional training and policy-making.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Renate E. Hryciuk

Elzbieta Korolczuk

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2012

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: . : .

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Grzegorz Piotrowski

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2012

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: . : .

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Grzegorz Piotrowski

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Annat forskningsområde

In: The Iranian Community in Sweden. Tumba : Mångkulturellt centrum, 2012. 95-130.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Abbas Emami

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: The Wiley-Blackwell companion to political sociology. Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell, 2012. 360-371.

The welfare of the people is an ancient political norm, much older than citizenship and civic rights. Modern social rights did not, as a rule, develop as citizens' rights, but as rights of classes and of other social categories. Despite the widespread politics of anti-welfare, social welfare has grown in various political contexts and forms. In the last quarter of the twentieth century, social policy became the focus of a vast body of international, comparative research in sociology and political science. The overall trajectory of this still-expanding scholarly enterprise may be outlined in the shape of three generations of investigation, each with a characteristic empirical focus and geopolitical orientation, and set in a specific socio-historical context.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Göran Therborn

Sven Hort


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

International Criminal Justice Review 2012, 22 (2): 171-191.

This article focuses on criminals who are also victims of crime, that is, the victim-offender overlap. The study includes men who have become victims of violent crimes, but who are also perpetrators of such crimes. Sixteen Swedish probationers have been interviewed in depth and asked to describe their victimization and their offences. The interviewees clearly distance themselves from ideas of victimhood and describe the victimhood of others as something shameful. Their own victimization, and their own violence against others, is described in a pared-down and unemotional manner. Victimhood emerges in the study as something so negative that it can be described as shaming in the same way as if the individual is labeled as a criminal. Victimhood and the role of the victim do not constitute alternatives for the interviewees. The role of the criminal, by contrast, is prominent. The interviewees describe how they can switch between two roles: the role of the criminal and that of a "John Smith," or in Swedish, a "Svensson," who is a normal, law-abiding individual with an orderly life. Receiving a positive label as a "Svensson" from their environment may contribute to the interviewees acting in line with such a law-abiding role.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Anita Heber


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

East European Politics 2012, 28 (4): 371-389.

This article examines state - civil society relationships in contemporary Russia. Its objective is to assess opportunity structures of Russian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) that are intertwined with the state. The article presents qualitative data from fieldwork in the Russian cities of Moscow, St Petersburg, Nizhniy Novgorod, and Perm in 2009 and 2010. The focus of NGOs in the field of disability was chosen because of their roles as social service providers and as advocates for the rights of the disabled. The findings indicate that despite the Soviet legacy of an occupying state, Russian NGOs widen their opportunities by maintaining close relationships with state structures. Thus, litigation strategies seem to be an effective instrument for fostering social change for the benefit of the disabled.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Christian Fröhlich


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Stockholm : Atlas, 2012.

Varför fortsätter politiken att vara nationell i en tid av stark globalisering? politiska organisationer talar gärna om gränslösa samarbeten, men det politiska landskapet ser i stort sett likadant ut idag som för 100 år sedan. Med utgångspunkt i den socialdemokratiska arbetarrörelsen i Sverige diskuterar Adrienne Sörbom frågan om politikens långsamma avnationalisering. Rörelsens internationalism till trots visar hon att den binds av starka idéer om Sverige som den självklara platsen för politik. Delvis styrs detta av ideologiskt färgade uppfattningar omvad rörelsen ska och kan göra. Vad som är politik och vem den ska omfatta har inte förändrats, fastän globalisering står högt upp på rörelsens dagordning. Bokens baseras på forskning om socialdemokratin, men här finns intressanta slutsatser för alla som vill lyfta politiken utanför nationen. 

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Adrienne Sörbom

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Baltic Worlds 2012, 5 (3-4): 37-44.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Thomas Borén

Jonas LindströmDominika Polanska

Péter Balogh

Thomas LundénZhanna Kravchenko

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2012

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: And They Lived Happily Ever After. Budapest : Central European University Press, 2012. 1-22.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Helene CarlbäckYulia GradskovaZhanna Kravchenko

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2012

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Historical and Contemporary StudiesSchool of Social Sciences
HistorySociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Historical Studies

Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2012, 66 (11): 1079-1082.

Background Hypertension is one of the leading causes of avoidable mortality in the former Soviet Union (fSU). In previous work, the authors described patterns of irregular hypertension treatment in eight countries of the fSU in 2001. This paper presents new data on changes in the use of hypertension treatment in the same countries. Methods Using household survey data from 18 420 (2001) and 17 914 (2010) respondents from Armenia, Azerbaijan (2010 only), Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine, the authors describe changes in rates of irregular treatment use (less than daily) between 2001 and 2010. Multivariate logistic regression was also used to analyse the characteristics associated with irregular treatment. Results Irregular treatment was extremely high at 74% in 2001 and only fell to 68% in 2010 (all countries combined). Irregular treatment remained particularly high in 2010 in Armenia (79%), Kazakhstan (73%) and Moldova (73%). Recurring characteristics associated with irregular treatment included gender (men), younger age, higher fitness levels, and consuming alcohol and tobacco. Conclusions Irregular hypertension treatment continues to be a major problem in the countries of the fSU and requires an urgent response.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Bayard Roberts

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Journal of Public Health 2012, 34 (3): 352-359.

Background Evidence from the Early 2000s quantified limited coverage of household water supplies in countries of the former Soviet Union. The study objectives were to measure changes in access to piped household water in seven of these countries between 2001 and 2010 and examine how these varied by household economic status. Methods Cross-sectional household sample surveys were conducted in 2010 in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Data on household piped water were compared with a related 2001 study and descriptive, regression and relative risk analyses applied. Results Increases in access to piped water in the home between 2001 and 2010 were recorded in urban and rural areas of all countries, except Kazakhstan. Access remains lower in rural areas. The relative risk of urban households not having piped water in 2010 compared with 2001 diminished by one-third for households with a bad/very bad economic situation [rate ratio (RR): 0.66] and by half for wealthier households (RR: 0.48). In rural areas, the declines were 15% for households with a bad/very bad economic situation (RR: 0.85) and 30% for wealthier households (RR: 0.69). Conclusions Despite encouraging increases in access to piped water, there remain significant gaps for rural and poorer households.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Bayard Roberts

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

European Journal of Epidemiology 2012, 27 (11): 877-884.

