Södertörns högskola har antagit utmaningen att integrera naturvetenskapliga och samhällsvetenskapliga ansatser för att skapa ett modernt, tvär- och mångvetenskapligt område: Miljövetenskapliga studier.
PublikationerHär publiceras löpande publikationer från publikationsdatabasen DiVA.
Why Does Deliberative Community Consultation in Large-Scale Land Acquisitions Fail? - A Critical Analysis of Mozambican ExperiencesMer info
Revista iberoamericana de estudios de desarrollo / Iberoamerican Journal of Development Studies 2018, 7 (2): 164-193.
Community consultation prior to large-scale land acquisitions (LSLA) is a cornerstone that justifies the portrayal of projects as partnerships or land grabs. This study focuses on one of the countries most targeted by LSLA in the last decade, namely, Mozambique. We examine the legal and theoretical bases that support community consultations and analyse their corresponding everyday practices in Mozambique. The article argues that, although the existence of these participatory forums is inspired by normative ideals of popular deliberation, the prevailing practices in these spaces are diametrically opposed to deliberative foundations and values. As shown in this study, this mismatch between theory that is institutionalized in legal frameworks and practice derives largely from the interplay of hierarchical relations anchored in, inter alia, formal and customary ethnically based realms, gender disparities, and livelihood orientations. A core argument of the article is that any attempt to ameliorate these practices must consider critical insights regarding the centrality of enhancing social equality and inclusion in participatory spaces —challenges that are immense in places marked by deep structural inequalities.
The ecosystem approach to management in the Baltic Sea Region - Analyzing regional environmental governance from a spatial perspectiveMer info
Marine Policy 2018, 98 : 271-277.
The ecosystem approach to management (EAM) is a policy principle and management tool of increasing importance in European environmental governance. In the Baltic Sea region (BSR), this approach has developed in line with a progressive environmental management agenda, reaching from hot spot solutions to new holistic agendas. This paper examines the spatial dimensions of the EAM in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR). The analysis is based on an analytical framework which combines regional environmental governance with debates on socio-spatial relations. It is found that the development, implementation, and spread of EAM corresponds with changing socio-spatial relations. Reterritorialisation of both institutional arrangements and policies is needed to solve cross-boundary problems. Place-making such as hot spots and pilot projects (e.g., in maritime spatial planning) are first steps towards the upscaling of local experiments and re-scaling of policies is also needed for the implementation of EAM in a macroregional multi-level setting, stretching from the EU to the local level. Analyzing regional environmental governance from a spatial perspective reveals institutional ambiguities and even institutional voids because the successful implementation of EAM requires new institutional arrangements.
“Before we asked for permission, now we only give notice”: Women’s entrance into artisanal fisheries in Chile Mer info
Maritime Studies 2018, 17 (2): 177-188.
Small-scale fisheries (SSF) in the Global South are increasingly subjected to the internationalisation of food systems. Guided by a feminist political ecology approach, we examine how gender relations and power structures within SSF are changing through policy interventions and market linkages. Chilean women working in SSF have traditionally been unregistered direct producers. Since the early 2000s, however, women have formally entered as fishers within this hitherto male-dominated space. Today, women constitute almost a quarter of artisanal fishers in Chile. While women have become more visible, among others, in their engagement in territorial use rights in fisheries (TURFs), little research attention has been paid to women’s roles within SSF. We redress this shortfall by examining the struggle to obtain TURFs by an all-women seaweed gatherers union in Coliumo (Bio-Bio Region, Chile). Using participatory research tools, we describe key gendered interactions and events over a local struggle for resources. Our findings show how closely related episodes of cooperation and conflict were involved in realising TURFs, which included differently-gendered relationships. While the women implicated in formalising fishing entitlements accrued individual benefit and enhanced their collective standing, the conflict left a deep scar among women in the community.
Endocrine disruption in fish - Effects of 17α-ethinylestradiol exposure on non-reproductive behavior, fertility and brain and testis transcriptomeMer info
Den akvatiska miljön är ofta särskilt utsatt för miljöföroreningar då de flesta ämnen förr eller senare sprids dit genom bland annat markavrinning, nedfall från luften och/eller från vattenreningsverk. Syntetiskt östrogen som används i p-piller, 17α-etinylestradiol (EE2), sprider sig ofta till vattenmiljön från avloppsvatten, då det bara delvis renas bort i vattenreningsprocessen. EE2 är ett hormonstörande ämne med förmågan att ansamlas i organismer och mer än tio gånger så verksamt i fisk som det naturliga hormonet estradiol (E2). Man har tidigare sett att exponering för EE2 även i de låga halter som påvisas vid vattenreningsverk bland annat har lett till minskade produktion av ägg och spermier samt förändrade parningsbeteenden.I denna avhandling undersöks effekterna av EE2 på fiskars icke-reproduktiva beteende och fertilitet. Dessa faktorer är av hög ekologisk relevans för fisk då förändringar på dessa kan ge negativa effekter på populationsnivå. Resultaten visar att zebrafisk som exponeras för låga halter av EE2 under utvecklingen uppvisar ett mer ängsligt beteende och har lägre fertilitet när de blir vuxna även efter en lång återhämtningsperiod i rent vatten. Det förändrade beteendet uppvisas även hos avkomman till dessa fiskar. Förändringarna i beteende och fertilitet åtföljdes av förändringar i hjärnans och testikelvävnadens transkriptom, dvs. förändringar i vilka gener som uttrycks. I zebrafiskens testikelvävnad hittades bland annat en skillnad i uttryck av gener kopplade till könsdifferentiering och utveckling samt spermatogenesen, gener som kan ha betydelse för den nedsatta fertiliteten. I zebrafiskens hjärna hittades ingen skillnad i uttryck på gener direkt kopplade till stressaxeln men däremot på flera andra gener i nätverk som indirekt kan kopplas till det ängsliga beteendet som dygnsrytm och kolesterolsyntes. I naturen exponeras organismer ofta för en blandning av föroreningar. Därför undersöktes också effekter av EE2 i kombination med citalopram, ett antidepressivt läkemedel som ofta påvisas i vattenmiljön, för att undersöka om förändringar i beteende kan påvisas även vid väldigt låga koncentrationer av varje ämne och, om så är fallet, vilka effekter en kombination av de två ämnena ger. Vuxna zebrafiskar uppvisade beteendeförändringar även vid dessa låga koncentrationer efter två veckors exponering och de två ämnena påverkade beteendet olika var för sig och i kombination. Vidare, användes vildfångad storspigg i ett exponeringsexperiment för att undersöka om resultaten från zebrafisken, som är en avlad laboratoriefisk, kan ses också i vilda fiskpopulationer. Även storspiggar som exponerades för EE2 under utveckling fick ett modifierat beteende samt en skev könsfördelning som vuxna: fler honor fanns hos de storspiggar som exponerats och vidare undersökningar visade att dessa var genetiska hanar som utvecklats som honor.Den här avhandlingen visar beständiga förändringar i zebrafiskens transkriptom i hjärna och testikelvävnad efter exponering för EE2 i låga halter under utveckling. Både icke-reproduktiva beteenden och fertilitet visade sig känsliga för EE2 i såväl zebrafisk som storspigg och effekterna verkar vara permanenta. Sammanfattningsvis har EE2 effekter på ekologiskt relevanta faktorer hos fisk i de halter som förekommer i vattenmiljön och hormonstörande föroreningar som EE2 kan ge långvariga effekter som syns senare i livet även vid låga koncentrationer.
Altered non-reproductive behavior and feminization caused by developmental exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol pers... Mer info
Aquatic Toxicology 2018, : -.
The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), ubiquitous in the aquatic environment and commonly detected in sewage effluents, interferes with the endocrine system in multiple ways. Exposure during sensitive windows of development causes persistent effects on fertility, reproductive and non-reproductive behavior in mammals and fish. In the present study, three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were exposed to nominal 0 and 20 ng/L EE2 from fertilization to 7 weeks post-hatch. After 8 months of remediation in clean water three non-reproductive behaviors, not previously analyzed in developmentally EE2-exposed progeny of wild-caught fish, were evaluated. Chemical analysis revealed that the nominal 0 and 20 ng/L exposure contained 5 and 30 ng/L EE2, respectively. Therefore, the use of control fish from previous experiments was necessary for comparisons. Fish exposed during development showed significant concentration-dependent reduction in anxiety-like behavior in the scototaxis (light/dark preference) test by means of shorter latency to first entrance to the white compartment, more visits in white, and longer total time in white compared to unexposed fish. In the novel tank test, developmental exposure significantly increased the number of transitions to the upper half of the aquaria. Exposure to EE2 during development did not alter shoal cohesion in the shoaling test compared with unexposed fish but fish exposed to 30 ng/L EE2 had significantly longer latency to leave the shoal and fewer transitions away from the shoal compared to fish exposed to 5 ng/L EE2. Skewed sex ratio with more females, sex reversal in genetic males as well as intersex in males was observed after exposure to 30, but not 5 ng/L EE2. In conclusion, EE2 exposure during development in three-spined stickleback resulted in persistent effects on anxiety-like behaviors. These long-term effects from developmental exposure are likely to be of higher relevance for natural populations than are short-term effects from adult exposure.
The Politics of Land Grabbing - State and corporate power and the (trans)nationalization of resistance in CameroonMer info
Journal of Agrarian Change 2018, : -.
Approaching land grabbing as a site of politics wherein power functions in the challenge and/or stabilization of agrarian socioecological injustices, we capture agrarian relations in Cameroon in 2 fundamental ways. Drawing on Laclauian insights, we discuss power as a “counter‐hegemonic” practice, to characterize the resistance strategies of local NGOs, in terms of their articulated discourses around the socioecological effects of land grabs, on the one hand, and the political possibilities that this articulatory practice opens, in terms of (trans)nationalizing resistance across social identities and space, on the other hand. Here, the analysis adopts a Foucauldian‐inspired critique with strong commitments towards agrarian socioecological justice, in a context where policies to protect democratic access to land are absent. Second, framed as a hegemonic/governmental “form of rule,” we capture how state and diplomatic actors sought to override dissent and stabilize the contentious land deal. We also show how a moment of presidential “nondecision,” characterized by a hyper‐centralized bureaucracy conjoined with these hegemonic forces to disempower local administrative and judicial leverage, thereby fostering corporate power. The article thus contributes to debates on state and corporate powers, as well as the strategies of, or possibilities and constraints for resistance “from below” to irradiate and structure into a compelling force.
The Discursive Paradox of Environmental Conflict - Between Ecologism and Economism in EcuadorMer info
Forum for Development Studies 2018, : -.
Ecuador in times of the Rafael Correa government constitutes a prime example of the paradox of environmental conflict, in which all involved actors claim to represent the true vanguard concerning safeguarding of the environment and human conditions. The country presents the ecologically most progressive constitution in the world and also incorporates far-reaching recognition of indigenous peoples’ rights. Notwithstanding, the economy remains reliant on extractivism and the government argues that the revenues of extractive industries benefit the common good. Anchored in a distinction between environmentalism and ecologism, this article identifies and problematizes dominant narratives among the actors of the contentious discursive scenarios, and analyses how the state and its ecological-indigenous opposition aim to position themselves within the political conflict. The central questions are: How are eco-progressive politics perceived, defined and expressed in this setting of an intercultural and plurinational society economically reliant on natural resource extraction? Which values, interests and ontological assumptions are at stake and how are these expressed in the discursive struggle? The research is based on several years of ethnographic fieldwork, combined with critical reading of the previous literature and discourse analysis. The article contributes to politico-environmental debates in Ecuador and beyond and shows that environmental struggle is entangled in broader political disputes conditioned by global economic structures. It likewise communicates with debates on argumentative discourse and illustrates that the same core arguments can constitute the argumentative basis of rivalling actors in political struggles, thus emphasizing the centrality of the contextual framing amid ontological divides in contentious discursive settings.
Collective action and agency in Baltic Sea marine spatial planning - Transnational policy coordination in the promotion of regional coherenceMer info
Marine Policy 2018, 92 : 138-147.
Despite the increasing attention given to marine spatial planning and the widely acknowledged need for transnational policy coordination, regional coherence has not yet improved a great deal in the Baltic Sea region. Therefore, the main objectives in this article are: (a) to map existing governance structures at all levels that influence how domestic marine spatial planning policy strategies are formed, (b) to identify specific challenges to improved regional cooperation and coordination, and (c) to discuss possible remedies. Based on data from in-depth case studies carried out in the BONUS BALTSPACE research project, it is shown that, despite the shared goal of sustainability and efficient resource use in relevant EU Directives, action plans and other policy instruments, domestic plans are emerging in diverse ways, mainly reflecting varying domestic administrative structures, sectoral interests, political prioritisations, and handling of potentially conflicting policy objectives. A fruitful distinction can be made between, on the one hand, regulatory institutions and structures above the state level where decision-making mechanisms are typically grounded in consensual regimes and, on the other hand, bilateral, issue-specific collaboration, typically between adjacent countries. It is argued that, to improve overall marine spatial planning governance, these two governance components need to be brought together to improve consistency between regional alignment and to enhance opportunities for countries to collaborate at lower levels. Issue-specific transnational working groups or workshops can be one way to identify and act upon such potential synergies.
Anthropogenic and climatic impacts on a coastal environment in the Baltic Sea over the last 1000 years Mer info
Anthropocene 2018, 21 : 66-79.
Coastal environments have experienced large ecological changes as a result of human activities over the last 100−200 years. To understand the severity and potential consequences of such changes, paleoenvironmental records provide important contextual information. The Baltic Sea coastal zone is naturally a vulnerable system and subject to significant human-induced impacts. To put the recent environmental degradation in the Baltic coastal zone into a long-term perspective, and to assess the natural and anthropogenic drivers of environmental change, we present sedimentary records covering the last 1000 years obtained from a coastal inlet (Gåsfjärden) and a nearby lake (Lake Storsjön) in Sweden. We investigate the links between a pollen-based land cover reconstruction from Lake Storsjön and paleoenvironmental variables from Gåsfjärden itself, including diatom assemblages,organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents, stable C and N isotopic ratios, and biogenic silica contents. The Lake Storsjön record shows that regional land use was characterized by small-scale agricultural activity between 900 and 1400 CE, which slightly intensified between 1400 and 1800 CE. Substantial expansion of cropland was observed between 1800 and 1950 CE, before afforestation between 1950 and 2010 CE. From the Gåsfjärden record, prior to 1800 CE, relatively minor changes in the diatom and geochemical proxies were found. The onset of cultural eutrophication in Gåsfjärden can be traced to the 1800s and intensified land use is identified as the main driver. Anthropogenic activities in the 20th century have caused unprecedented ecosystem changes in the coastal inlet, as reflected in the diatom composition and geochemical proxies.
Large-scale land acquisitions aggravate the feminization of poverty - findings from a case study in MozambiqueMer info
GeoJournal 2018, : 1-22.
The local implications of large-scale land acquisitions (LSLAs), commonly referred to as land grabs, are at the center of an exponential production of scientific literature that only seldom focuses on gender. Our case study aims to contribute to filling this analytical gap. Based on structured interviews and focus groups, we investigate local experiences in the lower Limpopo valley in Mozambique, where a Chinese investor was granted 20,000 hectares in 2012. Our findings show that land access in the affected area varied prior to land seizure due to historical land use differences and after land seizure mainly due to non-universal compensation. Furthermore, we show that as farming conditions deteriorate, a trend toward both the feminization of smallholder farming and the feminization of poverty is consolidated. Succinctly, as available land becomes increasingly constricted, labor is allocated differently to alternative activities. This process is by no means random or uniform among households, particularly in a context in which women prevail in farm activities and men prevail in off-farm work. As men disengage further from smallholder farming, women remain directly dependent on fields that are smaller and of worse quality or reliant on precarious day labor in the remaining farms. We contend that the categories female-headed and male-headed households, although not inviolable, are useful in explaining the different implications of LSLAs in areas in which gender strongly substantiates individuals’ livelihood alternatives. © 2018 The Author(s)
Fishes 2018, 3 (1): -.
Locomotion-based behavioural endpoints have been suggested as suitable sublethal endpoints for human and environmental hazard assessment, as well as for biomonitoring applications. Larval stages of the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus) possess a number of attractive qualities for experimental testing that make it a promising species in behavioural ecotoxicology. Here, we present a study aimed at developing a toolkit for using the sand goby as novel species for ecotoxicological studies and using locomotion as an alternative endpoint in toxicity testing. Exposure to three contaminants (copper (Cu), di-butyl phthalate (DBP) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was tested in the early life stages of the sand goby and the locomotion patterns of the larvae were quantified using an automatic tracking system. In a photo-motor test, sand goby larvae displayed substantially higher activity in light than in dark cycles. Furthermore, all tested compounds exerted behavioural alterations, such as hypo- and hyperactivity. Our experimental results show that sand goby larvae produce robust and quantifiable locomotive responses, which could be used within an ecotoxicological context for assessing the behavioural toxicity of environmental pollutants, with particular relevance in the Nordic region. This study thus suggests that sand goby larvae have potential as an environmentally relevant species for behavioural ecotoxicology, and as such offer an alternative to standard model species.
: , 2018. (MOVIUM and SLU Urban Futures Workshop Report ; )
On the 25th January, 25 researchers, social entrepreneurs and policy makers attended a MOVIUM and SLU Urban Futures funded workshop on “Rethinking urban nature to promote human well-being and livelihoods”. The objectives of the workshop were to identify and discuss integrated digital, social and nature solutions for the use, management and governance of urban nature in the City of Malmö; and to provide a platform for knowledge sharing and networking between researchers and practitioners.Multiple enlightening presentations on how to plan, design and manage urban nature were provided by the cities of Malmö and Copenhagen, social entrepreneurs and academics. Each presentation guided a creative workshop activity that involved four groups creating an integrated solution using Lego and other materials to address the concerns of citizens presented in different scenarios relevant to the use and management of urban nature in Malmö. Each group was asked to present their presentation to the wider group, what inspired them the most from the workshop activity and how their understanding of integrated solutions in urban nature changed over the day. This report presents a summary of each group’s creations and findings.
Community gardening in Stockholm - participation, driving forces and the role of the municipalityMer info
Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 2018, 33 (6): 503-507.
The paper reports on a study of community gardening in Stockholm. We contribute to the body of knowledge about the sustainability of community gardens and this new form of citizen-led initiatives in Stockholm, with the ambition of creating a debate about the best way to sustain and develop these initiatives in Sweden. We argue that although community gardening may provide leverage for means of developing a sustainable city, it is a marginal phenomenon and contributes little to sustainable development its present form. Through interviews we have investigated how the citizens and municipality officers of Stockholm try to adapt to the renewed interest in community gardening by looking at the policy makers’, municipality officers’ and grassroots movements’ incentives to start community gardens. We specifically focus on how the community gardeners articulate their reasons for participating in collaborative initiatives in the city and how these expectations evolve when they are faced with the reality of gardening and the problems relating to producing food in the city. We have found that there are a growing number of citizens and local authorities advocating community gardening, but the sustainability and endurance of gardens are hampered by vague responsibilities, lack of leadership and unclear expectations of the outcome. Community gardening cases in Stockholm contribute to the debate by exemplifying how formal (e.g. policy making) and informal advocacy (e.g. civic engagement in community gardening) groups are collaborating, but also showing that they often have different agendas and initial motivations for setting up new gardens. We argue that uncritical enthusiasm results in an overly instrumental approach to governance of community gardening and that the sustainability and endurance of the community gardening is not an issue that the governing bodies plan for, and hence it is forgotten. We suggest some routes forward, involving employing facilitators from various stakeholders such as the municipality, housing companies and various NGOs.
Environmental Politics 2018, 27 (3): 477-497.
The ways in which climate adaptation is understood in the European Union is examined via three key policy documents: the Strategy on adaptation and the Green and White Papers that preceded it. Drawing on Poststructuralist Discourse Theory, light is shed on the implicit values and assumptions that underpin this recent policy initiative. The findings demonstrate a tension between the declared ambition to act on adaptation and implicit suggestions that nothing really has to change, and the challenge can be addressed by market and technological innovations, and by mainstreaming adaptation into existing sectoral policies. The policy discourse effectively serves to depoliticize choices societies make in response to climate change, presenting adaptation as a non-political issue. Insight into European adaptation discourse enables deeper understanding of recent policy developments and opens up possible entry points for critique.
In: Handbook on Marine Environment Protection. Dordrecht : Springer, 2018. 715-732.
While modern society is highly dependent on chemicals, numerous substances also turn out to be hazardous and many give rise to severe risks and problems in the marine environment. In response, national, regional and global chemical policies, often focusing on the land-based sources to marine pollution, have been developed, as outlined in the article. As a result, the levels of some pollutants have decreased, but the vast majority of substances are not controlled in line with the internationally stated objectives of sound management of chemicals. An environment-oriented development of present policies, implementing the precautionary principle, is considered needed in order to improve the situation, and the question is raised in the article whether the present main international chemicals agreements would not also gain from being merged into a global framework convention.
Multi biomarker analysis of pollution effect on resident populations of blue mussels from the Baltic Sea Mer info
Aquatic Toxicology 2018, 198 : 240-256.
Anthropogenic pollution including metals, petroleum, toxins, nutrients and many others is a growing problem in the marine environment. These are important factors altering the environment and by that the fate of many local populations of marine organisms. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of selected point pollution sources on resident populations of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis trossulus) in the Baltic Sea using multiple biomarker approach. The study used a nested sampling scheme in which sites from reference (REF) habitats are geographically paired with selected sites from sewage treatment plants (STP) and harbors (HAR). The results showed that mussels from harbors had a higher frequency of histological abnormalities in the digestive gland compared to mussels from sewage effluent affected areas and reference sites. However these mussels together with mussels from STPs had higher lipid content, body mass index (BMI) and gonado-somatic index (GSI) compared to mussels from reference sites. A marked spatial variability was found with a stronger toxicity of ambient environment affecting resident mussel populations in the Gulf of Gdańsk area, while an opposite pattern was found in Tvärminne area. Yet the blue mussels sampled in the Gulf of Gdańsk were characterized by the highest GSI and BMI values compared to Askö and Tvärminne populations. No differences in analyzed biomarker response related to species identity, measured by a species-specific genetic marker, were found indicative of strong genetic introgression in the Baltic Proper.
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews 2018, 9 (1): -.
As globalization and other pressures intensify the economic, social and biophysical connections between people and places, it seems likely that adaptation responses intended to ameliorate the impacts of climate change might end up shifting risks and vulnerability between people and places. Building on earlier conceptual work in maladaptation and other literature, this article explores the extent to which concerns about vulnerability redistribution have influenced different realms of adaptation practice. The review leads us to conclude that the potential for adaptation to redistribute risk or vulnerability is being given only sparse—and typically superficial—attention by practitioners. Concerns about ‘maladaptation’, and occasionally vulnerability redistribution specifically, are mentioned on the margins but do not significantly influence the way adaptation choices are made or evaluated by policy makers, project planners or international funds. In research, the conceptual work on maladaptation is yet to translate into a significant body of empirical literature on the distributional impacts of real-world adaptation activities, which we argue calls into question our current knowledge base about adaptation. These gaps are troubling, because a process of cascading adaptation endeavors globally seems likely to eventually re-distribute risks or vulnerabilities to communities that are already marginalized and vulnerable. We conclude by discussing the implications that the potential for vulnerability redistribution might have for the governance of adaptation processes, and offer some reflections on how research might contribute to addressing gaps in knowledge and in practice.
Boreas 2018, 47 (2): 593-608.
The Baltic Sea has experienced a complex geological history, with notable swings in salinity driven by changes to its connection with the Atlantic and glacio-isostatic rebound. Sediments obtained during International Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 347 allow the study of the effects of these changes on the ecology of the Baltic in high resolution through the Holocene in areas where continuous records had not always been available. Sites M0061 and M0062, drilled in the Ångermanälven Estuary (northern Baltic Sea), contain records of Holocene-aged sediments and microfossils. Here we present detailed records of palaeoecological and palaeoenvironmental changes to the Ångermanälven Estuary inferred from diatom, palynomorph and organic-geochemical data. Based on diatom assemblages, the record is divided into four zones that comprise the Ancylus Lake, Littorina Sea, Post-Littorina Sea and Recent Baltic Sea stages. The Ancylus Lake phase is initially characterized as oligotrophic, with the majority of primary productivity in the upper water column. This transition to a eutrophic state continues into the Initial Littorina Sea stage. The Initial Littorina Sea stage contains the most marine phase recorded here, as well as low surface water temperatures. These conditions end before the Littorina Sea stage, which is marked by a return to oligotrophic conditions and warmer waters of the Holocene Thermal Maximum. Glacio-isostatic rebound leads to a shallowing of the water column, allowing for increased benthic primary productivity and stratification of the water column. The Medieval Climate Anomaly is also identified within Post-Littorina Sea sediments. Modern Baltic sediments and evidence of human-induced eutrophication are seen. Human influence upon the Baltic Sea begins c. 1700 cal. a BP and becomes more intense c. 215 cal. a BP.
Metagenomic Analysis of Subtidal Sediments from Polar and Subpolar Coastal Environments Highlights the Relevance... Mer info
Microbial Ecology 2018, 1 : 123-139.
In this work, we analyzed the community structure and metabolic potential of sediment microbial communities in high-latitude coastal environments subjected to low to moderate levels of chronic pollution. Subtidal sediments from four low-energy inlets located in polar and subpolar regions from both Hemispheres were analyzed using large-scale 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequencing. Communities showed high diversity (Shannon's index 6.8 to 10.2), with distinct phylogenetic structures (<40% shared taxa at the Phylum level among regions) but similar metabolic potential in terms of sequences assigned to KOs. Environmental factors (mainly salinity, temperature, and in less extent organic pollution) were drivers of both phylogenetic and functional traits. Bacterial taxa correlating with hydrocarbon pollution included families of anaerobic or facultative anaerobic lifestyle, such as Desulfuromonadaceae, Geobacteraceae, and Rhodocyclaceae. In accordance, biomarker genes for anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation (bamA, ebdA, bcrA, and bssA) were prevalent, only outnumbered by alkB, and their sequences were taxonomically binned to the same bacterial groups. BssA-assigned metagenomic sequences showed an extremely wide diversity distributed all along the phylogeny known for this gene, including bssA sensu stricto, nmsA, assA, and other clusters from poorly or not yet described variants. This work increases our understanding of microbial community patterns in cold coastal sediments, and highlights the relevance of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation processes in subtidal environments.
Taking power to sea - Towards a post-structuralist discourse theoretical critique of marine spatial planningMer info
Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space 2018, 36 (2): 58-273.
Responding to calls for a more theoretically driven, post-positivist and radical marine spatial planning research that approaches the policy as a political project, this paper develops a poststructuralist discourse theory approach to critical marine spatial planning. Elaborating radical contingency as an ontological condition of social life, which points to the ineradicability of power and conflict in marine spatial planning social relations, the paper problematizes marine spatial planning as constituting politics, or key practices that attempt to organize human coexistence and thus, conceal this radical contingency. These practices (e.g. ecosystem-based management, participation, planning regulation and the organization of socio-natural spaces), whose outcomes are far from adaptive, consensual or neutral are discussed as sites of ‘politics’ that effectively marginalize particular groups of people and ‘herd’ their participation and ways of knowing toward achieving limited policy outcomes. Drawing on the EU Marine Spatial Planning Directive, the paper further teases out how specific narratives and rhetorical signifiers around ‘integrating’ and ‘balancing’ potentially irreconcilable sustainable development objectives may interpellate particular stakeholders in ways that render them ideologically complicitous in sustaining, rather than challenging, neoliberal logics of managerialism and economic maximization of marine resources. But in tune with the ontological condition of the social as radically contingent, the paper discusses how and why participatory spaces may constitute a potential space of contestation for marginalized voices and thus, reveal the political moment of marine spatial planning. Calls are made for future empirically grounded research that explores how these marine spatial planning practices are lived in both planning and extra-planning settings, and with what implications for marine protection and extant social relations of power in different marine spatial planning contexts.
Developmental exposure to the SSRI citalopram causes long-lasting behavioural effects in the three-spined stickl... Mer info
Ecotoxicology 2018, 27 (1): 12-22.
Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of psychotropic drugs used to treat depression in both adolescents and pregnant or breast-feeding mothers as well as in the general population. Recent research on rodents points to persistent behavioural effects of pre- and perinatal exposure to SSRI which last into adulthood. To study effects of developmental exposure in fish, three-spine sticklebacks were exposed to 1.5 µg/l of the SSRI citalopram in the ambient water for 30 days, starting two days post-fertilisation. After 100 days of remediation in clean water the fish were put through an extensive test battery. Feeding behaviour was tested as the number of bites against a piece of food and found to be increased in the exposed fish. Aggression levels were measured as the number of bites against a mirror image during 10 minutes and was also found to be significantly increased in the exposed fish. Novel tank behaviour and locomotor activity was tested in an aquarium that had a horizontal line drawn half-way between the bottom and the surface. Neither the latency to the first transition to the upper half, nor the number of transitions or the total time spent in the upper half was affected by treatment. Locomotor activity was significantly reduced in the exposed fish. The light/dark preference was tested in an aquarium where the bottom and walls were black on one side and white on the other. The number of transitions to the white side was significantly reduced in the exposed fish but there was no effect on the latency to the first transition or the total time spent in the white half. The results in the current study indicate that developmental SSRI exposure causes persistent behavioural effects in fish and contribute to the existing knowledge about SSRIs as environmental pollutants.
Business as un-usual through dislocatory moments – change for sustainability and scope for subjectivity in class... Mer info
Environmental Education Research 2018, 24 (5): 648-662.
This paper makes a contribution to the debate that has been described as a tension between instrumental and emancipatory educational objectives in environment and sustainability education. The contribution involves a methodological approach (introd-) using the concept ‘dislocatory moments’, to identify and analyse moments in classroom practice that address educational objectives relating to ‘change for sustainability’ and ‘thinking and acting independently’. A case of business education, when ‘sustainable development’ is integrated in a series of lessons, is used to exemplify the approach involving analysis of the emergence and closure of a dislocatory moment and the change of logics that occur. The illustrative case shows how room for subjectivity and change can be intertwined in educational practice. It is suggested that the methodological approach could be used in empirical research of classroom practice to further knowledge about the kind of situations that contribute to ‘business as un-usual’ without compromising emancipatory education ideals.
Provincia 2017, 37 : 29-73.
Ecuador en tiempos del gobierno de Rafael Correa constituye un caso perfecto de la paradoja político-ambiental, que trata de conflictos en los cuales todos los actores – autoridades del Estado y opositores ecologistas e indígenas – se auto-identifican como los verdaderos defensores del ambiente y las condiciones humanas. Por un lado, Ecuador tiene la Constitución más progresista del mundo en cuanto a la protección de la naturaleza y entre las más radicales en el reconocimiento de los derechos de los pueblos étnicamente definidos. Por otro lado, la economía desarrollista basada en extractivismo se ha mantenido durante el período y el gobierno argumenta que los ingresos derivados del extractivismo son utilizados para el bien común (bienestar social). Basándose en varios años de trabajo etnográfico en Ecuador, la lectura crítica de publicaciones temáticas y el análisis de discursos públicos, documentos políticos y datos recogidos a través de observación participativa, el artículo identifica y problematiza las narrativas dominantes entre los diferentes actores de los escenarios discursivos contenciosos, y también analiza cómo las autoridades estatales y sus opositores buscan posicionarse hacia el otro en relación al extractivismo y a las preocupaciones ecológicas. ¿Cómo se perciben, definen y expresan las políticas ambientales (progresistas) y las preocupaciones ecológicas por parte de los diferentes actores?
Razvoj podeželja na območju predvidenega Krajinskega parka Dragonja - mnenje aktivnih prebivalcevMer info
Geografski vestnik - Geographical Bullentin 2017, 89 (1): 63-78.
The article presents the results of a research done in rural settlements located within the area of the prospective Dragonja Landscape Park. We analysed documents of local communities, undertook observation of a workshop, and interviewed ten local inhabitants in order to obtain information about local inhabitants’ awareness and their interest in being involved in rural development, and about their valuing of the environment and natural resources, and to gain insight into their expectations in the matters of quality of life. We have established that our respondents are entirely familiar with the past and current development programs and projects, that they are well aware of the importance the protection of natural and cultural heritage has for sustainable development, and that they want to participate actively in the future. With the help of our respondents, observation in the workshop, and analysis of the documents also the less promising aspects of development have been revealed. We found out that local participation was weak in the past, that those who were active are in the minority, and that changes depend on the collective efforts of individuals. Those living in the remote villages located in the area of the prospective Dragonja Landscape Park are few and mostly of advanced age. It seems that the younger ones have resigned themselves to being powerless, and therefore it is urgent, in order to foster their participation in local development, to increase their awareness and motivation and extend their education. We also can expect that the incoming young people will have an important role to play.
Genetic differences between willow warbler migratory phenotypes are few and cluster in large haplotype blocks Mer info
Evolution Letters 2017, 1 (3): 155-168.
It is well established that differences in migratory behavior between populations of songbirds have a genetic basis but the actual genes underlying these traits remains largely unknown. In an attempt to identify such candidate genes we de novo assembled the genome of the willow warbler Phylloscopus trochilus, and used whole-genome resequencing and a SNP array to associate genomic variation with migratory phenotypes across two migratory divides around the Baltic Sea that separate SW migrating P. t. trochilus wintering in western Africa and SSE migrating P. t. acredula wintering in eastern and southern Africa. We found that the genomes of the two migratory phenotypes lack clear differences except for three highly differentiated regions located on chromosomes 1, 3, and 5 (containing 146, 135, and 53 genes, respectively). Within each migratory phenotype we found virtually no differences in allele frequencies for thousands of SNPs, even when comparing geographically distant populations breeding in Scandinavia and Far East Russia (>6000 km). In each of the three differentiated regions, multidimensional scaling-based clustering of SNP genotypes from more than 1100 individuals demonstrates the presence of distinct haplotype clusters that are associated with each migratory phenotype. In turn, this suggests that recombination is absent or rare between haplotypes, which could be explained by inversion polymorphisms. Whereas SNP alleles on chromosome 3 correlate with breeding altitude and latitude, the allele distribution within the regions on chromosomes 1 and 5 perfectly matches the geographical distribution of the migratory phenotypes. The most differentiated 10 kb windows and missense mutations within these differentiated regions are associated with genes involved in fatty acid synthesis, possibly representing physiological adaptations to the different migratory strategies. The ∼200 genes in these regions, of which several lack described function, will direct future experimental and comparative studies in the search for genes that underlie important migratory traits.
Knowledge synthesis for environmental decisions - an evaluation of existing methods, and guidance for their selection, use and development : a report from the EKLIPSE projectMer info
BONUS BALTSPACE D2:2 - Ambitions and Realities in Baltic Sea Marine Spatial Planning and the Ecosystem Approach: Policy and Sector Coordination in Promotion of Regional IntegrationMer info
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2017. ( ; )
This report is part of the BONUS BALTSPACE project and is focused on challenges for policy and sector integration in Baltic Sea marine spatial planning (MSP). The main objectives have been to identify concrete coordination problems, to analyse why they have emerged and to discuss possible remedies. It is based on selected aspects extracted from case studies carried out in this project related to the development of regional MSP approaches in Denmark, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Sweden and on an additional case study on the HELCOM-VASAB Working Group on MSP. To facilitate the analysis of vertical policy interactions between institutions at different levels as well as of horizontal interactions over sector and country borders, an analytical framework was constructed. This framework consists of two main components; (a) institution-driven coordination where institutions such as global treaties, the EU, regional organisations, and state authorities provide boundaries for decisions taken at lower levels and (b) benefit-driven coordination capturing horizontal coordination across sector and country borders.
BONUS BALTSPACE Deliverable D2.4 - MSP as a governance approach? Knowledge integration challenges in MSP in the Baltic SeaMer info
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2017. ( ; )
Developing integrative decision-making underpinned by a diverse knowledge base is seen as essential to meet marine spatial planning’s (MSP) sustainable development aspirations. In contributing to a better understanding of how this might be achieved, this report considers knowledge integration challenges drawing on several MSP empirical cases across the Baltic Sea Region. Each case-study, involves Baltic Sea states at different stages of developing national marine spatial plans. At the Baltic-wide level, HELCOM-VASAB has interpreted the Ecosystem Approach in MSP as relying heavily on an evidence-base informed by natural scientific and expert knowledge. The results of the report show that challenges arise when trying to apply scientific knowledge to MSP events or processes for a number of reasons such as, incomplete data and associated substantial uncertainty or because stakeholders contest the policy interpretation of the data. This raises questions of how to assess or evaluate the quality and comprehensiveness/sufficiency of scientific and stakeholder knowledge or input into MSP decision-making, particularly in highly politicised, conflictual contexts, such as the integration of parts of the fishing sector in MSP in Poland. MSP in German territorial waters provides a positive example, where science and stakeholder knowledge input have been integrated in decision-making through informal and formal processes. This case exhibits evidence of social learning where authorities have reflected on previous experiences and invested in actively nurturing the meaningful participation of a wide variety of stakeholders (to form a community of practice) over an extended period of time. The key findings of the report call for more attention to be paid to ways that scientific and stakeholder knowledge can be fruitfully incorporated in MSP, through initiatives such as: the development of knowledge evaluation measures; drawing more actively on social science expertise to help facilitate processes of stakeholder engagement and knowledge inclusion; and paying more attention to how to include heterogeneous socio-cultural values and knowledge (placed-based) in a way that improves the salience of scientific knowledge and the legitimacy of MSP decision-making.
BONUS BALTSPACE Deliverable D1.3 - Evaluating the sustainability of governance: a proposal for evaluating marine spatial planning in the Baltic SeaMer info
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2017. ( ; )
This Deliverable elaborates an evaluation design for MSP that responds to a growing call for a more nuanced and critical conceptualisation and implementation of MSP as complex sites of governance. Here we posit that such an evaluation design should be based on 'sustainability of governance' in MSP. Furthermore, that such an evaluation approach should be built on good governance principles of participation, coordination, openness and collaboration in governance processes with the aim to strengthen MSP on both democratic and functionality grounds. To advance this position, we elaborate the relationship between integration as a concept that can be used to examine the sustainability of governance in practice. The conceptual framework is then used to structure a discussion of illustrative examples of the relationship between integration and sustainability of governance across several Baltic Sea case-studies. The results of these case studies are then framed in a discussion on aspects that need to be considered when designing an evaluation process for MSP. Points highlighted here are the need to adopt a deliberative and reflexive approach that draws on a wide body of evidence in evaluation. A set of clustered evaluative criteria (CEC), referring to practices deemed to be desirable for sustainability of MSP governance, are proposed to guide or direct an evaluation process. The CEC were derived through an assessment of what is deemed important in the relevant literature as well as through consideration of the experience of the Baltic cases. The CEC could be seen as indicators of integration that relate to aspects of sustainability of governance in MSP, as well as, in more instrumental terms to support problem-solving aimed at improving MSP coherence. The evaluation design outlined here would require to be tested and trialled in MSP settings to assess its saliency and refine its usability in practice.
In: Conocimientos ancestrales y procesos de desarrollo. Loja, Ecuador : Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, 2017. 30-64.
El interés de la academia por investigar sobre el término del Sumak Kawsay ha despegado a partir de su incursión en la Constitución del Ecuador en 2008. Su cuestionada traducción como Buen-Vivir ha despertado diversos debates epistemológicos y ontológicos. En la actualidad, son tres las corrientes de pensamiento que estudian al paradigma emergente del Buen-Vivir: indígena-culturalista, postdesarrollista-ecologista y socialista-estatista. Cada una de ellas ha interpretado de diferente manera los saberes indígenas relacionados con el Sumak Kawsay, lo que ha dado lugar a varios cuestionamientos, entre ellos, un posible extractivismo epistémico en el uso y contenido del término Buen Vivir. Además, en la práctica, la inclusión del Buen-Vivir en la Constitución ecuatoriana de 2008 y el reconocimiento de los derechos de la naturaleza ha dado lugar a una serie de críticas y dilemas político-ambientales debido a las políticas públicas neo-extractivistas implementadas por el gobierno de Rafael Correa. El presente capítulo tiene como objetivo ahondar y enfatizar varios de los debates intelectuales sobre el Sumak Kawsay y el Buen-Vivir, así como identificar algunos dilemas y desafíos en la implementación práctica de los principios y valores de estas visiones.
Reconstructing Holocene temperature and salinity variations in the western Baltic Sea region: a multi-proxy comp... Mer info
Biogeosciences 2017, 14 : 5607-5632.
Sediment records recovered from the Baltic Sea during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 347 provide a unique opportunity to study paleoenvironmental and climate change in central and northern Europe. Such studies contribute to a better understanding of how environmental parameters change in continental shelf seas and enclosed basins. Here we present a multi-proxy-based reconstruction of paleotemperature (both marine and terrestrial), paleosalinity, and paleoecosystem changes from the Little Belt (Site M0059) over the past ∼ 8000 years and evaluate the applicability of inorganic- and organic-based proxies in this particular setting. All salinity proxies (diatoms, aquatic palynomorphs, ostracods, diol index) show that lacustrine conditions occurred in the Little Belt until ∼ 7400 cal yr BP. A connection to the Kattegat at this time can thus be excluded, but a direct connection to the Baltic Proper may have existed. The transition to the brackish–marine conditions of the Littorina Sea stage (more saline and warmer) occurred within ∼ 200 years when the connection to the Kattegat became established after ∼ 7400 cal yr BP. The different salinity proxies used here generally show similar trends in relative changes in salinity, but often do not allow quantitative estimates of salinity. The reconstruction of water temperatures is associated with particularly large uncertainties and variations in absolute values by up to 8 °C for bottom waters and up to 16 °C for surface waters. Concerning the reconstruction of temperature using foraminiferal Mg / Ca ratios, contamination by authigenic coatings in the deeper intervals may have led to an overestimation of temperatures. Differences in results based on the lipid paleothermometers (long chain diol index and TEXL86) can partly be explained by the application of modern-day proxy calibrations to intervals that experienced significant changes in depositional settings: in the case of our study, the change from freshwater to marine conditions. Our study shows that particular caution has to be taken when applying and interpreting proxies in coastal environments and marginal seas, where water mass conditions can experience more rapid and larger changes than in open ocean settings. Approaches using a multitude of independent proxies may thus allow a more robust paleoenvironmental assessment.
Nature 2017, 551 : 457-463.
Our growing awareness of the microbial world's importance and diversity contrasts starkly with our limited understanding of its fundamental structure. Despite recent advances in DNA sequencing, a lack of standardized protocols and common analytical frameworks impedes comparisons among studies, hindering the development of global inferences about microbial life on Earth. Here we present a meta-analysis of microbial community samples collected by hundreds of researchers for the Earth Microbiome Project. Coordinated protocols and new analytical methods, particularly the use of exact sequences instead of clustered operational taxonomic units, enable bacterial and archaeal ribosomal RNA gene sequences to be followed across multiple studies and allow us to explore patterns of diversity at an unprecedented scale. The result is both a reference database giving global context to DNA sequence data and a framework for incorporating data from future studies, fostering increasingly complete characterization of Earth's microbial diversity.