Recent research has suggested that violent mortality may be socially patterned and a potentially important source of health inequalities within and between countries. Against this background the current study assessed socioeconomic inequalities in homicide mortality across Europe. To do this, longitudinal and cross-sectional data were obtained from mortality registers and population censuses in 12 European countries. Educational level was used to indicate socioeconomic position. Age-standardized mortality rates were calculated for post, upper and lower secondary or less educational groups. The magnitude of inequalities was assessed using the relative and slope index of inequality. The analysis focused on the 35-64 age group. Educational inequalities in homicide mortality were present in all countries. Absolute inequalities in homicide mortality were larger in the eastern part of Europe and in Finland, consistent with their higher overall homicide rates. They contributed 2.5 % at most (in Estonia) to the inequalities in total mortality. Relative inequalities were high in the northern and eastern part of Europe, but were low in Belgium, Switzerland and Slovenia. Patterns were less consistent among women. Socioeconomic inequalities in homicide are thus a universal phenomenon in Europe. Wide-ranging social and inter-sectoral health policies are now needed to address the risk of violent victimization that target both potential offenders and victims.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Anton E. Kunst

Andrew Stickley

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2012

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Annat forskningsområde

American Journal of Public Health 2012, 102 (7): 1320-1328.

Objectives. We sought to present new data on smoking prevalence in 8 countries, analyze prevalence changes between 2001 and 2010, and examine trend variance by age, location, education level, and household economic status. Methods. We conducted cross-sectional household surveys in 2010 in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. We compared smoking prevalence with a related 2001 study for the different countries and population subgroups, and also calculated the adjusted prevalence rate ratios of smoking. Results. All-age 2010 smoking prevalence among men ranged from 39% (Moldova) to 59% (Armenia), and among women from 2% (Armenia) to 16% (Russia). There was a significantly lower smoking prevalence among men in 2010 compared with 2001 in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Russia, but not for women in any country. For all countries combined, there was a significantly lower smoking prevalence in 2010 than in 2001 for men aged 18 to 39 years and men with a good or average economic situation. Conclusions. Smoking prevalence appears to have stabilized and may be declining in younger groups, but remains extremely high among men, especially those in lower socioeconomic groups. (Am J Public Health. 2012;102:1320-1328. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300547)

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Bayard Roberts

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Alcohol and Alcoholism 2012, 47 (4): 473-478.

Aims: To measure levels of public support for price increases on beer and spirits in nine former Soviet Union countries and to examine the characteristics influencing such support. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2010 with 18,000 respondents aged 18+ in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. Results: The lowest level of support for price increases on beer were in Georgia (men 5%, women 9%) and Armenia (men 5%, women 11%); and the highest were in Kyrgyzstan (men 30%, women 38%), Azerbaijan (men 27%, women 37%) and Russia (men 23%, women 34%). The lowest levels of support for price increases on spirits were Armenia (men 8%, women 14%) and Georgia (men 14%, women 21%); and the highest were in Kyrgyzstan (men 38%, 47% women) and Moldova (men 36%, women 43%). Characteristics associated with supporting price increases included gender (women), higher education, good economic situation, lower alcohol consumption and greater knowledge of harmful alcohol behaviour. Conclusion: Alcohol price increases are an effective means to reduce hazardous alcohol use. Despite opposition in some groups, there is evidence of public support for alcohol price increases in the study countries.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Bayard Roberts

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2012, 66 (6): 482-488.

Background The USSR failed to establish a modern pharmaceutical industry and lacked the capacity for reliable distribution of drugs. Patients were required to pay for outpatient drugs and the successor states have inherited this legacy, so that those requiring long-term treatment face considerable barriers in receiving it. It was hypothesised that citizens of former Soviet republics requiring treatment for hypertension may not be receiving regular treatment. Aims To describe the regularity of treatment among those diagnosed with hypertension and prescribed treatment in eight countries of the former Soviet Union, and explore which factors are associated with not taking medication regularly. Methods Using data from over 18 000 respondents from eight former Soviet countries, individuals who had been told that they had hypertension by a health professional and prescribed treatment were identified. By means of multivariate logistic analysis the characteristics of those taking treatment daily and less than daily were compared. Results Only 26% of those prescribed treatment took it daily. The probability of doing so varied among countries and was highest in Russia, Belarus and Georgia, and lowest in Armenia ( although Georgia's apparent advantage may reflect low rates of diagnosis). Women, older people, those living in urban areas, and nonsmokers and non-drinkers were more likely to take treatment daily. Conclusions A high proportion of those who have been identified by health professionals as requiring hypertension treatment are not taking it daily. These findings suggest that irregular hypertension treatment is a major problem in this region and will require an urgent response.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Bayard Roberts

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2012, 66 (5): 433-439.

Background Previous studies suggest that the fear of crime is associated with worse mental health, with social capital potentially having a mediating influence. However, no studies could be identified on this issue in countries of the former Soviet Union, despite them experiencing increasing rates of crime and profound social change. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between concern about crime and levels of psychological distress in eight countries of the former Soviet Union. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in eight former Soviet countries using a standardised questionnaire containing items on psychological distress and concern about five criminal activities. Regression analysis was used to investigate the association between concern about criminal activities and psychological distress. Separate regression models were run to explore the influence of social capital on this relationship. Results The first model (excluding social capital) produced significant positive coefficients of association for all five types of criminal activity with psychological distress, with a range from 0.39 (95% CI 0.24 to 0.54) for suffering abuse because of nationality to 0.56 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.70) for being sexually molested. The second model (including social capital) also showed significant associations for all five criminal activities, but coefficients were slightly smaller. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence of a relationship between fear of crime and psychological distress in the study countries, with possibly a small mediating influence of social capital. Further studies are required to explore the relationship between fear of crime, social capital and mental health in the region.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Bayard Roberts

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Alcohol and Alcoholism 2012, 47 (6): 711-718.