Genetic Aspects of Environmental Disturbances in Marine Ecosystems - Studies of the Blue Mussel in the Baltic SeaMer info
Anthropogenic environmental changes can serve as drivers for evolutionary responses in wild populations. To predict the long-term impact of anthropogenic changes on populations, it is crucial to understand the genetic effects caused by these disturbances. The Baltic Sea is considered to be one of the world’s most contaminated seas, and the increase of anthropogenic chemical pollution is a major threat to its ecosystems. This thesis assesses the impact of harbors and sewage treatment plants on physiological traits and genetic structure of resident populations of blue mussels at replicated sites in the Baltic Sea. The initial evaluation of the overall genetic pattern in blue mussel populations in the Swedish West Coast, the Baltic Proper and the Bothnian Sea found genetic differentiation between the three water basins and a low genetic differentiation within each basin, especially within the Baltic Proper. Despite the low genetic differentiation among blue mussels within the Baltic Proper, a parallel genetic differentiation associated with sewage treatment plant effluents was found in this basin. This included genomic regions with a high degree of differentiation between reference sites and sites affected by sewage plants effluent. This genetic differentiation is suggested to be due to post-dispersal selection acting in each generation. In contrast, no parallel genetic differentiation was associated with harbors. We identified five genomic regions in blue mussels, showing strong signs of selection, shared among three out of four replicated reference sites and sites affected by sewage effluents in the Baltic Proper i.e. Askö, Tvärminne and Karlskrona. An initial characterization of these genomic regions revealed functions related to immune and endocrine responses, oxidative stress and shell formation. Our results indicate that selection caused by sewage effluents involves multiple loci. The same genomic regions are found across different locations in the Baltic Proper but there are also unique genomic regions at each location. No genotoxic or histopathological effects were found among blue mussels from sewage effluent-affected areas but a higher frequency of histological abnormalities in the digestive gland were observed in mussels from harbors.
En av våra samtida stora utmaningar är hanteringen av de miljö- och hälsoproblem som följer i svallvågorna av en globaliserad handel. En av dessa utmaningar rör hanteringen av kemikalierisker. Inom textilbranschen är produktionen kemikalieintensiv och handelsmönstren karakteriseras av komplexa varukedjor som inte sällan sträcker sig över flera kontinenter. Samtidigt pågår en förändring av inblandade aktörers roller, där marknadsaktörer uppmanas att på ett ansvarstagande sätt hantera frågan om kemikalierisker och de utmaningar som hör därtill. Denna process försvåras ofta till följd av ett komplext samhälle präglat av kunskapsbrister. Detta komplicerar ansvarstagande och gör det svårt att hålla specifika aktörer, såsom företag och inköpande organisationer, ansvariga, då det inte är uppenbart vem som är ansvarig för vad. Denna avhandling undersöker hur en grupp marknadsaktörer – privata och offentliga textilinköpare – tar ansvar för kemikalierisker längs med sina varukedjor i en situation som karaktäriseras av osäkerhet och komplexitet. Avhandlingen syftar till att fördjupa förståelsen för vad som händer när marknadsaktörer uppmanas att hantera miljö- och hälsorisker från till exempel kemikalier i textil. Fokus ligger på svenska privata och offentliga textilinköpare, som exempelvis kläd- och textilföretag, offentlig förvaltning och andra inköpande organisationer. I avhandlingen konstrueras en analytisk modell baserad på nyckelbegreppen responsible governance, responsibilisation och responsible supply chain management. Avhandlingen är explorativ och genom intervjuer, deltagande observationer och litteraturstudier samt fallstudier undersöks en potentiell process av ansvarstagande samt de hinder, utmaningar och möjligheter som de inköpande organisationerna möter i sitt arbete med kemikalierisker längs med sina varukedjor. Resultaten belyser en pågående process av ansvarsförfarande på både organisations och sektornsivå. Avhandlingen visar också att på grund av kedjans komplexa struktur så förekommer större hinder och utmaningar än möjligheter för de textilinköpare som strävar efter ansvarstagande. Trots detta pekar resultaten på att samarbete, kraftfullare styrmedel och ett reflexivt tillvägagångssätt skulle kunna vara en väg mot ökat ansvarstagande inom textilsektorn.
In: Psychrophiles. Cham : Springer, 2017. 389-421.
The Earth’s permanently cold biosphere is known to harbour abundant microbial biomass and represents a rich resource for the discovery of novel cold-adapted microorganisms, many of which form part of the ‘microbial dark matter’ which cannot be analysed using traditional culture-dependent approaches. The recent development of metagenomics and related multi-omics strategies has provided a means by which entire microbial communities can be studied directly, without the prerequisite of culturing. The advancement of the ‘omic’ methods is directly linked to recent progress in high-throughput sequencing, robust data processing capabilities and the application of cutting-edge analytical tools for high-throughput detection of biomolecules. The combined application of these tools and strategies has provided an unprecedented access to the structure and potential function of microbial communities in cold environments, providing increasingly comprehensive insights into the taxonomic richness and functional capacity of the indigenous microorganisms. Applications of ‘omic’ strategies have enhanced our understanding of psychrophilic adaptation mechanisms, revealing the versatility and adaptability of life in the ‘cryosphere’. In addition to the predicted roles of psychrophiles in biogeochemical cycling, recent multi-omic studies have further emphasised the importance of the ‘cryosphere’ in influencing global atmospheric conditions. Finally, metagenomic bioprospecting of cold environments has yielded a variety of novel bioactive molecules including novel ‘psychrozymes’, with a wide range of potential industrial and biotechnological applications. Here, we have provided an overview of recent developments in metagenomic technologies and their application in the study of the cold biosphere.
In: Genus och företagande. : Svenska sällskapet för antropologi och geografi, 2017. 159-182.
För 150 år sedan bodde större delen av Sveriges befolkning på landsbygden och var sysselsatta i primärnäringarna, men under de senaste 120 åren har den svenska landsbygden genomgått en kraftfull strukturomvandling. idag är det endast 15% av Sveriges befolkning som bor utanför någon av Sveriges tätorter. Det vill säga 85% av befolkningen bor på 1,3 procent av landarealen och ytterst få är sysselsatta i de gröna näringarna. Den pågående omstruktureringen av lantbruket innebär att många av de mindre gårdarna läggs ned och blir fritidshus eller hästgårdar. Samtidigt som nötkreaturen minskar i antal ökar antalet hästar och Sverige har blivit ett av de hästtätaste länderna i Europa.Ungefär en halv miljon svenskar rider regelbundet och närmare en tredjedel av alla invånare i Sverige har på något sätt kontakt med hästar och de olika verksamheter som de ger upphov till. Denna ökning av sporthästar är särskilt märkbar i tätortsnära områden. I Stockholm och Uppsala län finns omkring 44 000 hästar och ca 78% av dessa finns i urbana eller tätortsnära områden. Hästarna har till viss del blivit landsbygdens räddning. hästar behöver mat, husrum och livsutrymme, vilket har skapat en välkommen extra inkomstkälla för lantbruket. Det är relativt vanligt att lantbrukare producerar och säljer hästfoder eller hyr ut stallplatser. Enligt lantbrukarnas Riksförbund, är hästnäringen den femte största inkomstkällan för jordbruket. Hästen är även på andra sätt en viktig resurs i arbetet med att utveckla nya former för jordbruksföretagande och bidra till en levande landsbygd. Det ökande antalet hästar medför mer arbete för veterinärer, hovslagare och tränare/instruktörer. Dessutom växer det fram nya yrkesgrupper med specialinriktning mot hästar. Syftet med den här studien är att belysa kvinnliga hästföretagares syn på tätortsnära hästverksamheter och diskutera svårigheter och möjligheter för utvecklingen av hästnäringen med fokus på Stockholm- och Uppsalaområdet.
Meta H : historiskarkeologisk tidskrift 2017, : 63-72.
Leeches and their medicinal applications are well-studied in history. In Scandinavia the use of medicinal leeches for therapy is mentioned already by Olaus Magnus in his Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus (1555). Carl Linnaeus named the species Hirudo medicinalis. In the 1760s leeches became widely accepted as a medicament and the demand increased, not only in Sweden but all over Europe. By the 1830s around 50 million leeches were employed in hospitals every year causing a shortage of leeches all over Europe. However, the species is rare in Scandinavia. In Sweden medicinal leeches have been harvested in the southern part of the country. The local occurrence did not cover the large demand and imported leeches had to be used. In the nineteenth century, over-exploitation reduced many local populations and breeding medicinal leeches in ponds became a concern for authorities in many countries. Several farms for breeding leeches in ponds were also founded in rural and urban settings. We know very little about them, but toponyms serve to remind us of such ponds. This article aims to shed some light on the forgotten practice of breeding medicinal leeches in urban ponds in Sweden.
Critical Discourse Studies 2017, 5 (1): 1-18.
An unresolved aspect of the Logics Approach within Poststructuralist Discourse Theory (PDT) is how to operationalize its abstract theoretical concepts – of social, political and fantasmatic logics – for concrete textual analysis, especially of policy documents. Policies often institute new understandings, procedures or practices, something the logics, as originally articulated, fall somewhat short of capturing. To overcome these methodological challenges this article constructs a framework for poststructuralist policy analysis that brings together the Logics Approach with more textually oriented tools developed within Critical Discourse Analysis, namely assumptions and genre chains. For empirical illustration it draws on a case study of the European Union's adaptation policy in response to climate change. The resulting framework offers a means through which more implicit social and political logics can be examined, and contributes new insights to methodological debates around the use of the Logics Approach (and PDT more broadly), specifically in relation to critical policy analysis. The article concludes with seven observations of relevance for future studies and suggests avenues for further empirical and conceptual exploration.
Indigeneidad, descolonización y la paradoja del desarrollismo extractivista en el Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia - Indigeneity, decolonization and the paradox of extractive development in the Plurinational State of BoliviaMer info
Revista Chilena de Derecho y Ciencia Política 2017, 8 (1): 47-81.
Históricamente, los pueblos indígenas fueron marginados y oprimidos en la economía política boliviana. En tiempos de Evo Morales en la presidencia y con la Constitución de 2009, la descolonización política, económica, social y cultural ha llegado a ser el proyecto central de la transformación del Estado y la sociedad. Por un lado, la nueva Constitución ha sido clasificada como una de las más progresistas del mundo en relación con los derechos étnicamente definidos. Los principios indígenas ético-filosóficos del Suma Qamaña/Vivir Bien, acerca de la relación armónica entre individuos y naturaleza fueron incorporados en la Constitución. Por otro lado, estos derechos colisionan con los derechos sociales más amplios (definidos por clase), e igualmente, con los derechos del Estado de extraer y comercializar los recursos naturales (en especial hidrocarburos y minería) bajo la bandera de la justicia redistributiva, reformas sociales y bien común, que en este estudio se define como la paradoja del desarrollismo extractivista. Este artículo se basa en un trabajo etnográfico y se problematiza el dilema extractivista y las tensiones entre derechos étnicos y derechos de clase. De esta manera, se aporta a los debates sobre la indigeneidad y la los desafíos y dilemas de proyectos descolonizadores.
Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors in the environment - Effects of citalopram on fish behaviourMer info
Det serotonerga systemet är i stort sett identiskt hos människor och övriga vertebrater. Serotonin är inblandat i ett stort antal kroppsliga funktioner, bland annat stressreaktioner, reglering av födobeteende och aggression. Vidare är serotonin med och reglerar nervsystemets tillväxt under embryonalutvecklingen. Selektiva serotoninåterupptagshämmare (SSRI) är en grupp antidepressiva och lugnande läkemedel vars användning har ökat snabbt på senare år då de är effektiva och har få allvarliga bieffekter. SSRI verkar på det serotonerga systemet, genom att blockera återupptaget av serotonin i den presynaptiska nervänden. SSRI har tilldragit sig en viss uppmärksamhet som potentiella miljöhot då de visats kunna påverka ekologiskt relevanta beteenden hos fisk och andra akvatiska organismer vid relativt låga koncentrationer i miljön samtidigt som de bryts ned dåligt i avloppsreningsverk. Avhandlingen fokuserar på ekologiskt relevanta beteendeeffekter av SSRI på fisk, med storspigg (Gasterosteus aculeatus) och zebrafisk (Danio rerio) som modellorganismer. Citalopram har använts som försökssubstans då det anses vara den SSRI som har minst antal sidoeffekter på till exempel det dopaminerga systemet. Citalopram förekommer i utloppsvatten från reningsverk i alla industrialiserade länder och har även hittats i abborre i Östersjön.Effekter av exponering för SSRI har påvisats med hjälp av olika beteendetest. Skototaxi-test och novel tank diving test mäter stressresponsen genom att kvantifiera preferensen för närhet till botten och mörka omgivningar. Ätbeteende har mätts som antal utfall mot en matbit under en given tidsperiod och aggression har mätts genom att räkna antal bett mot en spegel. Anxiolytiska effekter undersöktes vid koncentrationer på 0,1 µg/l, 15 µg/l och 1,5 µg/l. Effekter på ätbeteende undersöktes vid 0,15 µg/l och 1,5 µg/l. Eftersom serotonin är inblandat i embryonalutvecklingen testades de beteendemässiga effekterna av exponering för 1,5 µg/l under utvecklingen. Då citalopram sällan förekommer ensamt i miljön testades ett cocktailscenario där zebrafisk samtidigt exponerades för citalopram och den anxiogena substansen 17α-etinylestradiol (EE2).Citalopram befanns ha anxiolytisk verkan på storspigg samt undertrycka ätbeteendet. Effekter på ätbeteendet uppstod inom en vecka efter exponering och vid den minsta testade dosen vilken var 0,15 µg/l. Storspigg som exponerats under embryonalutvecklingen var mer aggressiva, hade lägre lokomotoraktivitetoch gjorde fler utfall mot mat då de testades 100 dagar efter att exponeringen avslutats. Samtidigt exponering för citalopram och den anxiogena substansen 17α-etinylestradiol (EE2) gav tvetydiga resultat. Citalopram ensamt hade ingen signifikant påverkan på beteendet i detta försök. I skototaxitestet motverkade citalopram den anxiogena effekten av EE2 medan det förstärkte den anxiogena effekten i novel tank. Sammanfattningsvis har citalopram effekter på ekologiskt relevanta beteenden hos fisk i koncentrationer som förekommer i ytvatten. Det har också permanenta effekter på beteende om exponeringen sker under embryonalutvecklingen. Dessa resultat gör det sannolikt att citalopram och andra SSRI har ekologiska effekter i påverkade vattendrag.
In: Biological Oceanography of the Baltic Sea. : Springer Netherlands, 2017. 23-84.
"Why is the Baltic Sea so special to live in", is the main question the authors here give several arguments or answers for. Geographical position, geological development, hydrographical features, climate and physical drivers together create the Baltic Sea environment. The Baltic Sea water is brackish and characterized by pronounced salinity gradients, both in horizontal and vertical directions, because of the large volume of freshwater runoff from over 100 rivers, which mixes with the saline water from the Kattegat that enters the Baltic Sea via narrow shallow straits. Being a semi-enclosed continental sea with a large drainage area compared to its water volume , the Baltic Sea ecosystem is heavily impacted by the surrounding landmasses. The water residence time in the Baltic Sea is long (30–40 years), and therefore discharged nutrients and toxic compounds circulate within the sea for a long time, which contributes to its vulnerability to eutrophication and chemical contamination by hazardous substances. The Baltic Sea Area is geologically young and the Baltic Sea ecosystem is extremely young in an evolutionary perspective. Only few macroscopic species are fully adapted to its low-salinity environment. In an ecosystem-wide perspective, the large-scale Baltic Sea gradient is the principal ecological characteristic of the Baltic Sea.
Persistent Effects of Developmental Exposure to 17α-Ethinylestradiol on the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Brain Transc... Mer info
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 2017, 11 : -.
The synthetic estrogen 17Î±-ethinylestradiol (EE2) is an endocrine disrupting compound of concern due to its persistence and widespread presence in the aquatic environment. Effects of developmental exposure to low concentrations of EE2 in fish on reproduction and behavior not only persisted to adulthood, but have also been observed to be transmitted to several generations of unexposed progeny. To investigate the possible biological mechanisms of the persistent anxiogenic phenotype, we exposed zebrafish embryos for 80 days post fertilization to 0, 3 and 10 ng/L EE2 (measured concentrations 2.14 and 7.34 ng/L). After discontinued exposure, the animals were allowed to recover for 120 days in clean water. Adult males and females were later tested for changes in stress response and shoal cohesion, and whole-brain gene expression was analyzed with RNA sequencing. The results show increased anxiety in the novel tank and scototaxis tests, and increased shoal cohesion in fish exposed during development to EE2. RNA sequencing revealed 34 coding genes differentially expressed in male brains and 62 in female brains as a result of EE2 exposure. Several differences were observed between males and females in differential gene expression, with only one gene, sv2b, coding for a synaptic vesicle protein, that was affected by EE2 in both sexes. Functional analyses showed that in female brains, EE2 had significant effects on pathways connected to the circadian rhythm, cytoskeleton and motor proteins and synaptic proteins. A large number of non-coding sequences including 19 novel miRNAs were also differentially expressed in the female brain. The largest treatment effect in male brains was observed in pathways related to cholesterol biosynthesis and synaptic proteins. Circadian rhythm and cholesterol biosynthesis, previously implicated in anxiety behavior, might represent possible candidate pathways connecting the transcriptome changes to the alterations to behavior. Further the observed alteration in expression of genes involved in synaptogenesis and synaptic function may be important for the developmental modulations resulting in an anxiety phenotype. This study represents an initial survey of the fish brain transcriptome by RNA sequencing after long-term recovery from developmental exposure to an estrogenic compound.
Förvaltningen av nationalparkerna in vid gränsen mellan Polen och Slovakien i Karpaterna är framför allt inriktad mot att uppnå balans mellan bevarande av biologisk mångfald och social välfärd. Polen och Slovakien har under de senaste 25 åren genomgått en snabb förändring från socialistiska regimer till liberala demokratier, vilket har inneburit genomgripande politiska, sociala och ekonomiska förändringar. Medlemskapet i EU innebar ytterligare förändringar, som till exempel integrering av naturvårdsarbete och socioekonomisk utveckling, liksom främjande av inkluderande, transparent och deltagarinriktat beslutsfattande. Därmed bygger den moderna beslutsprocessen inte längre på den tidigare hierarkiska strukturen, utan har nu fått en aningen diffus karaktär, innefattande mängd olika aktörer som interagerar i såväl horisontella som vertikala beslutsprocesser.I denna avhandling utforskas nyckelutmaningar och möjligheter för beslutsfattande och implementering av naturvårdsarbete på lokal nivå, relaterade till de post-socialistiska arven och medlemskapet i EU. Multi-level governance (politiskt beslutsfattande på flera nivåer), Europeanization (europeisering) och post-socialistiska studier används som teoretiska verktyg för analysen av fyra gränsöverskridande nationalparker: Pieninsky, som innefattar såväl polska som slovakiska områden, Bieszczady (Polen) och Poloniny (Slovakien).Studien visar att det tidiga inrättandet av naturskydd i nationalparkerna hindrade exploatering och möjliggjorde bevarandet av värdefulla naturområden, vilka idag är högt värderade utifrån ett europeiskt perspektiv. Reglerna för detta naturskydd har dock skapat begränsningar för hur områdena kan användas för, till exempel, agrara verksamheter och turism.De mer övergripande landsbygdsutvecklingsmöjligheterna beror av lokala, nationella och globala faktorer som exempelvis den lokala ekonomins struktur, tillgång på arbetstillfällen, hur naturskydd prioriteras i nationellt beslutsfattande, intresse för investeringar i området och urbaniseringsprocesser. Medlemskapet i EU har medfört utökade möjligheter för finansiering av naturskydd och landsbygdsutveckling. Samtidigt har medlemskapet för dessa länder lett till ökade förväntningar på politiskt deltagande och nya utmaningar vad gäller transparens i beslutsfattande och inkluderande beslutsprocesser. Vidare har informella beslutsvägar i lokalt beslutsfattande och lågt förtroende för statliga myndigheter lett till ytterligare utmaningar i deltagandeprocesser. Möjligheter för lokala aktörer att kunna kommunicera och påverka beslut på högre nivåer har förblivit begränsade och är ännu inte tydligt institutionaliserade, samtidigt som det moderna, interaktiva beslutsfattandet på flera nivåer indirekt formar lokala processer genom att definiera legala och politiska ramverk inom vilka förvaltningsbeslut fattas.
Combinatory effects of low concentrations of 17α-etinylestradiol and citalopram on non-reproductive behavior in ... Mer info
Aquatic Toxicology 2017, 193 : 9-17.
Sewage treatment plant effluents contain a complex mixture of pharmaceuticals, personal care products and industrial chemicals, thus exposing aquatic organisms. Still, the consequences of exposure to combinations of different classes of drugs is largely unknown. In this study, we expose adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) males and females to low, environmentally relevant concentrations of the endocrine disrupting chemical 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram, alone and in combination, and analyse three non-reproductive behaviours of importance for population fitness.Two weeks exposure to 0.1 and 0.5 ng/LEE2 resulted in increased anxiety in males in the scototaxis (light/dark preference) test. Significantly longer latency periods before entering the white zone and fewer visits in the white zone were observed in males exposed to both 0.1 and 0.5 ng/LEE2 compared to unexposed males. No significant effects of citalopram alone (0.1 and 0.5 µg/L) were observed in the scototaxis test. The combined exposures (0.1 ng/L EE2 + 0.1 µg/L citalopram and 0.5 ng/L EE2 + 0.5 µg/L citalopram) resulted in abolishment of the anxiogenic effects of EE2, with significantly shorter latency period (low dose) and more transitions to white (high and low dose) than in fish exposed to EE2 alone. No significant effects of either EE2, citalopramor the combination of the two were observed in females. In the novel tank test, significantly more transitions to the upper half of the tank were observed in males exposed to 0.1 µg/L citalopram alone compared to unexposed males while males exposed to 0.1 ng/lEE2 had significantly shorter latency period to enter the upper half. Exposure to the combination of the two low concentrations did, however, result in a significantly longer latency and fewer transitions to upper half compared to both control, EE2- and citalopram-exposed males. These males also spent significantly less time in the upper half than the fish exposed to 0.1 ng/l EE2 or 0.1 µg/l citalopram alone. No significant effects on novel tank behaviour were observed in females or males exposed to the higher concentrations. In the shoaling test, males exposed to 0.1 µg/L citalopram and females exposed to 0.5 ng/l EE2 made significantly fewer transitions away from peers while males exposed to 0.1 µg/L citalopram + 0.1 ng/l EE2 performed significantly more transitions than the fish exposed to 0.1 µg/L citalopram alone.In conclusion, this study shows that very low concentrations ofEE2, at or slightly above the predicted noeffect concentration (NOEC), affects anxiety in zebrafish males. Furthermore, citalopram, in spite of marginal effect of its own at such low levels, counteracts the response to EE2. This study represents an initial effort to understand the effects on water-living organisms of the cocktails of anthropogenic substances contaminating aquatic environments.
Prospecting Biotechnologically-Relevant Monooxygenases from Cold Sediment Metagenomes - An In Silico ApproachMer info
Marine Drugs 2017, 15 (4): -.
The goal of this work was to identify sequences encoding monooxygenase biocatalysts with novel features by in silico mining an assembled metagenomic dataset of polar and subpolar marine sediments. The targeted enzyme sequences were Baeyer-Villiger and bacterial cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP153). These enzymes have wide-ranging applications, from the synthesis of steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins and pheromones to the synthesis of monomers for polymerization and anticancer precursors, due to their extraordinary enantio-, regio-, and chemo- selectivity that are valuable features for organic synthesis. Phylogenetic analyses were used to select the most divergent sequences affiliated to these enzyme families among the 264 putative monooxygenases recovered from the ~14 million protein-coding sequences in the assembled metagenome dataset. Three-dimensional structure modeling and docking analysis suggested features useful in biotechnological applications in five metagenomic sequences, such as wide substrate range, novel substrate specificity or regioselectivity. Further analysis revealed structural features associated with psychrophilic enzymes, such as broader substrate accessibility, larger catalytic pockets or low domain interactions, suggesting that they could be applied in biooxidations at room or low temperatures, saving costs inherent to energy consumption. This work allowed the identification of putative enzyme candidates with promising features from metagenomes, providing a suitable starting point for further developments.
We adapt … but is it good or bad? Locating the political ecology and social-ecological systems debate in reindee... - Locating the political ecology and social-ecological systems debate in reindeer herding in the Swedish Sub-ArcticMer info
Journal of political ecology 2017, 24 : 667-691.
El pastoreo de renos es una estrategia de sustento profundamente arraigada en la tradición cultural del pueblo sami. Este artículo explora las implicancias de dos enfoques teóricos y metodológicos, para comprender las complejas relaciones socio-ambientales de esta actividad socioeconómica en el sub-ártico de Suecia. Basados en un trabajo de campo conjunto, dos equipos - uno que se alinea con la ecología política (PE) y el otro con los sistemas socio-ecológicos (SES) - realizan un estudio comparativo, con el doble propósito de: 1) describir la situación actual del pastoreo de renos, explorando como se interpretan los mismos datos empíricos desde ambos enfoques (PE y SES); 2) presentar una comparación analítica de los supuestos ontológicos y epistemológicos de este trabajo, infiriendo también diferentes cursos de acción para fomentar el cambio hacia un pastoreo de renos más sustentable. Los informantes clave de cuatro comunidades sami de la región de Kiruna expresaron su firme respaldo a la continuación del pastoreo de renos como práctica cultural y económica. Sus preocupaciones sobre la situación actual se centraron en los impactos negativos acumulados de la minería, la silvicultura y el turismo sobre esta actividad socioeconómica ancestral. Los investigadores de PE y SES ofrecieron diferentes interpretaciones de los aspectos clave de la situación del pastoreo de renos; a saber: la naturaleza y la escala del sistema; el papel omnipresente de los conflictos; y las conceptualizaciones de las respuestas a las cambiantes condiciones socio-ambientales. Debido a estas disparidades, los análisis de PE y SES tienen implicaciones sociopolíticas radicalmente divergentes sobre lo que se debería hacer para remediar la actual situación del pastoreo de renos del pueblo sami.
Knowledge for environmental governance: probing science–policy theory in the cases of eutrophication and fisheri... Mer info
Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 2017, 19 (6): 769-782.
How science and policy interact has been a major research focus in the International Relations (IR) tradition, using the epistemic community (EC) concept, as well as in the alternative perspective of Science and Technology Studies (STS). Should science be autonomous and as apolitical as possible in order to ‘speak truth to power’, as suggested by EC or should the inevitable entanglement of science and politics be accepted and embraced so as to make advice more conducive to negotiating the explicit travails of political decision-making as suggested by STS? With this point of departure, we compare similarities and differences between science–policy interactions in the issue areas of eutrophication and fisheries management of the Baltic Sea. To examine how knowledge is mobilised, the concepts of ‘uncertainty’ and ‘coherence’ are developed, drawing on both EC and STS thinking. We then reflect on the explanatory value of these approaches in both cases and discuss how a separation of science and policy-making in the pursuit of achieving scientific consensus leads to ineffectual policies. Drawing on STS thinking, we urge for a re-conceptualisation of coherence in order to accommodate a more reflexive practice of science–policy interactions.
Production and characterization of a novel antifungal chitinase identified by functional screening of a suppress... Mer info
Microbial Cell Factories 2017, 16 (1): -.
BACKGROUND: Through functional screening of a fosmid library, generated from a phytopathogen-suppressive soil metagenome, the novel antifungal chitinase-named Chi18H8 and belonging to family 18 glycosyl hydrolases-was previously discovered. The initial extremely low yield of Chi18H8 recombinant production and purification from Escherichia coli cells (21 μg/g cell) limited its characterization, thus preventing further investigation on its biotechnological potential.RESULTS: We report on how we succeeded in producing hundreds of milligrams of pure and biologically active Chi18H8 by developing and scaling up to a high-yielding, 30 L bioreactor process, based on a novel method of mild solubilization of E. coli inclusion bodies in lactic acid aqueous solution, coupled with a single step purification by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Chi18H8 was characterized as a Ca(2+)-dependent mesophilic chitobiosidase, active on chitin substrates at acidic pHs and possessing interesting features, such as solvent tolerance, long-term stability in acidic environment and antifungal activity against the phytopathogens Fusarium graminearum and Rhizoctonia solani. Additionally, Chi18H8 was found to operate according to a non-processive endomode of action on a water-soluble chitin-like substrate.CONCLUSIONS: Expression screening of a metagenomic library may allow access to the functional diversity of uncultivable microbiota and to the discovery of novel enzymes useful for biotechnological applications. A persisting bottleneck, however, is the lack of methods for large scale production of metagenome-sourced enzymes from genes of unknown origin in the commonly used microbial hosts. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a novel metagenome-sourced enzyme produced in hundreds-of-milligram amount by recovering the protein in the biologically active form from recombinant E. coli inclusion bodies.
Världens hav är i kris. Med ett stort internationellt tryck för att skydda dem har den svenska regeringen satt ambitiösa mål för etablering av marina reservat. Beslutsfattare och forskare har höga förväntningar på att lokalt deltagande underlättar etableringen. Men utan verkliga möjligheter för lokalt deltagande att påverka besluten så verkar förväntningarna orealistiska, med allvarliga konsekvenser för legitimitet av miljöskydd.Avhandlingen undersöker relationen mellan deltagande och legitimitet i svensk östersjöförvaltning genom att studera samrådsprocesserna för Gräsö marina naturreservat och St Anna-Missjö marina skyddsområde. Studien visar på både positiva och negativa samband mellan deltagande och legitimitet, beroende på kvalitén av deltagande.Olika lokala aktörer är djupt engagerade i resursfrågor och vill ha möjlighet att diskutera dessa med staten. Lokala aktörer uttrycker besvikelse och frustration om samråden har en begränsad inverkan på faktiska beslut. Besvikelsen kan underminera stödet för naturskydd och försämra relationen mellan stat och lokala aktörer i längden.I ett av de undersökta fallen var de lokala aktörerna engagerade i att formulera en gemensam vision för området tillsammans med myndigheterna, något som annars är ovanligt. Det visade sig ha en mycket positiv effekt på samrådsprocessen och legitimiteten av naturskyddet.
Testing the ecosystem service cascade framework and QUICKScan software tool in the context of land use planning ... Mer info
International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management 2017, 13 (2): 12-25.
The concept of ecosystem services has been extensively studied in recent decades. Most studies have focused on describing the specific aspects such as production, spatial extent, valuation of services and the trade-off between services. Few studies however assess the practitioners? views on the frameworks, models or tools developed. In this paper, we report on a multi-stakeholder workshop where two tools were tested (i) the ecosystem service cascade framework was tested as a means to frame the issues and (ii) a participatory-spatial modelling method, QUICKScan, was tested as an aid to support discussion over natural resource management and planning in a multi-use landscape. A focused group discussion was utilised to determine stakeholders? views of the cascade framework and pre- and post-workshop questionnaires quantified the stakeholders? views of the QUICKScan method. The stakeholders identified both positive and negative aspects of both tools. The diversity of views expressed were associated with (i) the past experience of the individual with the issues discussed, (ii) the technical aspects of the tools i.e. the ability with GIS and (iii) the level of new shared knowledge they reported acquiring on the day which was related to their initial knowledge of the issue and area studied.
Developing Environmental NGO Power for Domestic Battles in a Multilevel Context - Lessons from a Slovenian caseMer info
Environmental Policy and Governance 2017, 27 (3): 244-255.
Many have discussed the crucial role that environmental nongovernmental organizations (ENGOs) have played in the implementation of nature protection policies across European member states. However, there are important differences in the opportunity structures among new and old member states that influence how ENGOs can act and undertake activities. This article seeks to clarify the role of ENGO capacity building within the context of multilevel environmental governance and focuses on a case in which Slovene ENGOs mobilized against the siting of 80 windmills in a natural area suggested for protection under the EU Birds and Habitats Directive. The dispute involved ENGOs seeking to pursue nature protection objectives against state authorities who prioritized green energy infrastructural development. The article analyses the mobilization strategies pursued and the combination of material, cognitive, social and symbolic resources used. The results suggest that these resources had to be mobilized and organized along both horizontal (domestic) and vertical (international) axes, and that this combination appears key in advancing an environmental protection agenda.
Geo-Marine Letters 2017, 37 (3): 273-288.
This study explores the Holocene depositional succession at the IODP Expedition 347 sites M0061 and M0062 in the vicinity of the Ångermanälven River estuary in the Bothnian Sea sector of the Baltic Sea in northern Scandinavia. Site M0061 is located in a coastal offshore setting (87.9 m water depth), whereas site M0062 is fully estuarine (69.3 m water depth). The dataset comprises acoustic profiles and sediment cores collected in 2007 and late 2013 respectively. Three acoustic units (AUs) were recognized. Lowermost AU1 is interpreted as a poorly to discontinuous stratified glaciofluvial deposit, AU2 as a stratified conformable drape of glaciolacustrine origin, and AU3 as a poorly stratified to stratified mud drift. A strong truncating reflector separates AU2 and AU3. Three lithological units (LUs) were defined in the sediment cores. LU1 consists of glaciofluvial sand and silt gradating into LU2, which consists of glaciolacustrine varves. A sharp contact interpreted as a major unconformity separates LU2 from the overlying LU3 (brackish-water mud). In the basal part of LU3, one debrite (site M0061) or two debrites (site M0062) were recognized. Information yielded from sediment physical properties (magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma ray, dry bulk density), geochemistry (total carbon, total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon and nitrogen), and grain size support the LU division. The depositional succession was formally subdivided into two alloformations: the Utansjö Alloformation and overlying Hemsön Alloformation; the Utansjö Alloformation was further subdivided into two lithostratigraphic formations: the Storfjärden and Åbordsön formations. The Storfjärden (sandy outwash) and Åbordsön (glaciolacustrine rhythmite) formations represent a glacial retreat systems tract, which started at ca. 10.6 kyr BP. Their deposition was mainly controlled by meltwater from the retreating ice margin, glacio-isostatic land uplift and the regressive (glacial) lake level. The Hemsön Alloformation (organic-rich brackish-water mud) represents a period of forced regression, starting possibly at ca. 9.5 kyr BP. At about 7 kyr BP, brackish water reached the study area as a result of the mid-Holocene marine flooding of the Baltic Sea Basin, but the rapid land uplift soon surpassed the associated (Littorina) transgression. Changed near-bottom current patterns, caused by the establishment of a permanent halocline, and the reduced sediment consistency caused by increased organic deposition resulted in a sharp and erosional base of the brackish-water mud. Estuarine processes and salinity stratification at site M0062 started to play a more important role. This study applies a combined allostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic approach over the conventional Baltic Sea stages. This approach makes it more straightforward to study this Baltic Sea deglaciation–postglacial sequence and compare it to other formerly glaciated shallow sea estuaries.
Deep sequencing analysis of tick-borne encephalitis virus from questing ticks at natural foci reveals similariti... Mer info
Journal of General Virology 2017, 98 (3): 413-421.
Every year, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes severe central nervous system infection in 10 000 to 15 000 people in Europe and Asia. TBEV is maintained in the environment by an enzootic cycle that requires a tick vector and a vertebrate host, and the adaptation of TBEV to vertebrate and invertebrate environments is essential for TBEV persistence in nature. This adaptation is facilitated by the error-prone nature of the virus's RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which generates genetically distinct virus variants called quasispecies. TBEV shows a focal geographical distribution pattern where each focus represents a TBEV hotspot. Here, we sequenced and characterized two TBEV genomes, JP-296 and JP-554, from questing Ixodes ricinus ticks at a TBEV focus in central Sweden. Phylogenetic analysis showed geographical clustering among the newly sequenced strains and three previously sequenced Scandinavian strains, Toro-2003, Saringe-2009 and Mandal-2009, which originated from the same ancestor. Among these five Scandinavian TBEV strains, only Mandal-2009 showed a large deletion within the 3' non-coding region (NCR), similar to the highly virulent TBEV strain Hypr. Deep sequencing of JP-296, JP-554 and Mandal-2009 revealed significantly high quasispecies diversity for JP-296 and JP-554, with intact 3' NCRs, compared to the low diversity in Mandal-2009, with a truncated 3' NCR. Single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis showed that 40% of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms were common between quasispecies populations of JP-296 and JP-554, indicating a putative mechanism for how TBEV persists and is maintained within its natural foci.
Microbial and viral-like rhodopsins present in coastal marine sediments from four polar and subpolar regions. Mer info
FEMS Microbiology Ecology 2017, 93 (1): -.
Rhodopsins are broadly distributed. In this work we analyzed 23 metagenomes corresponding to marine sediment samples from four regions which share cold climate conditions (Norway; Sweden; Argentina and Antarctica). In order to investigate the genes evolution of viral-rodopsins, an initial set of 6224 bacterial rhodopsins sequences according COG5524 were retrieved from the 23 metagenomes. After selection by the presence of transmembrane domains and alignment 123 viral (51) and non-viral (72) sequences (>50 aminoacids) were finally included in further analysis. Viral rhodopsin genes were homologues of Phaeocystis globosa virus and Organic lake Phycodnavirus Non-viral microbial rhodopsin genes were ascribed to Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus as well as Cryptophyta and Fungi. A re-screening using Blastp, using as queries the viral sequences previously described, retrieved 30 sequences (>100 aminoacids). Phylogeographic analysis revealed a geographycal clustering of the sequences affiliated to the viral group. This clustering was not observed for the microbial non-viral sequences. The phylogenetic reconstruction allowed us to propose the existence of a putative ancestor of viral rhodopsins (PAVR) genes related to Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi This is the first report about the existence of a phylogeographic association of the viral rhodopsins sequences from marine sediments.
Transnational environmental collective action facing implementation constraints - the case of nutrient leakage in the Baltic Sea Action PlanMer info
Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 2017, 19 (4): 408-422.
While scholars have showed a long-standing interest for how to design effective environmental treaties and other international agreements, less interest has been paid to implementation phases of these agreements. This article takes the Eutrophication Segment in the Baltic Sea Action Plan as an example of a regional effort to reduce nutrient leakages, where national reporting of adopted strategies has been a key mechanism to improve implementation effectiveness. It is shown that although transnational collective action theory is a powerful tool to analyse underlying drivers and priorities in state implementation policies, a deeper analysis of domestic and external constraints can shed additional light on observed implementation gaps. Varying views among countries on, for example, the role of stakeholder participation, legitimacy and top-down governing versus multi-stakeholder governance approaches may comprise domestic constraints that make effective and efficient implementation problematic. In terms of external constraints, states’ balancing of action plan objectives versus other international commitments, such as other environmental treaties and EU Directives, is shown to potentially reduce implementation efficiency as well.
Reconstructing the history of eutrophication and quantifying total nitrogen reference conditions in Bothnian Sea... Mer info
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 2017, 198 : 320-328.
Reference total nitrogen (TN) concentrations for the Gårdsfjärden estuary in the central Bothnian Sea, which receives discharge from an industrial point-source, have been estimated from diatom assemblages using a transfer function. Sedimentological and diatom evidence imply a good ecological status before 1920 with an assemblage dominated by benthic taxa indicating excellent water transparency, high diatom species richness and less organic sedimentation resulting in homogeneous well oxygenated sediments. A change in the diatom assemblage starts between 1920 and 1935 when the species richness declines and the proportion of planktic taxa increases. Increased organic carbon sedimentation after 1920 led to hypoxic bottom waters, and the preservation of laminae in the sediments. The trend in the reconstructed TN-values agrees with the history of the discharge from the mill, reaching maximum impact during the high discharge between 1945 and 1990. The background condition for TN in Gårdsfjärden is 260-300 μg L-1, reconstructed until 1920.
Crossing disciplinary boundaries in environmental research - Interdisciplinary engagement across the Slovene research communityMer info
Science of the Total Environment 2017, 574 : 1492-1501.
Contemporary approaches to environmental research are calling for a type of scientific inquiry that is able to bring together the natural and social sciences. This with the aim to advance our understanding of environmental issues and produce synthetic and actionable knowledge meant to address these. Yet, interdisciplinarity research of this type is a demanding and challenging pursuit; many have shown that in certain thematic areas and geographic regions practice falls behind discourse. We bring together ideas about interdisciplinary research collaborations (after Patricia L. Rosenfield) and interdisciplinary epistemic synthesis (after Julie T. Klein) that are used to analyse a sample of research projects funded (from 2006 to 2013) by the Slovene Research Agency. We triangulated interview data (with principal investigators) with document analysis and integrated these with other secondary data. Our results suggest for the sample of environmental projects to be interdisciplinary in a narrow sense, this prevalently within natural and life sciences with little input from the humanities and social sciences. Also, the results obtained suggest that environmental research with unambiguous problem solving objectives is preferred over research with a high degree of abstraction, as involved in theoretical and conceptual work.
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 2017, : 98-109.
Connectivity plays an important role in shaping the genetic structure and in evolution of local adaptation. In the marine environment barriers to gene flow are in most cases caused by gradients in environmental factors, ocean circulation and/or larval behavior. Despite the long pelagic larval stages, with high potential for dispersal many marine organisms have been shown to have a fine scale genetic structuring. In this study, by using a combination of high-resolution genetic markers, species hybridization data and biophysical modeling we can present a comprehensive picture of the evolutionary landscape for a keystone species in the Baltic Sea, the blue mussel. We identified distinct genetic differentiation between the West Coast, Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea regions, with lower gene diversity in the Bothnian Sea. Oceanographic connectivity together with salinity and to some extent species identity provides explanations for the genetic differentiation between the West Coast and the Baltic Sea (Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea). The genetic differentiation between the Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea cannot be directly explained by oceanographic connectivity, species identity or salinity, while the lower connectivity to the Bothnian Sea may explain the lower gene diversity. © 2016.
Public Private Partnerships for the Governance and Management of Ecosystem Services - Exploring Current Challenges and Potentials of Common-Pool ResourceMer info
Ljubljana : , 2016. ( ; )
Brukbar historia? Bönders historia och seder i galiziska och finländska kooperativa tidskrifter omkring år 1900 Mer info
In: Perspektiv på lantbrukets organisering. Stockholm : Kungl. Skogs- och Lantbruksakademien, 2016. 43-59.
Fishponds in teh Baltic States - Historical Cyprinid Culture in Estonia, Latvia and LithuaniaMer info
In: Historical Aquaculture in Northern Europe. Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2016. 139-156.
In: Historical Aquaculture in Northern Europe. Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2016. 89-119.
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2016.
How were fishponds introduced, farmed and spread in Scandinavia and the Baltic Region in early modern times? What was their economic, social and religious importance? Which fish species were significant and why?This book uncovers a long, now broken, tradition that barely left traces in the written record or physical environment. Its broad and multidisciplinary scope highlights the situation from medieval times until the late nineteenth century. Besides Scandinavia and the Baltic States, insights from England are also introduced.Several socio-cultural domains have been identified: late medieval monastic fishponds; late medieval aristocratic fishponds associated with castles and manors; seventeenth and eighteenth century ponds rectory ponds as well as urban ponds from the seventeenth century to the nineteenth century.