Aims: Alcohol consumption is a major cause of premature mortality in countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU). Despite the unique social profile of the region, we could find no published systematic review of studies of social factors and alcohol consumption in formerly Soviet countries. We aim to critically review the current evidence for social factors associated with alcohol consumption in the fSU and to identify key gaps in the literature. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Global Health databases for cross-sectional, case-control, longitudinal or qualitative studies of demographic, socio-economic, psycho-social and contextual factors associated with alcohol consumption, in any language, published from 1991 until 16 December 2011. Additional studies were identified from the references of selected papers and expert consultation. Our review followed PRISMA guidelines for the reporting of systematic reviews. Results: Our search strategy resulted in 26 articles for review. Although there is strong evidence in the literature that males and smokers in the fSU are more likely to engage in hazardous alcohol consumption, findings regarding other social factors were mixed and there were almost no data on the association of contextual factors and alcohol consumption in this region. Conclusion: This review highlights the extremely limited amount of evidence for social factors associated with heavy alcohol consumption in the fSU. Given the unique social environment of countries of the fSU, future research should take these factors into account in order to effectively address the high levels of alcohol-related mortality in this region.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Adrianna Murphy

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Urban geography 2012, 33 (3): 401-419.

Labor migration from the less to the more affluent cities and regions is a defining trait of the patterns of population redistribution in Central and Eastern Europe, especially in the former Soviet Union, where international disparities in income and living standards are particularly manifest. While these macro-trends are well portrayed in the literature, their outcome at the household level seldom figures in the literature. In Ukraine, labor out-migration to Russia is a frequently chosen strategy, not least because of the Russophone background of eastern Ukraine and of many of the major cities, including Kiev and Odessa. This out-migration contributes to urban decline. Using multivariate methods, we analyze the characteristics of population subgroups with and without the experience of working abroad. We also use descriptive statistics to assess the impact of migration events within households on the standard of living of the latter. Our data source is the city of Stakhanov Health Interview Survey 2009 (n = 3,000).

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Szymon Marcinczak

Michael Gentile


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2012

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Cities 2012, 29 (5): 291-299.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Tiit Tammaru

Michael Gentile


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Europe-Asia Studies 2012, 64 (4): 785-787.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Michael Gentile


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Educational Policies and Inequalities in Europe. : Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. 23-54.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Alan Dyson

Lia Antoniou


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Towards a Social Investment Welfare State?. Bristol : Policy Press, 2012. 117-149.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Caroline de la Porte

Kerstin Jacobsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

East European Politics 2012, 28 (4): 353-370.

In Poland, legacies of the communist past interact with contemporary domestic opportunity structures, conditioning and shaping the forms of action of the country's animal rights movement. The resulting ‘NGO-isation’ of civil society impedes effective collective action, with animal rights activists' engagement channelled towards ‘animal charity’ and service provision rather than more political strategies or disruptive forms of protest. Faced with an unfavourable political opportunity structure, the Polish animal rights movement has, moreover, opted for judicial activism and education instead of politics to achieve its ends. To understand the organisational fragmentation of the ‘collective action space’, the article suggests, the notion of ‘opportunity structures’ must be broadened to capture how the interplay between different types of opportunity structures affects action.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Kerstin Jacobsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Social Movement Studies 2012, 11 (1): 41-60.

Drawing on Durkheim's sociology of morality, which identifies ideals and norms as the key components of morality, this article outlines a theoretical model for understanding how social movements can bring about legitimate social change. Social movement activists, we propose, can be conceptualized as followers and pursuers of sacred ideals. As such, they frequently come into conflict with existing norms in society. To manage this dilemma, activists must downplay their role as norm breakers while emphasizing their identity as followers of ideals. This in turn requires moral reflexivity in the staging of collective action. The article shows how dramaturgical control (Goffman) is exercised towards this end among activists engaged in two social movements in Sweden: the Plowshares peace movement and Animal Rights Sweden. The article further examines the internal stratification, or ‘moral hierarchies’, within the two activist groups in the light of the proposed model. The closer the activists were able to adhere to the sacred ideal, the higher the social status they enjoyed within the group.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Jonas Lindblom

Kerstin Jacobsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Apostolis Papakostas

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 2012, 47 (2): 241-251.

This study compares the frequencies of attempted suicide among immigrants and their hosts, between different immigrant groups, and between immigrants and their countries of origin. The material, 27,048 persons, including 4,160 immigrants, was obtained from the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour, the largest available European database, and was collected in a standardised manner from 11 European centres in 1989-2003. Person-based suicide-attempt rates (SARs) were calculated for each group. The larger immigrant groups were studied at each centre and compared across centres. Completed-suicide rates of their countries of origin were compared to the SARs of the immigrant groups using rank correlations. 27 of 56 immigrant groups studied showed significantly higher, and only four groups significantly lower SARs than their hosts. Immigrant groups tended to have similar rates across different centres. Moreover, positive correlation between the immigrant SAR and the country-of-origin suicide rate was found. However, Chileans, Iranians, Moroccans, and Turks displayed high SARs as immigrants despite low suicide rates in the home countries. The similarity of most immigrant groups' SARs across centres, and the correlation with suicidality in the countries of origin suggest a strong continuity that can be interpreted in either cultural or genetic terms. However, the generally higher rates among immigrants compared to host populations and the similarity of the rates of foreign-born and those immigrants who retained the citizenship of their country of origin point to difficulties in the acculturation and integration process. The positive correlation found between attempted and completed suicide rates suggests that the two are related, a fact with strong implications for suicide prevention.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Cendrine Bursztein Lipsicas

Ilkka Henrik Mäkinen


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Civilsamhället i samhällskontraktet. Stockholm : European civil society press, 2012. 55-69.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Lisa Kings

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Civilsamhället i samhällskontraktet. Stockholm : European Civil Society Press, 2012. 35-54.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Apostolis Papakostas

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

BMC Public Health 2012, 12 : -.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported large socioeconomic inequalities in mortality from conditions amenable to medical intervention, but it is unclear whether these can be attributed to inequalities in access or quality of health care, or to confounding influences such as inequalities in background risk of diseases. We therefore studied whether inequalities in mortality from conditions amenable to medical intervention vary between countries in patterns which differ from those observed for other (non-amenable) causes of death. More specifically, we hypothesized that, as compared to non-amenable causes, inequalities in mortality from amenable causes are more strongly associated with inequalities in health care use and less strongly with inequalities in common risk factors for disease such as smoking. Data and methods Cause-specific mortality data for people aged 30-74 years were obtained for 14 countries, and were analysed by calculating age-standardized mortality rates and relative risks comparing a lower with a higher educational group. Survey data on health care use and behavioural risk factors for people aged 30-74 years were obtained for 12 countries, and were analysed by calculating age-and sex-adjusted odds ratios comparing a low with a higher educational group. Patterns of association were explored by calculating correlation coefficients. RESULTS: In most countries and for most amenable causes of death substantial inequalities in mortality were observed, but inequalities in mortality from amenable causes did not vary between countries in patterns that are different from those seen for inequalities in non-amenable mortality. As compared to non-amenable causes, inequalities in mortality from amenable causes are not more strongly associated with inequalities in health care use. Inequalities in mortality from amenable causes are also not less strongly associated with common risk factors such as smoking. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find evidence that inequalities in mortality from amenable conditions are related to inequalities in access or quality of health care. Further research is needed to find the causes of socio-economic inequalities in mortality from amenable conditions, and caution should be exercised in interpreting these inequalities as indicating health care deficiencies.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Iris Plug

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Population Health Metrics 2012, 10 : -.