Stockholm : BONUS, 2016. ( ; )
This report makes a case for examining the role of integration and its links to how sustainable development is variably expressed in different marine spatial planning (MSP) contexts. The aim of the report is to refine an analytical approach to examine integration in MSP in the Baltic Sea through consideration of preliminary empirical results from a broad range of case studies. MSP is conceptualised here as a governance platform for improving processes to enable political decision-making with the aim to achieve sustainable development of marine space. Integration is universally espoused as a means to address a variety of challenges closely related to MSP’s sustainable development ambitions, such as supporting inter-sectoral decision-making, stakeholder engagement and cross-border interaction, but its role, value and implementation in MSP has not been examined in any empirical detail. Although increased integration may well have positive effects on MSP processes and outcomes, in some instances, the contrary might also be the case. With these thoughts in mind, this report argues that we need to analyse integration as a multidimensional concept in MSP processes and outcomes. Based on understandings of integration derived from MSP experience and concepts in the broader social science literature, an analytical framework is developed to examine MSP practice in the Baltic Sea. Integration is conceptualised as including transboundary/cross-border, policy/sectoral, stakeholder and knowledge dimensions. Despite common requirements under the European Union MSP Directive and policies, national jurisdictions are likely to adopt MSP differently, which has implications for the role integration is likely to play in national and transnational MSP practice. Drawing on empirical data derived from national MSP studies, stakeholder dialogue forums and preliminary interviews with stakeholders the analytical framework is applied to examine how particular integration challenges play out in both national and transnational marine space across the Baltic Sea Region. The analytical framework is then used to structure an examination of several case studies from different parts of the Baltic Sea Region. Based on consideration of the empirical work and an analyses of previous experiences in science and practice we then propose some revisions to the initial analytical framework presented earlier. The revised analytical framework, while capturing the integration dimensions mentioned earlier, also includes consideration of the following aspects of integration: how ‘balance’ between sustainable development dimensions is exercised; the character of cross-boundary interactions; and temporal dynamics. Instead of a conclusion, short think-pieces are presented to capture the main insights of the report, which could be used to aid the examination of integration in MSP in other MSP contexts, beyond the Baltic Sea.
Vektorburna sjukdomar är ett växande globalt hot mot både människor och djur. De pågående klimatförändringarna kan leda till förhöjda risker för infektioner överförda av myggor, fästingar och andra leddjursvektorer. Ixodes ricinus är en vanlig fästing i Europa som överför fästingburna patogener som är farliga för människor. Fästingburen encefalit (TBE) är en vektorburen sjukdom som orsakas av TBE-virus (TBEV). De pågående klimatförändringarna har bidragit till en ökning både av vektorn och sjukdomsfrekvensen. Mellan 10 000 och 15 000 mänskliga TBE-fall rapporteras årligen i Europa och Asien. Den geografiska fördelningen av TBEV visar ett ojämnt fördelningsmönster där viruset är koncentrerat till vissa fokusområden. TBEV återfinns i naturen i en livscykel där viruset hela tiden överförs mellan fästingar och däggdjur. Spridningen sker dels från en infekterad fästing till ett ryggradsdjur när fästingen äter på värddjuret. Spridning mellan fästingar sker troligen främst genom så kallad “co-feeding”, det vill säga att flera fästingar suger blod samtidigt från samma värddjur. Viruset kan då passera från en infekterad fästing, genom värddjuret till oinfekterade fästingar.Virus kan identifieras och studeras med genetiska metoder. Det ökande antalet TBE-fall i Skandinavien styrker vikten av att hitta och karakterisera ytterligare TBEV-stammar och identifiera nya naturliga fokusområden. Vi har sekvenserat och fylogenetiskt beskrivit fyra TBEV-stammar: Saringe-2009 (blodfylld nymf), JP-296 (födosökande vuxen hane), JP-554 (födosökande vuxen hane) och Mandal-2009 (födosökande nymfer, n = 10). Mandal-2009 är ett TBEV från ett naturligt fokusområde i södra Norge. Saringe-2009 kommer från ett naturligt fokusområde i norra Stockholms län, Sverige. JP-296 och JP-554 härstammar från Torö som är ett naturligt fokusområde i södra Stockholms län, Sverige.Förutom den genetiska sekvenseringen av TBEV har vi också studerat effekten av olika biotiska och abiotiska faktorer på populationsdynamik av I. ricinus i södra Stockholm och observerade variation i fästingsaktivitetsmönster både temporalt och spatialt. Förekomstmönster av fästinglarver, nymfer och vuxna honor, och det totala antalet fästingar är viktiga faktorer för sannolikheten för horisontell överföring av TBEV mellan fästingar. Vi fann att sannolikheten för synkron förekomst av larver, nymfer och honor var högst under försommaren. Vegetationshöjd, mängden skog och mängd öppet vatten runt undersökningsområden hade signifikanta negativa effekter på sannolikheten för att larver, nymfer och honor skulle förekomma samtidigt.Den variabla delen av den icke-kodande 3 ́regionen (3'NCR) av TBEV-genomet innehåller ofta en intern poly(A)-sekvens. Liksom andra RNA-virus, förekommer TBEV som så kallade ”quasispecies” vilka definieras som grupper av olika genetiska varianter av virus. Genom analysen av TBEV-stam Saringe-2009 avslöjades variation i poly(A)-sekvensen vilket indikerar förekomst av ”quasispecies”. Eftersom Saringe-2009 kom från en blodfylld nymf som hade sugit blod i > 60 timmar, föreslår vi att Saringe-2009 visar en förändring i ”quasispecies”-poolen när viruset överförs från exoterm fästingmiljö till endoterm däggdjursmiljö. Vi undersökte poly(A)-ekvensens variabilitet och dess roll vid replikering och för virulens hos TBEV, genom att skapa två infektiösa kloner av Torö-2003 stammen; en med en kort/vild-typ (A)3C(A)6 poly(A)-sekkvens, och en med en lång (A)3C(A)38 poly(A)-sekvens. Den infektiösa klonen med lång poly(A)-sekvens replikerade sämre än vildtypklonen i cellkultur, men (A)3C(A)38 poly(A) var mer virulent i C57BL/6-möss än (A)3C(A)6 poly(A). Datasimulering av TBEV-genomets sekundär-RNA-struktur visade att de längre poly(A)-sekvenserna påverkar veckningen av en specifik sekundärstruktur (SL14) i början av 3 ́NCR. Djupsekvenseringsanalys av TBEV-gnomen avslöjade skillnader för specifika gener och ”quasispecies”-strukturen efter passering i cellkultur och/eller mushjärna. Dessa förändringar föreslås bidra till de observerade skillnaderna i virulens. Våra resultat indikerar att den långa poly(A)-sekvensen ger instabilitet i TBEV-genomet, vilket resulterar i ökad mångfald av ”quasispecies”-populationen som i sin tur kan bidra till TBEV-virulens.Fylogenetisk analys av Saringe-2009, JP-296, JP-554 och Mandal-2009 visade på ett nära släktskap mellan de fyra skandinaviska TBEV-stammarna. De nya stammarna formerade ett kluster med en tidigare TBEV-stam identifierad på Torö (Toro-2003), vilket skapade ett skandinaviskt klad. Genetisk analys visade att Mandal-2009 innehåller en trunkerad 3 ́NCR som liknar den högvirulenta stammen HYPR. JP-296 och JP-554 hade däremot samma genetiska struktur som den längre Torö-2003 stammen från samma fokusområde. Djupsekvensering visade höge mångfald av ”quasispecies”-populationen för JP-296 och JP- 554 jämfört med Mandal-2009. Analys av enkel nukleotid polymorfism (SNP) visade att 40 % av alla SNP var gemensamma mellan ”quasispecies”-populationen för JP-296 och JP-554. Detta indikerar att TBEV-”quasispecies”-strukturen kan vara konserverad för närbesläktade virus vilken kan leda till att den bevaras inom specifika fokusområden.Sammantaget så visar dessa studier att miljöfaktorer påverkar förekomsten av fästingvektorn och dess olika livsstadier, vilket är en bakomliggande faktor för utbredning av TBEV i naturliga fokusområden. Det visar även på att värdmiljön påverkar strukturen för ”quasispecies”-populationen. Dessutom visar våra studier att evolution och utveckling av ”quasispecies”-strukturen kan påverka virulensen för TBEV i möss.
Geospatial Health 2016, 11 : 283-289.
The role of the poly(A) tract in the replication and virulence of tick-borne encephalitis virus Mer info
Scientific Reports 2016, 6 : -.
The tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a flavivirus transmitted to humans, usually via tick bites. The virus causes tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in humans, and symptoms range from mild flu-like symptoms to severe and long-lasting sequelae, including permanent brain damage. It has been suggested that within the population of viruses transmitted to the mammalian host, quasispecies with neurotropic properties might become dominant in the host resulting in neurological symptoms. We previously demonstrated the existence of TBEV variants with variable poly(A) tracts within a single blood-fed tick. To characterize the role of the poly(A) tract in TBEV replication and virulence, we generated infectious clones of Torö-2003 with the wild-type (A)3C(A)6 sequence (Torö-6A) or with a modified (A)3C(A)38 sequence (Torö-38A). Torö-38A replicated poorly compared to Torö-6A in cell culture, but Torö-38A was more virulent than Torö-6A in a mouse model of TBE. Next-generation sequencing of TBEV genomes after passaging in cell culture and/or mouse brain revealed mutations in specific genomic regions and the presence of quasispecies that might contribute to the observed differences in virulence. These data suggest a role for quasispecies development within the poly(A) tract as a virulence determinant for TBEV in mice.
A Beef with Meat - Media and Audience Framings of Environmentally Unsustainable Production and ConsumptionMer info
The aim of this thesis is to identify potential routes of participation in environmentally sustainable changes of the Swedish meat production and consumption. Changes are needed as meat production and consumption have been linked to serious environmental problems, such as climate change, biodiversity loss, and land use change. Scientists, international organizations, and Swedish government authorities have identified individual consumer responsibility as key in making that change happen. The public is to be informed and educated to make more environmentally sustainable choices as meat consumers, and become more supportive of policy instruments. This strategy, which mirrors the dominant approach to solving environmental problems, is suggested by government authorities despite their suspicion that media should have made most Swedes aware of the environmental impacts of meat.In this thesis potential participatory routes are identified through the analysis of Swedish news media and audience framings of meat production and consumption. Media framing is studied as an important source of information, and perhaps motivation, crucial in the individualized consumer responsibility approach. The media framing is studied through content analysis of mainstream and alternative radical newspapers. The audiences’ framing of meat may be influenced by media, but also by their everyday experiences, beliefs, values, and opinions. Focus group discussions with reception elements are the methods used for studying how audiences frame meat and use media in the process. The concept of participation is broadened to include passive and active forms to capture in which roles individuals consider to contribute to changing meat production and consumption. It is not self-evident that routes to change must include individual participation, since responsibility may be attributed to other actors, both by media and their audiences.The results imply only participatory route supported by media and audience framing. It is the one that mirrors the individualized consumer responsibility approach to solving environmental problems. The major barrier to the route is the audiences’ perceived inability to act. In an alternative route supported by both media and audience framing, state centered actors are made responsible for enforcing change. Here, the major barrier is the perceived unlikeliness of powerful actors assuming responsibility. Audiences construct no citizen roles for themselves to participate in. Neither does media, who only address audiences as consumers. Based on these findings it is suggested that the outlook for the individualized responsibility approach to making meat production and consumption environmentally sustainable is gloomy. At least if it the approach is to continuously rely on the information and motivation offered by media.
Quaternary Science Reviews 2016, 151 : 315-320.
The well-known and widespread replacement of oysters (abundant during the Mesolithic period) by cockles and mussels in many Danish Stone Age shell middens ca. 5900 cal yrs BP coincides with the transition to agriculture in southern Scandinavia. This human resource shift is commonly believed to reflect changing resource availability, driven by environmental and/or climatic change at the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition rather than cultural choice. While several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the “Mesolithic-Neolithic oyster decline”, an explanation based on a sudden freshening of the inner Danish waters has received most attention. Here, for the first time, we test and refute this long-standing hypothesis that declining salinity explains the marked reduction in oysters identified within numerous shell middens across coastal Denmark at the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition using quantitative and qualitative salinity inference from several, independent proxies (diatoms, molluscs and foraminifera) from multiple Danish fjord sites. Alternatively, we attribute the oyster decline to other environmental causes (particularly changing sedimentation), ultimately driven by external climatic forcing. Critical application of such high-quality environmental archives can reinvigorate archaeological debates and can aid in understanding and managing environmental change in increasingly impacted coastal regions.
Microbial Ecosystem Functions Along the Steep Oxygen Gradient of the Landsort Deep, Baltic Sea Mer info
Mikroorganismer är essentiella för fungerande ekosystemfunktioner i akvatiska miljöer och därmed en förutsättning för övrigt växt- och djurliv på vår planet. Trots deras ekologiska nyckelroll är kunskapen om mikroorganismernas funktion och komplexitet samt hur dessa är relaterade till miljön begränsad. På grund av eutrofiering och klimatförändringar har marina områden som lider av syrebrist ökat och en ytterligare utbredning av marina och bräckta områden med syrebrist är predicerad i framtiden. Stora områden av Östersjön kännetecknas av vertikala syregradienter med syresatt ytvatten och anoxiskt bottenvatten. I denna avhandling undersöktes därför med metagenomik hur mikrobiella ekosystems funktioner var utbredda längs den vertikala syregradienten i Östersjöns djupaste del, Landsortsdjupet. Dessutom jämfördes de mikrobiella samhällena från Landsortsdjupet med mikrobiella samhällen från andra marina miljöer för att utröna om den karakteristiska miljön i Landsortsdjupet återspeglade de mikrobiella samhällen som lever där. För att undersöka vilka mikroorganismer samt vilka mikrobiella ekosystemfunktioner som var aktiva i det anoxiska sedimentet i Landsortsdjupet användes metatranskriptomik. Resultaten visade en stark korrelation mellan miljöparametrarna syrehalt, salinitet och temperatur och fördelningen av mikrobiell taxa och i synnerhet mikrobiell funktion längs Landsortsdjupets transekt. De mikrobiella samhällena uppvisade en funktionell kapacitet förenlig med en livsstrategi beroende av organiskt material som sjunker genom vattenkolonnen som en konsekvens av eutrofiering. Eutrofa förhållanden med hög halt av organiskt material var även återspeglad i metatranskriptomet från det anoxiska sedimentet, som indikerade aktiv mineralisering av organiskt kol genom anaerob heterotrof-autotrof synergism. Nya möjliga kopplingar mellan kväve- och svavelmetabolism identifierades i det anoxiska vattnet. Vidare visade resultat från metatranskriptom-analys att livsdugliga cyanobakterier var abundanta i det mörka och anoxiska sedimentet, vilket även detta kan vara en konsekvens av sjunkande organiskt material. Hög abundans och hög transkribering av integrongener kunde identifieras som ett karakteristiskt kännetecken hos de mikrobiella samhällena i Landsortsdjupet vilket skulle kunna förse dem med en mekanism för anpassning till miljöförändringar. Sammanfattningsvis dokumenterar denna avhandling tydligt vilken påverkan eutrofiering och syrebrist har på mikrobiella funktioner. Dessutom för den specifikt kunskapen om mikrobiella processer i anoxiska djupvattensediment framåt på både genom- och transkriptionsnivå. Mot bakgrund av en predicerad ökning av syrebristen i marina miljöer, bidrar denna avhandling med information som är viktig för att kunna förutse vilka effekter anoxiska förhållanden kan komma att få på ekosystemfunktioner i marina miljöer och i brackvattenmiljöer i synnerhet.
A dark, anoxic mausoleum for DNA - perceived and actual community structure in the Landsort Deep sediment, the Baltic SeaMer info
PeerJ 2016, : -.
Numerous investigations of bacterial communities using sequence analysis of environmental DNA have revealed extensive diversity of microbial taxa in an array of different environmental habitats. Community analysis based solely on DNA, however, does not reveal whether the detected community members are actively contributing to community functioning, or whether they are dormant or remnants of dead cells. This dilemma is of particular concern when analyzing microbial community structure of sites with a high degree of deposited matter, such as marine sediments. For example, the Baltic Sea’s deepest point, the Landsort Deep, consists of anoxic sediments with a large deposition of allochthonous organic matter from the highly stratified 460 m water column above. Our previous metagenomics results indicated the presence of potential obligately aerobic and phototrophic microorganisms. To further elucidate which taxa may contribute to ecosystem function at this site, we here present three different datasets – rDNA amplicons, rDNA reads from a shotgun metagenome and expressed rRNA from a shotgun metatranscriptome. By comparing the three datasets and the ratios between rRNA and rDNA we seek to estimate the protein synthesis potential of the community members in order to provide an indication of what taxa may have cellular activity and metabolic potential. The variation in protein synthesis potential was large, both within and between taxa, in the sediment community. Many typically anaerobic taxa, e.g. from Deltaproteobacteria and Euryarchaeota, showed a high protein synthesis potential, while typical aerobes like Flavobacteria showed a low protein synthesis potential. More surprisingly, some common Baltic Sea surface water bacteria also displayed a high protein synthesis potential, suggesting they have an active role in the anoxic sediment ecosystem at 460 m depth. Both filamentous and unicellular Cyanobacteria exhibited very high protein synthesis potential, which implies a more complex role of these bacteria in carbon cycling in the Baltic Sea than previously suggested. Moreover, Mycobacteria, that were abundant in Landsort Deep sediment metagenome compared with other marine sediment metagenomes, showed protein synthesis potentials consistent with a functional role in the sediment community. Our results provide a new window of insight into the complexities of the microbial community of Landsort Deep with implications for the understanding of other anoxic accumulation sediments.
Rural Wikinomics - Communication, Sharing and Value CoCreating – Social Technologies and Rural DevelopmentMer info
In: Challenges for the New Rurality in a Changing World. Huddinge : Södertörns högskola.
Over the last decades a great effort for rural development policies in Sweden has been to find windows of opportunity for the future, to promote new types of enterprises, to support farm and firm diversification, to identify novel business models and in general promote growth. But while many concrete measures have focused on lowering the entry barriers to the market and support the supply side of the rural economy, a glimpse on the emerging technological paradigm, e.g. internet based development and social technologies, indicates that new solutions are possible. In this article we address the following question: Can Alternative Food Networks (AFNs) in combination with social technologies promote rural entrepreneurship and economic growth?
Culinary Heritage, Governance and Rural Development In Jämtland and Västernorrland (Sweden) Mer info
In: Challenges for the New Rurality in a Changing World. Huddinge : Södertörns Högskola.
Over the last decades a remarkable process of rural development based on the revival of local culinary heritage has been set in motion all over Sweden. In Västernorrland and Jämtland, two counties that share the same culinary heritage and history and at least in some parts, have common geographical features, the shift towards this culinary place based development has been quite different. Differences can partly be explained through institutional explanations. But as will be showed by this study, there are also important historical and other reasons behind different patterns. What was left of a once common culinary heritage has been decisive for the possibility of economic success. In this article the main emphasis is put on how the nature and character of culinary heritage influences the possibility of promoting rural development.
De-Localizing the Agri-Food System Governance, Livelihoods and Vulnerability in El Alfalfal (Chile) Mer info
In: Challenges for the New Rurality in a Changing World. Huddinge : Södertörns Högskola.
This article highlights the impact of the of the hydro-power plant Alto Maipo, on a localized agri-food system (LAFS) in Cajón del Maipo (Chile). Although extensive research was done before starting the construction of Alto Maipo, the possible impact on transhumance and thereby on the ancient LAFS in the area that carries important elements of the cultural heritage and national identity has until now been neglected. Results show how an exogenous impact on the local institutions that linked landscape, people, animals and products together in the conformation of a LAFS have been disturbed through the creation of alternative income opportunities and enforced change. Current events generated alternative short term income opportunities, but also a long term negative impact on livelihoods and nature.
In: The Environment in the Age of the Internet. Cambridge : Open Book Publishers, 2016. 137-170.
Feeding stimulants in an omnivorous species, crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758) Mer info
Aquaculture Reports 2016, 4 : 66-73.
Many fish are during feeding dependent on both an olfactory and gustatory sense. Olfaction that acts as the distance sense induces arousal, food search behaviour and attraction to the source, followed by examination of food items by the gustatory sense. During buccal handling the fish decide if the feed will be rejected or swallowed. Amino acids are often stimulatory to the gustatory sense and can act as feeding stimulants. There are, however, inter-species differences concerning what kinds of amino acids act as feeding stimulants or deterrents. The species differences are probably dependent on the natural food choice. As feeding stimulating molecules increase feeding and growth, but deterrents have the reverse effect, it is important to know what kind of molecules have either effect. In the present study we record mouth handling time in the omnivorous crucian carp, Carassius carassius, of agar pellets containing water extracts of meal consisting of ordinary food pellets, blue mussels or a commercial carp attractant. These tests were followed by testing with agar pellets with synthetic amino acids, based on the content of the water extracts of the food pellets that was the only feeding stimulant. Neither extracts of mussel meal or of commercial carp attractants had a stimulating effect, i.e. no significant difference in handling time compared to agar pellets with only water. A mixture of five of the major amino acids in the food pellet extract (40 mM alanine, 20 mM glycine, 20 mM arginine, 8 mM serine, 8 mM leucin) gave a significant longer handling time compared to agar pellets with only water. The handling time was also longer for the three amino acids that had the highest concentrations (40 mM Ala, 20 mM Gly, 20 mM Arg) and finally with only alanine (128 mM). Agar pellets with only Ala gave, however, a significant shorter handling time compared to agar pellets with food pellet extract. The mussel meal extract had the same content of free amino acids and their ranking order was the same as in extracts of food pellets, but at much higher concentrations. Based on the free amino acid content, the mussel extract should have stimulated feeding. This indicates that the mussel extract contained compounds that acted as feeding deterrents in omnivorous crucian carp that do not feed on blue mussels in their natural environment. Previous studies have shown that blue mussel extracts act as feeding stimulants in several bottom feeding carnivorous fish. We finally tested betaine (100 mM) but the molecule had no significant stimulating effect that has been observed in some other fish species. © 2016 The Authors
Intersexuality in the Blue Mussel Mytilus edulis Complex (Mytilidae) from the Baltic Sea and the Danish Strait Mer info
American Malacological Bulletin 2016, 34 (1): 28-39.