Background: Studies of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality consistently point to higher death rates in lower socioeconomic groups. Yet how these between-group differences relate to the total variation in mortality risk between individuals is unknown. Methods: We used data assembled and harmonized as part of the Eurothine project, which includes census-based mortality data from 11 European countries. We matched this to national data from the Human Mortality Database and constructed life tables by gender and educational level. We measured variation in age at death using Theil's entropy index, and decomposed this measure into its between-and within-group components. Results: The least-educated groups lived between three and 15 years fewer than the highest-educated groups, the latter having a more similar age at death in all countries. Differences between educational groups contributed between 0.6% and 2.7% to total variation in age at death between individuals in Western European countries and between 1.2% and 10.9% in Central and Eastern European countries. Variation in age at death is larger and differs more between countries among the least-educated groups. Conclusions: At the individual level, many known and unknown factors are causing enormous variation in age at death, socioeconomic position being only one of them. Reducing variations in age at death among less-educated people by providing protection to the vulnerable may help to reduce inequalities in mortality between socioeconomic groups.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Alyson A. van Raalte

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

The aim of this thesis is to shed light on Post-Soviet urban renewal and people’s perceptions of changes that recently occurred in both the city of Riga and Latvian society more generally since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s. More specifically, this study examines how these perceptions are manifest in Riga’s ongoing renewal. Through applying aspects of continuity and discontinuity, I illustrate how the urban renewal of Post-Soviet Riga uncovers imaginary and emotional aspects of the city and how these are interpreted in relation to the past, present and the future. This study introduces the concept “urban postperestroika” and one important difference between this concept and the more common concepts post-socialist, post-communist or post-Soviet is that the former highlights a process while the latter ones largely highlight the state. The starting point is how urban phantasmagorias – contemporary dreams of the future of the city – elucidate urban renewal processes in general and urban postperestroika in particular. In Riga’s ongoing renewal processes I identify three main trajectories in relation to aspects of the past, present and the future: de-Sovietization, globalization and Lettification. Together, these three trajectories constitute an engine that produces urban phantasmagorias.The dissolution of the Soviet Union has given rise to notions that everything is “back to normal” again, and these notions of normalcy have influenced urban renewal processes. The dilemmas, as shown in this thesis, concern the Soviet period and its remaining psychical structure which give the impression of being too conspicuous to eliminate and too contradictory to assimilate. The study illustrates the difficulties of building new urban and societal structures on the remains of pre-existing orders. Such difficulties of course lead to contradictory and ambiguous world views and to new dysfunctional situations that have to be managed in the future.       

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Sven E.O. Hort

Jonas Lindström

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2012

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Budapest : Central European University Press, 2012.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Helene CarlbäckYulia GradskovaZhanna Kravchenko

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2012

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Historical and Contemporary StudiesSchool of Social Sciences
HistorySociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Drug and Alcohol Review 2012, 31 (3): 257-262.

Introduction and Aims. Previous research from Western Europe and North America has suggested that consuming different types of alcoholic beverage may have differing effects on homicide rates both within and between countries. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between the consumption of different beverage types and homicide rates in Russia across the later-Soviet and post-Soviet periods. Design and Methods. Age-standardised male and female homicide data for the period 1970-2005 and data on beverage-specific alcohol sales were obtained from the Russian State Statistical Committee (Rosstat). Time series analysis (autoregressive integrated moving average modelling) was used to examine the relation between the sale (consumption) of different alcoholic beverages and homicide rates. Results. Total alcohol consumption and vodka consumption as measured by sales were significantly associated with both male and female homicide rates: a 1 L increase in overall alcohol sales would result in a 5.9% increase in the male homicide rate and a 5.1% increase in the female homicide rate. The respective figures for vodka were 16.4% and 14.3%. The consumption of beer and wine was not associated with changes in homicide rates. Discussion and Conclusions. Our findings suggest that the consumption of distilled spirits has had an especially detrimental impact on lethal violence in Russia from at least 1970 onwards. In order to reduce homicide rates in this context, alcohol policy should focus on reducing overall consumption as well as attempting to shift the beverage preference away from distilled spirits.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Yury Razvodovsky

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2012

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Laboratorium 2011, 3 : 118-142.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Yulia Gradskova

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2011

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Polityka Społeczna 2011, 5-6 : 37-43.

The paper is a contribution to the on-going discussion concerning factors determining civil society’s development in Poland. It examines contemporary debates on civil society as well as financial mechanisms designed to promote people’s civic engagement in Poland (the EU grants and so called ‘percentage law’ allowing  citizens to support an NGO of their choice with 1 percent of their taxes). Detailed analysis of these mechanisms demonstrates that they are advantageous to some types of non-governmental organizations only, and disadvantageous to others, marginalizing the majority of small and middle-size organizations as well as specific types of claims. As a result, these mechanisms weaken rather than strengthen the development of grassroots spontaneous mobilizations and initiatives.  

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Elzbieta Korolczuk

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2011

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Social Anthropology 2011, 19 (4): 378-393.

The article examines the organisational production and distribution of normatively charged ideas for governing transnational business. Based on the United Nations Global Compact Initiative, it is argued that the UN version of ‘corporate social responsibility’ (CSR) builds on a metanarrative of rationality, involving ideals of transparency and legibility combined with an emphasis on consensus and harmony. The strong accent on partnership, agreement and dialogue leaves little space for the involved parties to articulate and defend diverging interests. By transforming what are basically political conflicts of interest into win–win terms, CSR standards and the technologies of transparency, legibility, and accountability foreclose conflictual space, and emerge as an instance of ‘post-political global ethics’.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Christina Garsten

Kerstin Jacobsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2011

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Arena 2011, 6 : 32-34.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Lisa Kings

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2011

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Nordic civil society at a cross-roads. Baden-Baden : Nomos, 2011. 73-107.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Apostolis Papakostas

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2011

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

International Journal of Epidemiology 2011, 40 (6): 1703-1714.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

AA Van Raalte

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2011

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 2011, 46 (8): 753-765.

Attitudes concerning the acceptability of suicide have been emphasized as being important for understanding why levels of suicide mortality vary in different societies across the world. While Russian suicide mortality levels are among the highest in the world, not much is known about attitudes to suicide in Russia. This study aims to obtain a greater understanding about the levels and correlates of suicide acceptance in Russia. Data from a survey of 1,190 Muscovites were analysed using logistic regression techniques. Suicide acceptance was examined among respondents in relation to social, economic and demographic factors as well as in relation to attitudes towards other moral questions. The majority of interviewees (80%) expressed condemnatory attitudes towards suicide, although men were slightly less condemning. The young, the higher educated, and the non-religious were more accepting of suicide (OR > 2). However, the two first-mentioned effects disappeared when controlling for tolerance, while a positive effect of lower education on suicide acceptance appeared. When controlling for other independent variables, no significant effects were found on suicide attitudes by gender, one's current family situation, or by health-related or economic problems. The most important determinants of the respondents' attitudes towards suicide were their tolerance regarding other moral questions and their religiosity. More tolerant views, in general, also seemed to explain the more accepting views towards suicide among the young and the higher educated. Differences in suicide attitudes between the sexes seemed to be dependent on differences in other factors rather than on gender per se. Suicide attitudes also seemed to be more affected by one's earlier experiences in terms of upbringing and socialization than by events and processes later in life.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ilkka Henrik Mäkinen

Tanya Jukkala

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2011

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 2011, 72 (2): 341-347.

Objective: Previous research suggests that a strong relation exists between alcohol consumption and suicide in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia. This study extends this analysis across a much longer historical time frame by examining the relationship between heavy drinking and suicide in tsarist and post-World War 11 Russia. Method: Using alcohol poisoning mortality data as a proxy for heavy drinking, time-series analytical modeling techniques were used to examine the strength of the alcohol-suicide relation in the provinces of European Russia in the period 1870-1894 and for Russia in 1956-2005. Results: During 1870-1894, a decreasing trend was recorded in heavy drinking in Russia that contrasted with the sharp increase observed in this phenomenon in the post-World War 11 period. A rising trend in suicide was recorded in both study periods, although the increase was much greater in the latter period. The strength of the heavy drinking suicide relation nevertheless remained unchanged across time, with a 10% increase in heavy drinking resulting in a 3.5% increase in suicide in tsarist Russia and a 3.8% increase in post-World War II Russia. Conclusions: Despite the innumerable societal changes that have occurred in Russia across the two study periods and the growth in the level of heavy drinking, the strength of the heavy drinking-suicide relation has remained unchanged across time. This suggests the continuation of a highly detrimental drinking culture where the heavy episodic drinking of distilled spirits (vodka) is an essential element in the alcohol-suicide association. (J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 72, 341-347, 2011)

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Thor Norström

Andrew Stickley

Tanya Jukkala

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2011

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2011, 15 (11): 1461-1467.

OBJECTIVE: To describe the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in tuberculosis (TB) mortality by level of education in male, female, urban and rural populations in several European countries. DESIGN: Data were obtained from the Eurothine Project, covering 16 populations between 1990 and 2003. Age- and sex-standardised mortality rates, the relative index of inequality and the slope index of inequality were used to assess educational inequalities. RESULTS: The number of TB deaths reported was 8530, with a death rate of 3 per 100000 per year, of which 73% were males. Educational inequalities in TB mortality were present in all European populations. Inequalities in TB mortality were greater than in total mortality. Relative and absolute inequalities were large in Eastern European and Baltic countries but relatively small in Southern European countries and in Norway, Finland and Sweden. Inequalities in mortality were observed among both men and women, and in both rural and urban populations. CONCLUSIONS: Socio-economic inequalities in TB mortality exist in all European countries. Firm political commitment is required to reduce inequalities in the social determinants of TB incidence. Targeted public health measures are called for to improve access to treatment of vulnerable groups and thereby reduce TB mortality.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

J. L. Alvarez

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2011

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Annat forskningsområde

Public Health 2011, 125 (11): 754-762.

OBJECTIVES: A considerable increase in social inequalities in mortality was observed in Eastern Europe during the post-communist transition. This study evaluated the contribution of avoidable causes of death to the difference in life expectancy between Estonians and non-Estonians in Estonia.STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study.METHODS: Temporary life expectancy (TLE) was calculated for Estonian and non-Estonian men and women aged 0-74 years in 2005-2007. The ethnic TLE gap was decomposed by age and cause of death (classified as preventable or treatable).RESULTS: The TLE of non-Estonian men was 3.53 years less than that of Estonian men, and the TLE of non-Estonian women was 1.36 years less than that of Estonian women. Preventable causes of death contributed 2.19 years to the gap for men and 0.78 years to the gap for women, while treatable causes contributed 0.67 and 0.33 years, respectively. Cardiorespiratory conditions were the major treatable causes of death, with ischaemic heart disease alone contributing 0.29 and 0.08 years to the gap for men and women, respectively. Conditions related to alcohol and substance use represented the largest proportion of preventable causes of death.CONCLUSIONS: Inequalities in health behaviours underlie the ethnic TLE gap in Estonia, rather than inequalities in access to health care or the quality of health care. Public health interventions should prioritize primary prevention aimed at alcohol and substance use, and should be implemented in conjunction with wider social policy measures.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Aleksei Baburin

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2011

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Since the fall of communism, some crucial political, economic and social changes have been taking place in the former communist societies. The objective of the thesis is to examine the processes of residential differentiation taking place in the urban landscape of the Polish city of Gdańsk after the introduction of the capitalist system. The focus is on different forms of residential differentiation and the social, economic and historical factors behind these forms. The empirical material that forms the basis of the thesis consists of interviews, newspaper articles, a questionnaire, official (national and local) reports and documents. Study I examines the way in which different social, economic, historical and physical conditions coincide in the formation of space and the processes of decline in the period of transformation in Poland. The focus lies on a specific residential area in the center of Gdańsk and the lack of improvements in this particular area, which would stop its successive decline. Study II explains the emergence of gated communities in the post-communist urban context and discusses the reasons for their increasing numbers and popularity. The main argument is that the popularity of gated communities is tightly intertwined with the communist past, emerging in reaction to the housing conditions that prevailed under communism. Study III investigates how social class markers are constructed in the discourse on gated communities in post-socialist Poland. The “new” capitalistic system, with its inherent social divisions, is described in the discourse as creating demands for “new” forms of housing, where gates function as separators, protectors and class identifiers. Study IV concentrates on the support for the formation of gated communities in the legal and regulatory framework in Poland since 1989. The paper asserts that the outcome of liberal politics and legal regulation in the country is the neglect of spatial planning and imprecise urban policies.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Apostolis Papakostas

Dominika Polanska

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2011

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

BMC Public Health 2011, 11 : 97-.