Populations of Mytilus edulis complex were studied from 13 stations located at three areas of the Baltic Sea (the Gulf of Gdańsk, Poland; Tvärminne area, Finland; Trosa Archipelago, Sweden) and the Skagerrak sound (Kristineberg, Sweden). The main purpose of the study was to document the occurrence of intersexuality along longitudinal salinity change using squash and histology for comparative reasons. Intersex was identified in all four geographical areas at an average frequency of 1.8%. Squash technique revealed the highest intersex frequency in the Gulf of Gdańsk (up to 6.25%) whereas histology examination did so in the Kristineberg area (up to 10%). In the Tvärminne area and in the Trosa Archipelago the average frequency of intersex did not exceed 2% regardless of the technique used; this suggests a natural induction of the phenomenon. Statistically significant spatial differences in intersex frequency were confirmed for mussels inhabiting polluted hotspots in the Gulf of Gdańsk and at the west coast of Sweden (Kristineberg). Therefore, for these localities artificial induction of intersexuality as a consequence of adverse environmental threats (pollution, parasite outbreaks) is further suggested. Furthermore, squash technique - being less sensitive in identifying intersex when compared to histology - is not recommended for mussels with severe reproductive impairments making a proper analysis of gonads impossible. Intersexual individuals were also characterized by less developed gonads and lower gonado-somatic index (GSI) than males and females. Significantly lower GSI revealed less energy allocation towards reproduction in populations from the Trosa Archipelago and Tvärminne area in comparison to those from the Gulf of Gdańsk and from Kristineberg.
The Environment in the Age of the Internet - Activists, Communication, and the Digital LandscapeMer info
: Open Book Publishers, 2016.
How do we talk about the environment? Does this communication reveal and construct meaning? Is the environment expressed and foregrounded in the new landscape of digital media?The Environment in the Age of the Internet is an interdisciplinary collection that draws together research and answers from media and communication studies, social sciences, modern history, and folklore studies. Edited by Heike Graf, its focus is on the communicative approaches taken by different groups to ecological issues, shedding light on how these groups tell their distinctive stories of "the environment". This book draws on case studies from around the world and focuses on activists of radically different kinds: protestors against pulp mills in South America, resistance to mining in the Sámi region of Sweden, the struggles of indigenous peoples from the Arctic to the Amazon, gardening bloggers in northern Europe, and neo-Nazi environmentalists in Germany. Each case is examined in relation to its multifaceted media coverage, mainstream and digital, professional and amateur.Stories are told within a context; examining the "what" and "how" of these environmental stories demonstrates how contexts determine communication, and how communication raises and shapes awareness. These issues have never been more urgent, this work never more timely. The Environment in the Age of the Internet is essential reading for everyone interested in how humans relate to their environment in the digital age.The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies has generously contributed towards the publication of this volume.
Fishing For Smelt, Osmerus Eperlanus (Linnaeus, 1758) - A traditional food fish – possible cuisinein post-modern Sweden?Mer info
Slovak Ethnology 2016, 2 (64): -.
For the rural population in Sweden, fishing in lakes and rivers was of great importanceuntil recently. Many fish species served as food or animal fodder, or were used tomake glue and other useful products. But the receding of lakes in the nineteenthcentury, and the expansion of hydropower and worsening of water pollution in thetwentieth, contributed to the decline of inland fisheries. At the same time, marinefish became more competitive on the Swedish food market. In some regions, however,certain freshwater species continued to be caught for household consumption wellinto the twentieth century. One such species was the smelt (Osmerus eperlanus),which fifty years ago was still of economic importance. Nowadays, however, smeltis only caught in very low volumes; its role is therefore insignificant. In neighbouringcountries, however – such as Estonia, Lithuania, and Russia – it is still being exploitedcommercially. In Germany, where water quality has improved in rivers and restaurantshave shown increasing interest in smelt, a successful revival for the fish as a regionaland seasonal food can be seen. Smelt fishing has dimensions which are not onlyculinary, but social and cultural as well. Traditional ways of food preparation can betransformed into modern haute cuisine. Smelt fishing has the potential to developcommercially in Sweden also.
Local resources, foreign influences, value creation, tradition and modernity. The case of a Local Agro-food Syst... Mer info
Culture & History Digital Journal 2016, 5 (1): -.
Recursos locales, influencias extranjeras, creación de valor, tradicion y modernidad. El caso de un Sistema Agroalimentario Local en Jämtland, Suecia.- Durante la década de los 80, un proceso de acción colectiva se inició con el propósito de salvar los restos de la ganadería tradicional en Jämtland. Esto resultó en la creación de un sistema agroalimentario local que logró comercializar elementos importantes de la agricultura tradicional, añadiendo elementos de modernidad. La diversificación de las fincas fue la estrategia más importante, dentro de la cual se promovió la creación de un sector de pequeñas industrias lácteas en las fincas, cafés rurales y asimismo la venta directa a los consumidores en dichas fincas, en mercados y otros canales de comercialización, servicios de alojamiento y desayuno y operaciones turísticas al aire libre. En este proceso, conocimiento y experiencias extranjeras jugaron un papel clave en la apertura de un nuevo mercado para los productos lácteos tradicionales. Este caso demuestra que la localización y la apropiación de elementos extranjeros puede ser una estrategia fructífera para promover el desarrollo territorial en regiones como Jämtland. Este artículo pone de relieve cómo un sistema agroalimentario local se articula en el marco del nacimiento de una nueva industria compuesta por pequeñas empresas lácteas, de carácter semi-artesanal. También se discuten los efectos institucionales secundarios que fueron originados por esta experiencia.
Transformation of small-scale fisheries - critical transdisciplinary challenges and possibilitiesMer info
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 2016, 20 (June): 26-31.
One way to confront the global marginalisation of small-scale fisheries (SSF) is to support a sustainable transformation of these coastal communities. In 2014/15, a network of researchers and SSF communities from four countries cooperated in a transdisciplinary research approach to examine governance shifts, fish stock collapses, power structures, future visions and transformation strategies. We combined a political ecology approach with transformation theory to: (i) consider how local context is affected by structural changes and (ii) identify place-based transformational strategies for each case. The global emergence of large-scale fisheries and associated free markets appeared as key factors negatively affecting SSF and coastal sustainability. Through envisioning exercises and context dependent analysis, SSF communities articulated possible and actual strategies towards sustainability that will require ongoing support.
The Ecosystem Approach to Management in Baltic Sea Governance - Towards Increased Reflexivity?Mer info
In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea. : Springer, 2016. 149-172.
This chapter analyses the governance structures linked to the marine environment of the Baltic Sea. The purpose is to assess whether current developments of the governance structures have a potential to take into account requirements of an Ecosystem Approach to Management (EAM). We use the concept of reflexive governance to understand key components and weaknesses in contemporary governance modes, as well as to elaborate on possible pathways towards a governance mode more aligned with EAM. The reflexive governance framework highlights three elements: (1) acknowledgement of uncertainty and ambiguity; (2) a holistic approach in terms of scales, sectors and actors; and (3) acknowledgement of path dependency and incremental policy-making. Our analysis is based on a comparative case study approach, including analysis of the governance in five environmental risk areas: chemical pollution, overfishing, eutrophication, invasive alien species and pollution from shipping. The chapter highlights an existing governance mode that is ill-equipped to deal with the complexity of environmental problems in a holistic manner, with systematic attention to uncertainty, plurality of values, ambiguity and limited knowledge, while also pointing at important recent cognitive and institutional developments that can favour pathways towards reflexive governance and consequently EAM.
Risk Communication and the Role of the Public: Towards Inclusive Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea? Mer info
In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea. : Springer, 2016. 205-227.
This chapter focuses on forms of and challenges for risk communication within regional environmental governance, based on an analysis of five environmental risks in the Baltic Sea – marine oil transportation, chemicals, overfishing, eutrophication and alien species. We address questions about how risks are framed and communicated and also analyse the role of communication in the governance process. Our main focus is on risk communication with the public (e.g. existing institutional arrangements and procedures of risk communication), but we also relate this analysis to discussions on communication with a broad range of actors and issues of stakeholder participation and communication. In the study we have identified some examples of relatively well-working risk communication with parts of the organised public in the Baltic Sea region (BSR), such as in fisheries or eutrophication, but also a number of different barriers and obstacles. Our key result from this study is that BSR consists of many national institutions for risk communication, but that there are hardly any centralised institutions for risk communication activities relating to environmental governance in the region. Another key conclusion is that public risk communication in this array of cross-national environmental risks is restricted mainly to (one-way) information. Against this backdrop and from our empirical and theoretical knowledge of risk communication and the role of the public, we finally suggest some ways for improvement.
In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea. : Springer, 2016. 229-246.
Governing marine environments is a highly complex and challenging enterprise. This applies particularly to the heavily exploited Baltic Sea for which despite extensive governance arrangements and a substantial scientific knowledge base, it is unlikely that the policy objective of ‘good environmental status’ is reached. Based on a review of governance arrangements linked to five large-scale environmental issues (eutrophication, overfishing, invasive alien species, chemical pollution and oil spills from shipping), this chapter aims to identify pathways and concrete ideas for institutional reform that may improve goal fulfilment. The results show that governance challenges differ substantially between environmental issues, implying a need for case-specific management reforms. For example, coping with extreme uncertainty is a key challenge in the chemical pollution case, whereas it seems more pertinent in the eutrophication case to address the complexity of nutrient pollution sources by adapting objectives and measures amongst sectoral policies to be in line with environmental ones. Furthermore, cross-case comparisons reveal a set of common vital functions (i.e. coordination, integration, interdisciplinarity, precaution, deliberation, communication and adaptability) that are needed in order to facilitate effective and efficient environmental governance in the long term. To promote these functions in Baltic Sea environmental governance, the chapter suggests pathways and institutional reforms aimed at improving multilevel and multisectoral integration, science-policy interactions and stakeholder participation. To further develop these ideas, it is proposed amongst other things that priority is given to setting up an international ‘Baltic Sea Policy Review Mechanism’, formed by cross-body and cross-stakeholder participation.
Science-Policy Interfaces in Baltic Sea Environmental Governance - Towards Regional Cooperation and Management of Uncertainty?Mer info
In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea. : Springer, 2016. 173-203.
This chapter investigates and compares the interactions between science and policy (risk assessments and risk management) in five cases of environmental governance of the Baltic Sea: eutrophication, fisheries, invasive alien species, chemical pollution and oil discharges. An efficient interplay between science and policy is important for successful environmental governance, which applies particularly to the Baltic Sea where all five risks pose serious threats to environmental, social and economic aspects of sustainability. We use science-policy theory and an analytical framework based on a categorisation of relevant management responses linked to different states of incomplete knowledge (risk, uncertainty, ambiguity, ignorance) to investigate two main characteristics of science-policy interfaces: (1) organisational structures and (2) procedural aspects of managing scientific uncertainties and stakeholder disagreements. The analyses reveal differences and similarities in institutional and organisational designs of the respective assessment-management interactions, as well as in terms of how scientific uncertainties, stakeholder disagreements and socio-political ambiguities are addressed. All the five science-policy interfaces expose science-based management approaches that commonly are not able to cope sufficiently well with the complexities, uncertainties and ambiguities at hand. Based on our cross-case analyses, we conclude by recommending five key aspects that need to be addressed to improve science-policy interactions in Baltic Sea environmental governance: (1) more adaptive organisational structures in terms of time, context and place dependency, (2) increased knowledge integrations, (3) a more careful consideration of stakeholder participation and deliberation, (4) better management of uncertainty and disagreements and (5) increased transparency and reflection in the communication of science-policy processes.
Governance of Chemicals in the Baltic Sea Region - A Study of Three Generations of Hazardous SubstancesMer info
In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea. : Springer, 2016. 97-123.
This study zooms in on public governance in the Baltic Sea region of three generations of notorious hazardous substances, namely, PCBs, PBDEs and PFOS/PFOA. Following regulation, PCB concentrations in the Baltic Sea have decreased substantially although they are still above pre-industrial levels. PBDE levels have also decreased in some places, but they too are well above targeted levels, whereas the situation for PFOS and in particular for PFOA has hardly improved at all. In the case of PCBs, while comprehensive measures took long to implement, initial preventive measures were taken early based on the precautionary principle. This contrasts with the cases of PBDEs, PFOS and PFOA, where the burden of proof on policy-makers has been high and hence caused severe delays in policymaking. There has, however, generally been a positive interplay in all three cases between the EU, which has legislated, and HELCOM, which has taken the role of concept and agenda setting. While environment-oriented policies, such as the Ecosystem Approach to Management under MSFD and BSAP, have grown in importance over time, polluter-oriented chemical legislation has been more important when it comes to final decision-making. Nevertheless, the general response has been reactive rather than proactive, and there is no indication that society responds faster today than in the past, at least not given the fact that awareness, experience and knowledge are greater today than a few decades back. Based on that insight, the article discusses various options for improving governance.
Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea - Identifying Key Challenges, Research Topics and Analytical ApproachesMer info
In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea. : Springer, 2016. 1-17.
The Baltic Sea ecosystem is subject to a wide array of societal pressures and associated environmental risks (e.g. eutrophication, oil discharges, chemical pollution, overfishing and invasive alien species). Despite several years of substantial efforts by state and non-state actors, it is still highly unlikely that the regionally agreed environmental objectives of reaching “good environmental status” by 2021 in the HELCOM BSAP (Baltic Sea Action Plan) and by 2020 in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) will be met. This chapter identifies key research topics, as well as presents analytical perspectives for analysing the gap between knowledge and action in Baltic Sea environmental governance. It does so by outlining important trends and key challenges associated with Baltic Sea environmental governance, as well as by summarising the scope and results of individual chapters of this interdisciplinary volume. The analysis reveals the development of increasingly complex governance arrangements and the ongoing implementation of the holistic Ecosystem Approach to Management, as two general trends that together contribute to three key challenges associated with (1) regional and cross - sectoral coordination and collaboration, (2) coping with complexity and uncertainty in science-policy interactions and (3) developing communication and knowledge sharing among stakeholder groups. Furthermore, to facilitate analysis of environmental governance opportunities and obstacles both within and across specific environmental issues, this chapter reviews the scientific literature to pinpoint key research issues and questions linked to the identified governance challenges.
Eutrophication and the Ecosystem Approach to Management - A Case Study of Baltic Sea Environmental GovernanceMer info
In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea. : Springer, 2016. 21-44.
This study investigates if and how present institutional structures and interactions between scientific assessment and environmental management are sufficient for implementing the ecosystem approach to management (EAM) in the case of Baltic Sea eutrophication. Concerning governance structures, a number of institutions and policies focus on issues relating to eutrophication. In many cases, the policies are mutually supportive rather than contradictory, as seen, for example, in the case of the mutually supportive BSAP and MSFD. The opposite is true, however, when it comes to the linkages with some other policy areas, in particular regarding agricultural policy, where the EU CAP subsidises intensive agriculture with at best minor consideration of environmental objectives, thereby undermining EAM. Enhanced policy coherence and stricter policies on concrete measures to combat eutrophication seem well needed in order to reach stated environmental objectives. When it comes to assessment-management interactions, the science- policy interface has worked well in periods, but the more specific that policies have become, for example, in the BSAP case, the more question marks have been raised about science by affected stakeholders. At present, outright controversies exist, and EAM is far from realised in eutrophication policy in the Baltic Sea region. Besides coping with remaining uncertainties by improving the knowledge on problems and solutions– not least in terms of the socio-economic impacts of eutrophication – it may therefore be valuable to develop venues for improved stakeholder participation.
: Springer, 2016.
This edited volume presents a comprehensive and coherent interdisciplinary analysis ofchallenges and possibilities for sustainable governance of the Baltic Sea ecosystem bycombining knowledge and approaches from natural and social sciences. Focusing onthe Ecosystem Approach to Management (EAM) and associated multi-level, multi-sectorand multi-actor challenges, the book provides up-to-date descriptions and analyses ofenvironmental governance structures and processes at the macro-regional Baltic Sealevel. Organised in two parts, Part 1 presents in-depth case studies of environmentalgovernance practices and challenges linked to five key environmental problems -eutrophication, chemical pollution, overfishing, oil discharges and invasive species.Part 2 analyses and compares governance challenges and opportunities across the fivecase studies, focusing on governance structures and EAM implementation, knowledgeintegration and science support, as well as stakeholder communication and participation.Based on these cross-case comparisons, this book also draws a set of general conclusionson possible ways of improving the governance of the Baltic Sea by promoting what areidentified as vital functions of environmental governance: coordination, integration,interdisciplinarity, precaution, deliberation, communication and adaptability.
Oil Spills from Shipping - a case study of the governance of accidental hazards and intentional pollution in the Baltic SeaMer info
Movement Ecology 2016, 4 : -.
BACKGROUND: We still have limited knowledge about the underlying genetic mechanisms that enable migrating species of birds to navigate the globe. Here we make an attempt to get insight into the genetic architecture controlling this complex innate behaviour. We contrast the gene expression profiles of two closely related songbird subspecies with divergent migratory phenotypes. In addition to comparing differences in migratory strategy we include a temporal component and contrast patterns between breeding adults and autumn migrating juvenile birds of both subspecies. The two willow warbler subspecies, Phylloscopus trochilus trochilus and P. t. acredula, are remarkably similar both in phenotype and genotype and have a narrow contact zone in central Scandinavia. Here we used a microarray gene chip representing 23,136 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata to identify mRNA level differences in willow warbler brain tissue in relation to subspecies and season.RESULTS: Out of the 22,109 EST probe sets that remained after filtering poorly binding probes, we found 11,898 (51.8 %) probe sets that could be reliably and uniquely matched to a total of 6,758 orthologous zebra finch genes. The two subspecies showed very similar levels of gene expression with less than 0.1 % of the probe sets being significantly differentially expressed. In contrast, 3,045 (13.8 %) probe sets were found to be differently regulated between samples collected from breeding adults and autumn migrating juvenile birds. The genes found to be differentially expressed between seasons appeared to be enriched for functional roles in neuronal firing and neuronal synapse formation.CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that only few genes are differentially expressed between the subspecies. This suggests that the different migration strategies of the subspecies might be governed by few genes, or that the expression patterns of those genes are time-structured or tissue-specific in ways, which our approach fails to uncover. Our findings will be useful in the planning of new experiments designed to unravel the genes involved in the migratory program of birds.
Socio-demographic changes in and around protected areas and management responses - Case studies from the CarpathiansMer info
Reconstructing ecosystem functions of the active microbial community of the Baltic Sea oxygen depleted sediments Mer info
PeerJ 2016, 4 : -.
Baltic Sea deep water and sediments hold one of the largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic areas in the world. High nutrient input and low water exchange result in eutrophication and oxygen depletion below the halocline. As a consequence at Landsort Deep, the deepest point of the Baltic Sea, anoxia in the sediments has been a persistent condition over the past decades. Given that microbial communities are drivers of essential ecosystem functions we investigated the microbial community metabolisms and functions of oxygen depleted Landsort Deep sediments by metatranscriptomics. Results show substantial expression of genes involved in protein metabolism demonstrating that the Landsort Deep sediment microbial community is active. Identified expressed gene suites of metabolic pathways with importance for carbon transformation including fermentation, dissimilatory sulphate reduction and methanogenesis were identified. The presence of transcripts for these metabolic processes suggests a potential for heterotrophic-autotrophic community synergism and indicates active mineralisation of the organic matter deposited at the sediment as a consequence of the eutrophication process. Furthermore, cyanobacteria, probably deposited from the water column, are transcriptionally active in the anoxic sediment at this depth. Results also reveal high abundance of transcripts encoding integron integrases. These results provide insight into the activity of the microbial community of the anoxic sediment at the deepest point of the Baltic Sea and its possible role in ecosystem functioning.
Waterborne citalopram has anxiolytic effects and increases locomotor activity in the three-spine stickleback (Ga... Mer info
Aquatic Toxicology 2016, 173 : 19-28.
Citalopram is an antidepressant drug, which acts by inhibiting the re-uptake of serotonin from the synaptic cleft into the pre-synaptic nerve ending. It is one of the most common drugs used in treatment of depression, it is highly lipophilic and frequently found in sewage treatment plant effluents and surface waters around the world. Citalopram and other selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors have, at concentrations that occur in nature, been shown to have behavioural as well as physiological effects on fish and other animals. This study is the result of several different experiments, intended to analyse different aspects of behavioural effects of chronic citalopram exposure in fish. Our model species the three-spine stickleback is common in the entire northern hemisphere and is considered to be a good environmental sentinel species. Female three-spine sticklebacks were exposed to 0, 1.5 and 15μg/l nominal concentrations of citalopram for 21 days and subjected to the novel tank (NT) diving test. In the NT test, the fish exposed to 1.5μg/l, but not the 15μg/l fish made a significantly higher number of transitions to the upper half and stayed there for significantly longer time than the fish exposed to 0μg/l. The 15μg/l group, however, displayed a significantly lower number of freeze bouts and a shorter total freezing time. The test for locomotor activity included in the NT test showed that fish treated with 1.5 and 15μg/l displayed a significantly higher swimming activity than control fish both 5-7 and 15-17min after the start of the experiment. In the next experiment we compared fish exposed to 1.5μg/l and 0.15μg/l to pure water controls with regard to shoaling intensity and found no effect of treatment. In the final experiment the propensity of fish treated with 1.5μg/l to approach an unknown object and aggressive behaviour was investigated using the Novel Object test and a mirror test, respectively. The exposed fish ventured close to the unknown object significantly more often and stayed there for significantly longer time than unexposed fish. The aggression test yielded no statistically significant effects. It is concluded that citalopram changes the behaviour of the three-spine stickleback in a way that is likely to have ecological consequences and that it must not be considered an environmentally safe pharmaceutical.