Patterns of inequalities in smoking in Hungary can be best understood in relation to two processes: the smoking epidemic, and the additional effects of poverty. Equity orientated tobacco control measures should target the low educated to prevent their smoking initiation, and the poor to improve their cessation rates.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Csilla Kaposvári

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2011

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Acta Sociologica 2011, 54 (1): 125-130.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Lia Antoniou


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2011

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: ICTs and Sustainable Solutions for the Digital Divide. Hershey : Information Science Reference, 2011. 199-217.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Duncan Timms

Sara Ferlander

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2011

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Gender, Politics and Institutions. Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. 112-128.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Hana Hašková

Steven Saxonberg


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2011

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Göteborgs fria tidning 2011, 11 juni : -.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Magnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2011

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Nationalencyklopedin 2011, Online : -.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Magnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2011

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Current Sociology 2011, 59 (1): 5-23.

Two ideas are almost universally accepted as reality in political sociology. One is that numbers are declining in nearly all membership associations. The usual interpretation of this phenomenon is that it occurs because of individualization. The other is that the character of collective action has changed. This idea, which stems from Touraine, Melucci and Castells, states that a new historical category of social action has emerged, one that resembles action in primary groups rather than in organizations and in some way is a victory over the iron law of oligarchy. This article questions both ideas. The author intends to show that another historical process is in play here, namely, a process of ‘inert rationalization’ in social movements, political parties and associations, which is taking place in Europe with different starting points and at different tempos. The result of this process can be summed up as ‘more organization with fewer people’. Domination, inherent in oligarchic organizations, is being transformed by the creation of a new organizational boundary between elite (or profession) and members. The point is that it is membership itself as a form for affiliation that is disappearing, not just members. The article argues that this is mainly because resource mobilization patterns have historically changed from the mobilization of resources drawn from members to the mobilization of resources drawn from other organizations. Finally, the article analyses the importance of the unstructured power fields (or open spaces) created by rationalization processes for social innovation and new social movements.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Apostolis Papakostas

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2011

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Fronesis 2010, 32-33 : -.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Adrienne Sörbom

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

Distinktion Scandinavian Journal of Social Theory 2010, 11 (2): 25-49.

Using and expanding upon the conception of ‘successive modernities’ that has recently been developed within social theory, this article offers an interpretation of the political aims, ideas, and practices of the ‘global justice movement’ and argues that this contemporary social movement is best understood as an expression of the tensions characterizing the prevailing configuration of Western modernity in our own time. Social movements have often simultaneously challenged, changed, and sustained the institutions, norms, and habits of modern societies. Placing the global justice movement in this historical context, the author elaborates how the notion of the creative capacities of social movements has hitherto been discussed in several major theories about social movements and modernity. The article argues that the movements mobilized since the 1990s in response to issues related to globalization should neither be seen as revolts against the demise of ‘organized modernity’, nor as heralding a new type of Western modernity. Instead, the critique and political claims of the global justice movement are, according to the author, better interpreted as expressing a will to realize a ‘third modernity’ in an alternative way that stresses the values of participatory democracy, democratization of international economic institutions, and the strengthening of social equality on a global level. Thus, the movement should foremost be seen as articulating a crisis in the forms of politics and democracy during our present epoch of modernity.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Magnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 2010, 38 (4): 404-410.

Aims: To examine which factors were associated with non-lethal violent ictimization in Sweden in the period 2004 to 2007. Methods: Data come rom the Swedish National Public Health Surveys, undertaken annually etween 2004 and 2007. A total of 29,923 randomly selected respondents ged 16 to 84 from across Sweden responded to a mailed questionnaire. ogistic regression analyses were used to examine which independent ariables were associated with having experienced violence in the revious 12 months. Results: Male and female respondents who were ounger, single, lacking in social capital and who engaged in harmful lcohol consumption were significantly more likely to have been subject o violence. Furthermore, men who were in the lower income groups or who ere Nordic, and women who were of a non-European origin, were also ignificantly more likely to have been victimized. Conclusions: The risk f non-lethal violent victimization is not spread equally throughout wedish society. Specifically, those who are socially and/or conomically disadvantaged are much more likely to experience violence. his highlights the importance of working to reverse the growing nequality that has occurred in Sweden in recent years that continues to e linked to the risk of being a victim of non-lethal violence.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Andrew Stickley

Per Carlson

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2010, 64 (10): 902-907.

Background Rates of violence in Russia are among the highest in the orld, and violent victimisation represents a major public health threat n the country. As yet, however, little research has been undertaken on hat factors are associated with non-lethal violent victimisation in his setting. This study used data from the Moscow Health Survey 2004 to xamine the effects of binge drinking and social capital on individuals' isk of non-fatal violent victimisation. ethods A stratified random sampling strategy was used across Moscow's 25 municipal districts to collect data from 1190 individuals aged 18+ ears. Respondents reported if they had been a victim of physical iolence in the previous 12 months. Data were also collected on binge rinking (defined for men as consuming >= 80 g of pure alcohol, and for omen >= 60 g of pure alcohol, at least once per month) and social apital (frequency of interaction with relatives, friends and cquaintances). esults Overall, 8.7% of the respondents had been a victim of violence n the past 12 months. Men who binge drink were more than twice as ikely to have been a victim of non-lethal violence (OR 2.19, CI 1.23 to .92), while greater levels of social capital acted as a protective actor against male victimisation (OR 0.82, CI 0.69 to 0.97). Neither inge drinking nor social capital was associated with violent ictimisation among women. onclusion Urgent public health measures are now needed to reduce xcessive alcohol consumption and detrimental drinking patterns to bring own the high levels of violent victimisation in Russia.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

W. A. Pridemore

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

International Journal of Public Health 2010, 55 (6): 619-626.

To determine the prevalence of adolescent smoking in the Russian ederation and examine what factors are associated with it. ata were drawn from Round 13 of the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring urvey (RLMS) carried out in 2004. The sample consists of 815 dolescents (430 boys, 385 girls) aged 14-17 years who answered uestions about their health behaviours. moking was more prevalent among boys than girls (26.1 vs. 5.7%). aternal smoking and adolescent alcohol use were associated with smoking mong both sexes. The self-assessment of one's socioeconomic position as nfavourable was associated with girls' smoking, while living in a isrupted family, physical inactivity and having a low level of elf-esteem were predictive of boys' smoking. he family environment appears to be an important determinant of dolescent smoking in Russia. In particular, boys and girls may be odelling the negative health behaviour lifestyles of their parents, ith unhealthy behaviours clustering. Efforts to reduce adolescent moking in Russia must address the negative effects emanating from the arental home whilst also addressing associated behaviours such as lcohol use.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Olga Kislitsyna

Andrew Stickley


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: From Linnaeus to the future(s) - letters from afar. Växjö : Linnaeus University Press, 2010. 53-70.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Lisa Kings

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Nordisk Østforum 2010, 24 (1): 98-100.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Daniel Lindvall


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Känslan för det allmänna. Umeå : Boréa, 2010. 267-294.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Erik Löfmarck

Kerstin Jacobsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Space and Culture 2010, 13 (4): 421-435.

The aim of this article is to analyze how social class markers are constructed in the discourse on gated communities in a postsocialist urban context. The case of Poland is used as an example of apost-Communist country where the number of gated communities is increasing rapidly in urban areas. The material of study consists of 50 articles published in the largest national newspaper.This article argues that the discourse on gated communities is constituted by and constitutes class divisions and social class markers prevalent in the country since the fall of Communism. The “new” capitalistic system with its inherent social divisions is described as creating demands for “new” forms of housing where gates function as separators, protectors, and class identifiers. Residential differentiation is a reality in Polish society, and private space has become a symbol of exclusivity and spread throughout the country along with the popularity of gated forms of housing.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Dominika Polanska

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

CBEESSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Journal of Housing and the Built Environment 2010, 25 (3): 295-312.

This article considers the emergence of gated communities in the post-communist urban context and discusses the reasons for their increasing numbers and popularity. Narrowing in on a Polish city, the description focuses on the forms that gated communities take and on who the residents are, as well as their motives for moving into gated housing. Other explanations for the emergence of gated communities are reviewed. Interviews with residents of gated communities, a questionnaire, and previous studies on the topic form the basis of the material used in the study. It is argued that the motives for moving to gated communities are tightly intertwined with the communist past. While Polish gated communities are obviously an effect of the spatial planning and the housing market at the national and local level, they are also emerging in reaction to the housing conditions prevailing under communism.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Dominika Polanska

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Przemiany rodziny w Polsce i we Włoszech i ich implikacje dla polityki rodzinnej. Warszawa : Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, 2010. -.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Steven Saxonberg


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Kobiety w polskiej transformacji 1989-2009. Toruń : Wydawnictwo Adam Marszałek, 2010. -.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Elzbieta Korolczuk

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Polish Sociological Review 2010, 4 : 467-485.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Elzbieta Korolczuk

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Annals of the Association of American Geographers 2010, 100 (1): 112-136.

As a result of the absence of a land market, socialist-era cities tended to look different from their market-economy equivalents. The difference was made more pronounced by the fact that the command economy also favored industrial investment over infrastructure and housing. Yet, with an increasing appetite for additional labor, needed by production units to ensure plan fulfillment, housing became a means to recruit and retain employees. Not all employers could afford to put resources into such ononproductiveo investment, however, and the literature suggests that the notion of priorities allows for discriminating between those enterprises that enjoyed soft budget constraints, and therefore could afford to spend money on worker welfare, and those that could not. As a heuristic framework based on the economics of shortage, the priority model is compelling, but as yet it lacks empirical substantiation. Setting out to test the landscapes of priority model of urban development, this article details the developments of housing construction in Daugavpils, Latvia, during the Soviet period. Based on extensive archive and field research covering all newly constructed or converted housing projects over the period from 1951 to 1991, it yields considerable, if not unqualified, support for the model that until now has not been made subject to systematic empirical tests.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Örjan Sjöberg

Michael Gentile


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2010

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Journal of Historical Geography 2010, 36 (4): 453-465.

Throughout much of the Soviet period, access to housing was a major consideration, both for individual citizens and employers intent on increasing their number of employees. Because of the heavy emphasis on industry, and despite the progress made within the area since the late 1950s, Soviet urban residential provision never managed to fully recover from the acute housing shortage that characterized the Stalin years. In this paper, we address the quantitative side of housing construction during the socialist era. Using the mid-sized diversified industrial town of Daugavpils (Latvia) as a case study, we set out to investigate the extent to which employers were involved in decisions concerning housing provision. To do this, we consult a large volume of archival records, our focus being on documents tracing entries indicating that new living quarters were ready and could be allocated to employees of sponsoring organizations and enterprises.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Örjan Sjöberg

Michael Gentile


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2010, 64 (10): 913-920.

Inequalities in avoidable mortality were present in all European countries, but were especially pronounced in CEE and Baltic countries. These educational inequalities point to an important role for healthcare services in reducing inequalities in health.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Irina Stirbu

Mall Leinsalu

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Encyclopedia of Motherhood. : Sage Publications, 2010. vol. 3-.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Renata E. Hryciuk

Elzbieta Korolczuk

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

Yes
2010

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: Happiness and social policy in Europe. Cheltenham : Edward Elgar, 2010. 11-30.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Tomas Sirovatka

Steven Saxonberg


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Fronesis 2010, 32-33 : 25-35.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Klas Gustavsson

Magnus Wennerhag

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Känslan för det allmänna. Umeå : Boréa, 2010. 151-176.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Eva Sandstedt

Kerstin Jacobsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Känslan för det allmänna. Umeå : Boréa, 2010. 115-149.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Eva Sandstedt

Kerstin Jacobsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Känslan för det allmänna. Umeå : Boréa, 2010. 77-114.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Eva Sandstedt

Kerstin Jacobsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Känslan för det allmänna. Umeå : Boréa, 2010. 15-38.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Kerstin Jacobsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Umeå : Boréa, 2010.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Kerstin Jacobsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Mechanisms of OECD governance. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2010. 119-138.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Niklas Noaksson

Kerstin Jacobsson


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Psychological Reports 2010, 107 (1): 157-162.