I kölvattnet av den finanskris som kulminerade 2008 och växande uppmärksamhet för olika miljö- och hållbarhetsutmaningar, som exempelvis klimatförändringar, har uppmaningar till integrering av ’hållbar utveckling’ i ekonomiutbildningar ökat internationellt. Miljö och hållbarhetsfrågor har sedan tidigare varit framskrivna i gymnasieskolans styrdokument men i samband med den senaste gymnasiereformen 2011 skrevs begreppet hållbar utveckling tydligare in i Företagsekonomiämnets ämnesplan. Denna avhandling undersöker integrering av hållbarhetsfrågor inom ramen för undervisning i företagsekonomi och närliggande ekonomiämnen på gymnasienivå. Utifrån ett poststrukturalistiskt perspektiv är det övergripande syftet att identifiera vilka företagarroller som artikuleras i läromedeloch undervisning, och även att diskutera i vilken utsträckning dessa roller förbereder de studerande, som framtida företagare, att hantera hållbarhetsfrågor. Avhandlingen består av fyra delstudier som baseras på analyser av läroböcker, lärarintervjuer och klassrumsobservationer. Tre kategorier av företagarroller, som rymmer olika förväntningar på en ansvarstagande företagare har identifierats. Dessa olika roller innebär att en företagare förväntas antingen: anpassa sig till etiska värden som uttrycks i lagar och regler, addera etiska värden som efterfrågas av andra, eller skapa etiska värden. Rollerna skiljer sig åt huruvida en företagare: skall hålla egna känslor för hållbarhetsfrågor åt sidan (anpassande rollen), har utrymme för egna känslor (adderande rollen) eller måste involvera egna känslor (skapande rollen), vid fattande av affärsbeslut. Dessa roller jämförs med de företagarroller som impliceras i Dryzeks miljödiskurser och Pellizzonis ansvarsregimer. Utifrån Dryzeks och Pellizzonis argument om vilka kvaliteter som är viktiga för att hantera hållbarhetsfrågor dras slutsatsen att de studerande kan bli: icke rustade (den anpassande rollen), illa rustade (den adderande rollen) eller bättre rustade (den skapande rollen), att hantera osäkra och komplexa hållbarhetsfrågor, beroende på hur hållbarhetsfrågor integreras i företagsekonomiundervisningen. De fyra artiklarna innehåller detaljerade exempel på hur och i vilka situationer specifika företagarroller artikuleras eller privilegieras. Exemplen visar också i vilka situationer utbildningen tilltalar de studerande och potentiellt blivande företagarna som moraliska subjekt och ger utrymme för de studerandes subjektivitet (som inbegriper förnuft och egna känslor).Dessa exempel kan användas av (bl a) lärare som utgångspunkt för kritisk reflektion i syfte att förstärka de studerandes förmågor att som framtida företagare hantera osäkra och komplexa hållbarhetsfrågor, samt för att utveckla utbildningens kvalitet avseende dess subjektifierande funktion.
Population-level consequences for wild fish exposed to sublethal concentrations of chemicals - a critical reviewMer info
Fish and Fisheries 2016, 17 (3): 545-566.
Concentrated chemical spills have been shown to impact adversely on fish populations and even cause localized population extinctions. Evaluating population-level impacts of sublethal exposure concentrations is, however, complex and confounded by other environmental pressures. Applying effect measures derived from laboratory-based chemical exposures to impacts in wild fish populations is constrained by uncertainty on how biochemical response measures (biomarkers) translate into health outcomes, lack of available data for chronic exposures and the many uncertainties in available fish population models. Furthermore, wild fish show phenotypic plasticity and local adaptations can occur that adds geographic and temporal variance on responses. Such population-level factors are rarely considered in the chemical risk assessment process and can probably be derived only from studies on wild fish. Molecular technologies, including microsatellite and SNP genotyping, and RNASeq for gene expression studies, are advancing our understanding of mechanisms of eco-toxicological response, tolerance, adaptation and selection in wild populations. We examine critically the application of such approaches with examples including using microsatellites that has identified roach (Rutilus rutilus) populations living in rivers contaminated with sewage effluents that are self-sustaining, and studies of stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) that have identified genomic regions under selection putatively related to pollution tolerance. Integrating data on biological effects between laboratory-based studies and wild populations, and building understanding on adaptive responses to sublethal exposure are some of the priority research areas for more effective evaluation of population risks and resilience to contaminant exposure.
Factors affecting farmers' willingness to participate in eutrophication mitigation - a case study of preferences for wetland creation in SwedenMer info
Ecological Economics 2016, 130 : 8-15.
Local stakeholder participation in water management is emphasized in the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). Wetland creation to mitigate nutrient leakage from agriculture is one example where participation of local farmers is needed. In this case study of the Himmerfjärden coastal catchment area, south of Stockholm, Sweden, we assessed both the importance of several demo-graphic factors, and of the main subsidy factors in the present Agri-Environmental Scheme (AES) for their effects on farmers’ willingness to create wetlands on their farms. The farm and farmer characteristics analyzed were age, gender, knowledge of the WFD, education, farm size, land ownership, current measures to reduce nutrient leakage and trust for other actors. The main factors from the AES were defined as five attributes in a discrete choice experiment approach related to the current agri-environmental policy instrument for wetland creation applied in the area. The results showed that approximately 30 % of the farmers were interested in wetland creation at their farms. The most common reason for not wanting to create a wetland was economic cost. Males were significantly more willing than females to create wetlands. Younger farmers were significantly more willing than older. Prior knowledge of the WFD increased willingness almost threefold, and land owners were significantly more willing than leaseholders. The choice experiment showed that higher cost ceiling for subsidies, higher compensation percentage and higher annual subsidies can significantly increase the willingness to create wetlands. However to attract also the remaining 70% of all farmers to join the AES we must look at other options than only using action based AES.
Environmental Education Research 2016, 22 (4): 463-479.
This paper explores various kinds of logics of ‘business education for sustainability’and how these ‘logics’ position the subject business person, based on eight teachers’ reasoning of their own practices. The concept of logics developed within a discourse theoretical framework is employed to analyse the teachers’ reasoning. The analysis takes its starting point in different approaches to how a business ought to or could take responsibility for sustainable development. Different approaches to business ethical responsibilities, in combination with assumptions about how educational content is legitimised and presupposed purposes of education, are used to construct logics of business education for sustainability. In the paper, the results of this analysis are presented as: the logic of profit-, social- or radical-oriented business education. Our results also show how the different logics position the subject business person differently, as one who adapts to, adds or creates ethical values. The results are first discussed in terms of how environmental and social challenges could be dealt with in the future and secondly, considering the risk of de-subjectification with regard to profit-oriented business education, the implications this may have for the educational quality itself.
Environmental governance in an increasingly complex world - An Interdisciplinary Exchange on Adaptation, Collaborative Learning and Knowledge IntegrationMer info
: , 2015. ( ; )
The purpose of this event was to bring together scholars and practitioners in order to create opportunities for an exchange of ideas, methodologies and experience. Participants with expertise in different areas i.e., adaptation research, resource management, policy studies, and adult learning, were invited to share latest research outcomes and engage in a collaborative reflection around the challenges of environmental governance in an increasingly complex world. Adaptation, collaborative learning and knowledge integration were the topics on which the event has focused.
HavsUtsikt 2015, 1 : 8-9.
Gapet är stort mellan miljömål och miljötillstånd i Östersjön. De omfattande insatser som görs av offentliga institutioner, näringsliv och allmänhet räcker inte. Samtidigt finns ett stort och växande engagemang från många politiker, företagare och enskilda för att stärka havsmiljöarbetet. När vi nu summerar ett större treårigt forskningsprojekt finner vi viktiga ledtrådar till vägar som kan leda till en förbättrad situation.
Scientific Drilling 2015, 20 : 1-12.
The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different settings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial–interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region with changing ice cover and major shifts in temperature, salinity, and biological communities. Using the Greatship Manisha as a European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) mission-specific platform, we recovered 1.6 km of core from nine sites of which four were additionally cored for microbiology. The sites covered the gateway to the North Sea and Atlantic Ocean, several sub-basins in the southern Baltic Sea, a deep basin in the central Baltic Sea, and a river estuary in the north. The waxing and waning of the Scandinavian ice sheet has profoundly affected the Baltic Sea sediments. During theWeichselian, progressing glaciers reshaped the submarine landscape and displaced sedimentary deposits from earlier Quaternary time. As the glaciers retreated they left a complex pattern of till, sand, and lacustrine clay, which in the basins has since been covered by a thick deposit of Holocene, organic-rich clay. Due to the stratified water column of the brackish Baltic Sea and the recurrent and widespread anoxia, the deeper basins harbor laminated sediments that provide a unique opportunity for high-resolution chronological studies. The Baltic Sea is a eutrophic intra-continental sea that is strongly impacted by terrestrial runoff and nutrient fluxes. The Holocene deposits are recorded today to be up to 50m deep and geochemically affected by diagenetic alterations driven by organic matter degradation. Many of the cored sequences were highly supersaturated with respect to methane, which caused strong degassing upon core recovery. The depth distributions of conservative sea water ions still reflected the transition at the end of the last glaciation from fresh-water clays to Holocene brackish mud. High-resolution sampling and analyses of interstitial water chemistry revealed the intensive mineralization and zonation of the predominant biogeochemical processes. Quantification of microbial cells in the sediments yielded some of the highest cell densities yet recorded by scientific drilling.
A Discussion of the Debates Underpinning Agri-Environmental Schemes as a form of Payment for Ecological Services Mer info
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2015. (Working Paper ; 2015:5)
Payments for Ecological Services (PES) has rapidly emerged around the world as a key environmental governance approach. This paper is concerned with Agricultural Environmental Schemes (AES) as a particular form of PES to improve the environmental performance of agriculture particularly in relation to water quality in Sweden. Win-win descriptions prevail in AES policy discourse to describe the simultaneous achievement of environmental goals and economic outcomes for farmers. AES are underpinned by an instrumental assumption that farmer behaviour can be influenced towards adopting better environmental practice by providing monetary incentives (or at least compensation). This paper has touched on a number of contentions in the PES literature, including: doubts about how well standardised PES schemes link with local conditions; how and whether PES schemes can engender local innovation; procedural and distributive equity concerns; claims that monetary incentives may ‘crowd out’ socially derived sources of motivation (local norms); and doubts about whether PES schemes, disembedded from local institutions, can deliver ‘sufficient’ environmental behavioural change. Given the relatively recent emergence of AES schemes, it is important that we learn more from the experience of implementation. Critically oriented empirically-based research then has the capacity to work as a circuit breaker between ideologically driven arguments that side either for or against the use of market mechanisms, such as AES for environmental governance. Such insights may be useful to help focus research on farmer engagement with AES that subjects it to greater empirical scrutiny and validation.
In: . : .
We know from research that news media create their preferred meanings of environmental issues, from the angle of problems and dangers (e.g. Roll-Hansen 2014, Foust, C. R. & O'Shannon Murphy, W., 2009). While some environmental events are associated with drama such as earthquakes, most of environmental phenomena are rather invisible such as the thinning of Earth’s protective ozone layer (Hansen 2010, 95). Also the time scale of most environmental issues does not fit to 24-hours news making such as climate change. It needs a great deal of journalistic work to make such phenomena visible. Hence, to fit in to conventional news format, mainstream media “over-report the risks generating by acute crises” (Allan de. 2000, in Cox 2013, 167).This paper discusses the consequences of news media’s coverage of environmental issues as threats and dangers. Fear has emerged as a framework for engaging in ecological issues. Danger and fear are perceived as a central feature of our environment. We take it for granted that our physical environment is in danger, something we are afraid of. Fear cannot be forbidden or scholarly falsified, and is therefore not contested in social communication (Luhmann 1989). Fear is just there.The constant concern about risks and dangers leads to the impression that nothing is harmless and all is contaminated. It promotes a sense of disorder and a belief that things are out of control (Luhmann, 1989, 189). It reproduces itself and becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy (Altheide, 2002, 189. The problem lies less in the psychical reality of fear and anxiety but in the communicative actuality in society. “If anxiety is communicated but not contested in the communication, it acquires a moral existence” (Luhmann, 1989, 130). Those who uses this frame is morally in the right. “It becomes a duty to worry, and a right to expect participation in fears and to require standards for defense against danger. Those who worries… become warner with all risks that it implies” (Luhmann, 1989, 130). It implies, for instance, for scientific arguments that they are in a difficult position when arguing against anxiety-related issues. It implies also that the fear frame does not allow for the arguing of any progress that possibly has been made concerning environmental issues. In this way, environmental communication is infused with morality, based on fear and/or anxiety frame and, hence, it makes it difficult for controversies. However, only the future can show whether the fear has been justified.
Power and resistance in Cameroon - strategies, intentionality, intersectionality, and shifting spaces and identitiesMer info
Journal of Political Power 2015, 8 (3): 321-343.
This paper examines how forest communities in Cameroon engage in social transformation when faced with social injustices and uneven power relations in their interactions with local state authorities and transnational corporations. It focuses on the different strategies that marginalized resource-dependent communities employ in resisting existing forms of domination manifested in public–private-community forest governance relations. We show how power operates in closed governance spaces to work against equitable, democratic and effective policy-making. We take as a point of departure that resistance or social change cannot be understood in isolation from power. Moreover, we engage with the intentionality debate and make the case that some forms of resistance are goal oriented in character. We reveal how disenfranchised communities, using powerful traditional ritual as a form of public protest, can effectively open up closed spaces and obtain effective participation in processes denied them. Our findings have significance for resistance and power debates relating to intentionality, intersectionality and outcomes.
Holocene environmental changes in southern Kamchatka, Far Eastern Russia, inferred from a pollen and testate amo... Mer info
Global and Planetary Change 2015, 134 (SI): 142-154.
High resolution palaeoenvironmental records in Far-Eastern Russia are rare, and the Kamchatka Peninsula is among the least studied areas of the region. This paper describes a record spanning the last ca. 11,000 yr, obtained from a bog in the southern part of Kamchatka. The radiocarbon dated core was analysed for pollen, testate amoebae, charcoal and loss-on-ignition (LOI).The vegetation during the early Holocene was dominated by grasses (Poaceae), birch (Betula) and heath (Ericaceae p. p.). Around 10,300 cal yr BP there was a substantial change in the vegetation cover to shrub alder (Alnus viridis s.l.) stands with sedges and ferns (Polypodiophyta) as well as herbs such as meadow rue (Thalictrum) in the understory. In the surroundings of Utka peatlands started to form. The variations in the vegetation cover were most probably caused by climatic changes. At the beginning of sediment accumulation, before 10,300 cal yr BP, the composition of the vegetation points to cooler summers and/or decreased annual precipitation. Around 10,300 cal yr BP, changes in vegetation occurred due to rising temperatures and/or changed water regimes. Increased abundancies of dry indicating testate amoebae after 9100 cal yr BP point to intermediate to dry soil conditions. Between 8600 and 7700 cal yr BP tree alder (Alnus incana) was widely spread at the site which probably indicates optimal environmental conditions. The tephra layer at 381–384.5 cm (ca. 8500 cal yr BP) produces a strong impact on the testate amoebae assemblages. At 7700 cal yr BP there was a sudden drop of A.incana in the local vegetation. From this time on, A.incana and also A.viridis decrease continuously whereas Betula gradually increases. The upper part of the sequence (after 6300 cal yr BP) shows higher abundancies of meadowsweet (Filipendula) and sweet gale (Myrica) pollen. After 6300 cal yr BP, changes in testate amoebae demonstrate variable soil moisture conditions at the site. Between 3700 and 1800 cal yr BP, wet conditions dominate as dry indicating testate amoebae decrease. After 1800 cal yr BP soil conditions become more variable again but this time with dry dominating testate amoebae.In contrast to surrounding regions, there is no evidence of trees such as spruce or larch growing in the surroundings of the site even though those trees are characteristic of many eastern Siberian sites. This difference might be because of the maritime influence of the Okhotsk Sea. Even dwarf pine (Pinus pumila), which is currently widely dispersed in northern Kamchatka, became part of the local vegetation only during the last 700 yr.
Social sustainability requires social sustainability procedural prerequisites for reaching substantive goals Mer info
Nature and Culture 2015, 10 (2): 131-156.
The synergies and trade-offs between the various dimensions of sustainable development are attracting a rising scholarly attention. Departing from the scholarly debate, this article focuses on internal relationships within social sustainability. Our key claim is that it is diffi cult to strengthen substantive social sustainability goals unless there are key elements of social sustainability contained in the very procedures intended to work toward sustainability. Our analysis, informed by an organizing perspective, is based on a set of case studies on multi-stakeholder transnational sustainability projects (sustainability standards). This article explores six challenges related to the achievement of such procedures that can facilitate substantive social sustainability. Three of these concern the formulation of standards and policies, and three the implementation of standards and policies. To achieve substantive social sustainability procedures must be set in motion with abilities to take hold of people's concerns, frames, resources, as well as existing relevant institutions and infrastructures. © Berghahn Journals.
The Holocene environmental history of a small coastal lake on the north-eastern Kamchatka Peninsula Mer info
Global and Planetary Change 2015, 134 : 55-66.
A radiocarbon and tephra-dated sediment core from Lifebuoy Lake, located on the north-east coast of Kamchatka Peninsula, was analysed for pollen, spores, diatoms, chironomids and tephra in order to uncover regional environmental history.
The relative influences of climate and volcanic activity on Holocene lake development inferred from a mountain l... Mer info
Global and Planetary Change 2015, 134 (SI): 67-81.
A sediment sequence was taken from a closed, high altitude lake (informal name Olive-backed Lake) in the central mountain range of Kamchatka, in the Russian Far East. The sequence was dated by radiocarbon and tephrochronology and used for multi-proxy analyses (chironomids, pollen, diatoms). Although the evolution of Beringian climate through the Holocene is primarily driven by global forcing mechanisms, regional controls, such as volcanic activity or vegetation dynamics, lead to a spatial heterogeneous response. This study aims to reconstruct past changes in the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and to separate the climate-driven response from a response to regional or localised environmental change. Radiocarbon dates from plant macrophytes gave a basal date of 7800 cal yr BP. Coring terminated in a tephra layer, so sedimentation at the lake started prior to this date, possibly in the early Holocene following local glacier retreat. Initially the catchment vegetation was dominated by Betula and Alnus woodland with a mosaic of open, wet, aquatic and semi-aquatic habitats. Between 7800 and 6000 cal yr BP the diatom-inferred lake water was pH 4.4 -5.3 and chironomid and diatom assemblages in the lake were initially dominated by a small number of acidophilic/acid tolerant taxa. The frequency of Pinus pumila (Siberian dwarf pine) pollen increased from 5000 cal yr BP and threshold analysis indicates that P. pumila arrived in the catchment between 4200 and 3000 cal yr BP. Its range expansion was probably mediated by strengthening of the Aleutian Low pressure system and increased winter snowfall. The diatom-inferred pH reconstructions show that after an initial period of low pH, pH gradually increased from 5500 cal yr BP to pH 5.8 at 1500 cal yr BP. This trend of increasing pH through the Holocene is unusual in lake records, but the initially low pH may have resulted directly or indirectly from intense regional volcanic activity during the mid-Holocene. The chironomid-inferred July temperature reconstruction suggests cool periods between 3200 – 2800 cal yr BP and 1100 – 700 cal yr BP and a warmer period between 2800 and 1100 cal yr BP. Chironomid and diatom DCA scores decline from ca. 6000 cal yr BP, indicating compositional changes in these aquatic assemblages. In comparison declines in pollen PCA scores are delayed, starting ca. 5100 cal yr BP. The results suggest that while catchment vegetation was responding primarily to climate change, the biota within the lake and lake water chemistry were responding to localised environmental conditions.
Holocene climate and environmental change in north-eastern Kamchatka (Russian Far East), inferred from a multi-p... Mer info
Global and Planetary Change 2015, 134 : 41-54.
A sediment record from a small lake in the north-eastern part of the Kamchatka Peninsula has been investigated in a multi-proxy study to gain knowledge of Holocene climatic and environmental change. Pollen, diatoms, chironomids and selected geochemical parameters were analysed and the sediment record was dated with radiocarbon. The study shows Holocene changes in the terrestrial vegetation as well as responses of the lake ecosystem to catchment maturity and multiple stressors, such as climate change and volcanic eruptions. Climate change is the major driving force resulting in the recorded environmental changes in the lake, although recurrent tephra deposition events also contributed. The sediment record has an age at the base of about 10,000 cal yrs BP, and during the first 400 years the climate was cold and the lake exhibited extensive ice-cover during winter and relatively low primary production. Soils in the catchment were poor with shrub alder and birches dominatingthe vegetation surrounding the lake. At about 9600–8900 cal yrs BP the climate was cold and moist, and strong seasonal wind stress resulted in reduced ice-cover and increased primary production. After ca. 8900 cal yrs BP the forest density increased around the lake, runoff decreased in a generally drier climate resulting in decreasedprimary production in the lake until ca. 7000 cal yrs BP. This generally dry climate was interrupted by a brief climatic perturbation, possibly attributed to the 8.2 ka event, indicating increasingly windy conditions with thick snow cover, reduced ice-cover and slightly elevated primary production in the lake. The diatom record shows maximum thermal stratification at ca. 6300–5800 cal yrs BP and indicates together with the geochemical proxies a dry and slightly warmer climate resulting in a high productive lake. The most remarkably change in the catchment vegetation occurred at ca. 4200 cal yrs BP in the form of a conspicuous increase in Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila), indicating a shift to a cooler climate with a thicker and more long-lasting snow cover. Thisvegetational change was accompanied by marked shifts in the diatom and chironomid stratigraphies, which are also indicative of colder climate and more extensive ice-cover.