Previous publications have reported two conflicting patterns describing the relationship between income and suicide in Sweden; positive and negative. Methodologically the studies have differed, and the analysis has been limited to a few areas. To better understand the relationship, a nationwide, cross-sectional, ecological study of the 290 municipalities in Sweden was planned. OLS regression analyses showed the overall and female suicide rates were negatively related to income, while the effect on male suicide rates was not statistically significant. The results confirm earlier findings of a negative relationship between income and suicide.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Sara Magnusson

Ilkka Henrik Mäkinen


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Baltic Worlds 2010, 3 : 10-16.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Ilkka Henrik Mäkinen

Tanya Jukkala

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Lund : Arkiv, 2010.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Paavo Bergman


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Canadian journal of psychiatry 2010, 55 (5): 274-281.

OBJECTIVES: Little research has focused on the relation of immigration and suicidal behaviour in youth. Nevertheless, the impact of migration on the mental health of youth is an issue of increasing societal importance. This review aimed to present studies on the prevalence of suicidal behaviour in immigrant youth in various countries and to provide possible explanations for suicidal behaviour in immigrant youth, especially regarding acculturation.METHODS: The review included a literature search to locate articles on the subject of suicidal behaviour in immigrant youth in the context of acculturation.RESULTS: Studies on suicidal behaviour in culturally diverse youth are few and most of the existing research does not differentiate ethnic minorities from immigrants. Studies on epidemiology and on specific risk factors were found regarding various immigrant youth including Hispanics in the United States, Asians in North America and Europe, as well as comparative studies between different immigrant groups in specific countries.CONCLUSIONS: The relation between immigration status and suicidal behaviours in youth appears to vary by ethnicity and country of settlement. Time spent in the new country as well as intergenerational communication and conflicts with parents have, in many of the studies, been related to suicidality in immigrant youth. Summing up, there is a clear and urgent need to further pursue the work in this field, to develop targeted public health interventions as well as psychosocial treatment for preventing suicide in these youth.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Cendrine Bursztein Lipsicas

Ilkka Henrik Mäkinen


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2010

School/Centre

SCOHOSTSchool of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Forskning och Resultat 2009, 1 : 4-4.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Paavo Bergman


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2009

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Stockholm : Statens institutionsstyrelse, 2009. (Allmän SiS-rapport ; 2009:5)

I samband med regeringssatsningen Ett kontrakt för livet fick SiS även i uppdrag att erbjuda vård i annan form jml §27 LVM till de klienter som kommunerna hade svårt att placera. Under 2005–2006 startade därför fyra behandlingshem i SiS regi för att kunna erbjuda § 27-vård; Thulegården, Brunnslöv, Villan och 27:an. Drygt 200 klienter har fått vård i annan form i SiS § 27-hem 2005–2008. En genomgång av de placerade klienternas bakgrund visar att de som vårdades i dessa enheter i vissa hänseenden mådde sämre psykiskt jämfört med andra LVM-klienter och att de hade större erfarenhet av missbruksvård sedan tidigare. Den låga efterfrågan på vårdplatser kan ha bidragit till att andra klientgrupper än den tänkta också fick möjligheter att placeras i dessa hem.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Johan Billsten

Ali Hajighasemi

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2009

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society

In: Poverty, Urbanity and Social Policy. New York : Nova publishers, 2009. 117-130.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Jonas Lindström

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2009

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Diversity and commonality in European social policies. Warszawa : Scholar, 2009. 110-139.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Jolanta Aidukaite


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2009

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

New York : Nova Science Publishers, 2009.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Jolanta Aidukaite


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2009

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: The handbook of European welfare systems. London : Routledge, 2009. 294-310.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Jolanta Aidukaite


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2009

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Daniel Lindvall


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2009

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

In: Poverty, Urbanity and Social Policy. New York : Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2009. 131-145.

The aim of this chapter is to examine the reasons behind the increasing residential disparities in the city of Gdansk. Namely, I will look how the changes in urban policy, urban planning and ownership regulations have affected the development of the old and new residential areas in the city. Processes of decline and the emergence of gated communities are of main interest for illustrating urban development and specific examples of residential areas of Gdansk have been used to demonstrate the important role of urban policy and urban planning together with ownership conditions on the development in the city since the fall of communism. I argue that the lack of an explicit urban policy, including urban planning, has created enclaves of wealth and poverty in the city. Furthermore property rights’ regulations are complicated and unclear and hinder improvements of old and historical residential areas and a more integrated development of housing investments in the city.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject
Dominika Polanska

Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2009

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Cities 2009, 26 (1): 38-48.

Vientiane, the capital of the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is a small city that has experienced various rounds of socio-economic experimentation during the past few decades: currently, it is set in a capitalist economic context under the rule of a communist regime. With increasing connectivity to regional and global networks, the city has embarked on a far-reaching path of urban transformation. This city profile describes the historical influences affecting the spatial structure of Vientiane, the urban spatial structures and the land use patterns that have unfolded as a result of the economic liberalization that has been taking place since the late 1980s, as well as some salient aspects of the urban management process with respect to planning procedures.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Pernilla S. Rafiqui

Michael Gentile


Research linked to the Baltic region and Eastern Europe

No
2009

School/Centre

School of Social Sciences
Sociology

Research area for doctoral studies

-

Eurasian geography and economics 2009, 50 (3): 327-347.

Two European geographers present the findings of a sizeable survey (n = 7,5 15) providing a detailed geographical analysis of household incomes and reliance on personal subsidiary garden plots across Kazakhstan. The authors focus on assessing the extent to which Kazakhstan's rising GDP during the post-Soviet period has coincided with an increase in the general population's personal income and ability to secure adequate food supplies for personal consumption. The fine geographical scale of analysis of the survey data (significantly less coarse than oblast-level data) enabled them to identify regions characterized by "trickle-down" income, largely centered on the country's two main urban centers and areas of resource exploitation. The patterns revealed in the paper have relevance to the debate concerning the uneven distribution of benefits from resource exploitation (notably oil and gas) to Kazakhstan's population.

AuthorPublishing yearSubject

Sarah O'Hara

Mic