Developmental exposure of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to 17α-Ethinylestradiol affects non-reproductive behavior and ... Mer info
Hormones and Behavior 2015, 73 : 30-38.
Exposure to estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EDCs) during of development affects fertility, reproductive and non-reproductive behavior in mammals and fish. These effects can also be transferred to coming generations. In fish, the effects of developmental EDC exposure on non-reproductive behavior is less well studied. Here, we analyze the effects of 17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2) on anxiety, shoaling behavior and fertility in zebrafish after developmental treatment and remediation in clean water until adulthood. Zebrafish embryos were exposed from day 1 to day 80 post fertilization to actual concentrations of 1.2 and 1.6ng/L EE2. After remediation for 82days non-reproductive behavior and fertilization success were analyzed in both sexes. Males and females from the 1.2ng/L group, as well as control males and females, were bred, and behavior of the untreated F1 offspring was tested as adults. Developmental treatment with 1.2 and 1.6ng/L EE2 significantly increased anxiety in the Novel Tank test and increased shoaling intensity in both sexes. Fertilization success was significantly reduced by EE2 in both sexes when mated with untreated fish of opposite sex. Progeny of fish treated with 1.2ng/L EE2 showed increased anxiety in the Novel tank test and increased light avoidance in the Scototaxis test compared to control offspring. In conclusion, developmental exposure of zebrafish to low doses of EE2 resulted in persistent changes in behavior and fertility. The behavior of unexposed progeny were affected by their parents' exposure, which might suggest transgenerational effects.
Late Holocene expansion of Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila) in Kamchatka in response to increased snow cover a... Mer info
Global and Planetary Change 2015, 134 (SI): 91-100.
Holocene records of cellulose-inferred lake-water δ18O were produced from two lake-sediment sequences obtained in central and northern Kamchatka, Russian Far East. The sediment records share similar fluctuations in δ18O during the interval of ca. 5000-800calyr BP that correspond (inversely) with changes in K+ content of the GISP2 ice-core record from Greenland, a proxy for the relative strength of the Siberian High, suggesting control by climate-related variability in δ18O of regional precipitation. The dramatic expansion of Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila) in northern and central Kamchatka between ca. 5000 and 4000calyr BP, as inferred from pollen records from the same and neighbouring sites, appears to have occurred at a time of progressively declining δ18O of precipitation. This development is interpreted as reflecting a regional cooling trend accompanied by increasing winter snowfall related to gradual intensification of the Siberian High from ca. 5000 to ca. 3000calyr BP. A thicker and more long-lasting snow cover can be assumed to have favoured P. pumila by providing a competitive advantage over other boreal and subalpine tree and shrub species in the region during the later part of the Holocene. These results, which are the first of their kind from Kamchatka, provide novel insight into the Holocene vegetational and climatic development in easternmost Asia, as well as long-term atmospheric circulation dynamics in Beringia.
How to achieve sustainable procurement for “peripheral” products with significant environmental impacts Mer info
Sustainability 2015, 11 (1): 21-31.
Departing from previous theoretical and empirical studies on sustainable supply-chain management, we investigate organizational commitment (drivers and motivations) and capabilities (resources, structures, and policy instruments) in sustainable procurement of “noncore” products. By focusing on chemicals in textiles, the article explores the activi-ties of differently sized organizations and discusses the potentials and limitations of sustainable procurement measures. The study is based on a qualitative and comparative approach, with empirical findings from 26 case stud-ies of Swedish public and private procurement organizations. These organizations operate in the sectors of hotels/ conference venues, transport, cinema, interior design, and hospitals/daycare. While this work demonstrates major challenges for buyers to take into account peripheral items in sustainable procurement, it also identifies constructive measures for moving forward. A general sustainability/environmental focus can, as an effect, spill over to areas per-ceived as peripheral. © 2014 Boström et al.
Water governance worldwide is going through a shift towards more holistic and participatory approaches. In Europe, the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) adopted in 2000, aims at protecting surface water and groundwater. The WFD emphasizes the importance of stakeholder participation in planning and implementation of the directive, and in order to reach environmental objectives. However, the empirical findings are insufficient regarding how stakeholder participation can lead to improved decisions and implemented plans. In Sweden, a major water quality problem is eutrophication caused to a large extend by diffuse nutrient leakage from agriculture. Therefore, it is important to involve farmers in water management, since their participation can lead the commitment of mitigation measures for reduced nutrient leakage. The overall aim of this study is to contribute the knowledge and understanding of active stakeholder participation in water management, in particular how it can lead to implementation of water quality objectives. The thesis addresses stakeholder participation in eutrophication management in local Swedish catchments, with a particular focus on farmers’ participation in the commitment of mitigation measures. The results are based on case study research, involving four catchment areas in Sweden with severe eutrophication problems. The thesis identified socio-demographic factors, farmers’ knowledge, and the level of existing information and economic support for wetland creation, as factors affecting farmers’ willingness to participate in wetland creation to mitigate nutrient leakage. In the local catchment groups studied, farmers and other local stakeholders participated to discuss potential mitigation activities. In these, farmers emphasized other emitting actors’ responsibility and commitment in local action plans. Where this was realized, social capital within the group increased and led to further collaboration. The thesis also analyzed large-scale wetland programmes at catchment scale, where the organizational and institutional arrangements were central to realize farmers’ participation: inter-municipal agreements entailed sufficient resources, the organization involved the most relevant actors; and leadership resources were important. The thesis argues that organizing water management at a catchment level can be important to cope with challenges related to stake-holder participation for mitigating diffuse nutrient leakage. In particular for dissemination and collection of information, suggesting potential measures for all concerned actors, provide resources needed to realize actions, and to build trust and collaboration. The thesis also emphasized that stakeholder participation has to be underpinned by a genuine meaning, both for the initiators and the participants.
Narrating Kulikovo - Lev Gumilev, Russian Nationalists, and the Troubled Emergence of Neo-EurasianismMer info
FEMS Microbiology Letters 2015, 362 (5): -.
The current study assessed the occurrence of the Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 in environmental samples along salinity gradients in three selected estuaries of Tanzania both through culture independent methods and by cultured bacteria. Occurrence of V. cholerae was determined by PCR targeting the V. cholerae outer membrane protein gene ompW. Furthermore, the presence of toxigenic strains and serogroups O1 and O139 was determined using multiplex PCR with specific primers targeting the cholera toxin gene subunit A, ctxA, and serotype specific primers, O1-rfb and O139-rfb, respectively. Results showed that V. cholerae occurred in approximately 10% (n = 185) of both the environmental samples and isolated bacteria. Eight of the bacteria isolates (n = 43) were confirmed as serogroup O1 while one belonged to serogroup O139, the first reported identification of this epidemic strain in East African coastal waters. All samples identified as serogroup O1 or O139 and a number of non-O1/O139 strains were ctxA positive. This study provides in situ evidence of the presence of pathogenic V. cholerae O1 and O139 and a number of V. cholerae non-O1/O139 that carry the cholera toxin gene in estuaries along the coast of Tanzania.
Science and Policy in the Governance of Europe’s Marine Environment - The Impact of Europeanization, Regionalization and the Ecosystem Approach to ManagementMer info
In: Governing Europe’s Marine Environment. Farnham : Ashgate, 2015. 141-160.
In: Governing Europe's Marine Environment. Farnham : Ashgate, 2015. 249-264.
In: Governing Europe's Marine Environment. Farnham : Ashgate, 2015. 163-181.
Environmentally relevant concentrations of citalopram partially inhibit feeding in the three-spine stickleback (... Mer info
Aquatic Toxicology 2015, 158 : 165-170.
Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRI) are mood-altering, psychotropic drugs commonly used in the treatment of depression and other psychological illnesses. Many of them are poorly degraded in sewage treatment plants and enter the environment unaltered. In laboratory studies, they have been demonstrated to affect a wide range of behaviours in aquatic organisms. In this study we investigated the effect of a three-week exposure to 0.15 and 1.5 μg/l of the SSRI citalopram dissolved in the ambient water on the feeding behaviour in three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Feeding, measured as the number of attacks performed on a piece of frozen bloodworms during a 10-min period, was reduced by 30–40% in fish exposed to both 0.15 and 1.5 μg/l citalopram. The effects of the environmentally relevant concentration 0.15 μg/l on feeding, an important fitness characteristic, suggests that the ecological significance of environmental SSRI exposure may be pronounced.
Journal of Environment and Development 2015, 24 (1): 82-104.
Linking conservation and development activities requires local institutional change that can deliver global conservation as well as local socioeconomic benefits. Participatory approaches are considered a key element to this end, although recent research demonstrates that they may reinforce existing inequitable governance systems. This article examines microinstitutional formations and development interventions in the Mount Cameroon National Park. The study found that blending new governance approaches with traditional institutions at Mount Cameroon National Park led to diminished participation of the project and a failure to listen to and deliver meaningful development opportunities to Bavenga villagers. The article concludes that while local participation and governance institutions constitute laudable additions to Integrated Conservation and Development Projects, the implications of reproducing traditional authority structures must be carefully considered, and locally grounded development opportunities need to be better embedded into these projects.
Environment, Development and Sustainability 2015, 17 (4): 823-835.
The implications of the planetary boundaries (PBs) proposal involves scien- tiﬁc, moral and political dimensions. The core of the PBs idea is that humankind is transgressing global environmental tipping points resulting in changed conditions that threaten to unravel human progress. The growing status of the proposal potentially makes it a highly inﬂuential organising concept that seems to contain within it aspirations to dra- matically reconstitute the relationship between society and the environment—thereby transforming the politics of sustainable development. This paper situates PBs in contem- porary green thinking. Key planning events and related documents supporting the Post- 2015 Development Agenda process are then examined to identify strategies and reactions to the PB proposal. The ﬁndings show that divisions reminiscent of older North/South environment and development tensions related to the role of experts, democracy and the Right to Development threaten to prevent PBs from being mainstreamed in key UN environment and development programmes and fora.
Tolerance to apical and leaf damage of Raphanus raphanistrum in different competitive regimes Mer info
Ecology and Evolution 2015, 5 (22): 5193-5202.
Tolerance to herbivory is an adaptation that promotes regrowth and maintains fitness in plants after herbivore damage. Here, we hypothesized that the effect of competition on tolerance can be different for different genotypes within a species and we tested how tolerance is affected by competitive regime and damage type. We inflicted apical or leaf damage in siblings of 29 families of an annual plant Raphanus raphanistrum (Brassicaceae) grown at high or low competition. There was a negative correlation of family tolerance levels between competition treatments: plant families with high tolerance to apical damage in the low competition treatment had low tolerance to apical damage in the high competition treatment and vice versa. We found no costs of tolerance, in terms of a trade-off between tolerance to apical and leaf damage or between tolerance and competitive ability, or an allocation cost in terms of reduced fitness of highly tolerant families in the undamaged state. High tolerance bound to a specific competitive regime may entail a cost in terms of low tolerance if competitive regime changes. This could act as a factor maintaining genetic variation for tolerance.
Constructing the new rurality - challenges and opportunities (of a recent shift?) for Swedish rural policies Mer info
International Agricultural Policy 2014, 2 : 7-19.
This article highlights the outcomes of the implementation of the New Culinary Country program implemented in to facilitate and speed up the emergence of the new rurality in Sweden. Based on results from focus groups and one group interview conducted in eight landscapes/counties during 2013 and a state initiated evaluation of the NCCP, the study answers the following questions: What does the NCCP mean in terms of governance? How is power distributed and if possible, which are the consequences of this new governance regime? Which are the main challenges and opportunities of and for the NCCP? The results show that the NCCP has led to a higher degree of regional coordination of actions and resources at regional level. Cooperation and coordination in turn have proved to be the main factors behind the most successful experiences.
The implementation deficit in the European Union: insights from Natura 2000 policy in the Carpathian countries Mer info
Urbana fiskdammar i 1600 och 1700-talets Sverige - strödda notiser om akvakultur i stadsmiljöMer info
Co-variation of Cholera with Climatic and Environmental Parameters in Coastal Regions of Tanzania Mer info
Western Indian Ocean journal of marine science 2014, 13 (1): 93-105.
The bacterium causing cholera, Vibrio cholerae, is essentially a marine organism and its ecological dynamics have been linked to oceanographic conditions and climate. We used autoregressive models with external inputs to identify potential relationships between the number of cholera cases in the coastal regions of mainland Tanzania with climatic and environmental indices (maximum air temperature, sea surface temperature, wind speed and chlorophyll a). Results revealed that, between 2004 and 2010, coastal regions of mainland Tanzania inhabited by approximately 21% of the total population accounted for approximately 50% of the cholera cases and 40% of the total mortality. Significant co-variations were found between seasonally adjusted cholera cases and coastal ocean chlorophyll a and, to some degree, sea surface temperature, the outbreaks lagging behind by one to four months. Cholera cases in Dar es Salaam were also weakly related to the Indian Ocean Dipole Mode Index, lagging by five months, suggesting that it may be possible to predict cholera outbreaks for Dar es Salaam this period ahead. The results also suggest that the severity of cholera in coastal regions can be predicted by ocean conditions and that longer-term environmental and climate parameters may be used to predict cholera outbreaks along the coastal regions.
International Agricultural Policy 2014, 1 : 7-10.
Mining alginate lyases in sediment metagenomes from four geographically distant cold coastal environments Mer info
Effects of pollutants on olfactory detection and responses to chemical cues including pheromones in fish Mer info
In: Facing an unequal world. Yokohama : .
Most environmental problems are extremely long term and have cross-border implications. For environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs) to achieve significant impact on environmental governance cross-border and sustained activities are required. The purpose of the paper is to identify key barriers and possible pathways to develop sustained and transnationalenvironmental activism among ENGOs operating in strikingly different political contexts. Our analysis is based on qualitative methodology and empirical analyses of ENGOs in six countries (Sweden, Germany, Poland, Italy, Slovenia and Croatia) and two regional contexts, the Baltic Sea and the Adriatic Sea regions. The study is based on document analyses and semi-structured interviews with representatives from 4-6 key ENGOs in each country. The theoretical framework departs primarily from social movement theory.The paper reveals intriguing similarities and differences between the countries regarding ENGOs' abilities to develop sustained and cross-border activism. We pay particular attention to differences in opportunity structures for resource mobilization. The last decades, the European Union (EU) has emerged as a key opportunity structure that in various ways facilitate cross-border collaboration and capacity building among ENGOs, particularly in Central and Eastern European (CEE) Countries. However, the EU also considerably shapes the conditions for ENGOs to set independent long-term agendas. With the exception of Germany and Sweden, ENGOs rely heavily on their ability to develop a "project mind-set", which in turn requires fund-raising skills and procedures. Also ENGOs in Germany and Sweden make use of public grants. However, the fact that they historically have been able to mobilize huge number of members/supporters –which is still extremely difficult particularly in post-communist countries - have profound implications for abilities to develop transnational and sustained environmental activism. We discuss the role of (dis)trust (institutional vs. family-based trust), political culture and historical legacies to analyze these remarkably different conditions for resource mobilization.
Issues and opportunities with participatory governance for the management of marine resources in the Adriatic Sea Mer info
In: . : .
Background: The marine natural environment is under high pressure. Not only are marine resources as flora and fauna intensively used (with consequent decrease of stocks) but in recent times, the seas have become the next frontier of a specific type of anthropization (i.e. the conversion of open space by human action) that of energy infrastructure. While this is a current process and, within the European Union, only recently policy actions have been taken in order facilitate a more coherent coordination of interventions (Marine Strategy), little research has been done about formal and informal institutional arrangements already existing between the many stakeholders who have specific stakes in the Adriatic Sea.The North Adriatic Sea is an area characterised by a history of (between state) conflicts and tensions that impacted on the development of collaborative arrangement for the management of the marine environment. Of interest to this research, therefore, was to map out formal and informal institutional arrangements currently in place between stakeholders from Italy, Slovenia and Croatia - countries with coastal access to the North Adriatic Sea. Also, of an interest was to understand if, and how, participatory practices are being used in relation to decision-making and management of the marine natural environment ( in particular siting of an energy infrastructure).Methods: In this case study we used interviews, archive material, policy documents and other secondary data (statistics, official documents) for the analysis.Findings: The preliminary analysis of our data suggests that the North Adriatic Sea is a highly politicized area over which different stakeholders advance claims but engage in little, or no cooperation. Marine resources appear to be under high pressure and in the following months we will continue the exploration into the institutional arrangements.
In: Regional Matkultur. Stockholm : Carlsson Bokförlag, 2014. 287-294.
Kapitlet beskriver vilka utmaningar men också möjligheter som SUB-ansökan gav upphov till. Kapitlet lämnar också, utifrån erfarenheter från Europa, ett antal förslag på hur marknaden för Kalix Löjrom skulle kunna utvecklas.
Mountain agriculture at the crossroads, biodiversity, culture, and modernization, conflicting and interacting in... Mer info
In: Farming systems facing global challenges. : .
Mountain agriculture emerged at the intersection of the "wild economy," which focused on hunting, fishing and gathering wild plants and the agricultural based economy that is characterized by the domestication of animals and cultivation of the soil. Like other traditional systems based on pasture, the Swedish mountain systems is based on the use of inherited traditional knowledge and mountain pastures have over centuries created a very rare and rich habitat in the form of upland hay meadows. Today, both traditional knowledge and the rich biodiversity in the mountains are endangered by the implementation of modern practices that lead to a number of conflicts that go beyond the tragedy of the commons. One important source of conflict emanates from the changing role of the countryside, a role that creates expectations on farmers to deliver recreation, magnificent landscapes, new job opportunities, operate hotels , produce, cheese, maintain a cultural heritage and contribute to the conservation of native breeds . Another problem is caused by new support systems and regulations that create incentives to intensify the exploitation of summer farms by using the pastures for modern meat cattle breeds, which changes the landscape, but also makes traditional farmers upset, because of the risk of losing the traditions of summer farms.An additional source of conflict is created by the state’s changing attitudes towards the mountain world, as the state aims to shut down all existing (state owned) leased mountain flats (fjällägenheter) by cutting down basic infrastructure. The remaining flats are located primarily in the northern parts of Jämtland. They contribute to the maintenance of a very unique flora and insect fauna. By comparing two cases, one in Klövsjö and one in the northern part of the region, this paper contributes with new knowledge about mountain agriculture, including interlocking interests, competitive activities, potentials and conflicts.
Constructing the new rurality - Challenges and opportunities of a recent shift in Swedish rural policiesMer info
In: Farming systems facing global challenges. : .
The article highlights the implementation of the New Culinary Country Program (NCCP, Sverige det Nya Matlandet), implemented to speed up the emergence of a new rurality in Sweden. Based on results of focus groups and one group interview conducted in eight counties/landscapes in in 2013 and a state initiated evaluation of the NCCP, the study answers the following questions: What has been achieved by the policy change so far? Which are the main challenges and opportunities created by the NCCP so far? Results show that the NCCP has stimulated a higher degree of regional coordination of resources and stakeholders at regional level. In the succesful cases, cooperation and coordination has been the key factor behind succes.
Climate Policy 2014, 14 (4): 488-506.
The Adaptation Fund, established under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), has now been approving funding for adaptation projects for more than two years. Given its particular institutional status and specific focus on concrete adaptation, it is particularly relevant to study the initial experiences of it for any future upscaling of international adaptation finance, despite the fact that its own resources are getting scarce. Alternative rationales for allocating funds, based on equity and efficiency concerns at both international and subnational levels, are here tested against the criteria and priorities of the Fund and decisions made on project approval. It is concluded that equity concerns appear to be the primary motivation and that allocation is de facto made between states rather than by considering inequity between subnational communities. However, the currency of vulnerability for determining equitable outcomes in allocation decisions has not been formalized, despite its central importance to the Fund. Instead, uniform national caps have been introduced. Such an equality approach can be considered inequitable. Finally, it is noted that although the Adaptation Fund Board has continuously developed its proposal review practices and adopted a learning-by-doing approach, it should provide both a further specification of the evaluation criteria and a compilation of best practices from approved proposals, and moreover enhance the transparency of the review process, all of which would clarify its core priorities for current and future project proponents.
International Journal of the Commons 2014, 8 (2): 636-656.
Commons projects, such as community-based natural resource management, have widespread appeal, which has enabled them to shrug off a mixed performance in practice. This paper discusses how the theoretical assumptions of common pool resource (CPR) theory may have inadvertently contributed to the unfulfilled expectations of commons projects. The paper argues that the individual ‘rational resource user’, encapsulated in the CPR design principles, struggles to provide clear direction for meaningful consideration of local norms, values and interests in commons projects. The focus of CPR theory on efficiency and functionality results in a tendency in commons projects to overlook how local conditions are forged through relations at multiple scales. Commonly politically complex and changing relations are reduced to institutional design problems based on deriving the incentives and disincentives of ‘rational resource users. The corollary is that CPR theory oversimplifies the project context that it is seeking to change because it offers little or no direction to deal with the social embeddedness of resource use or implications of different stratifications.
Strategies to promote local food production and rural development - the case of Jämtland cheeseMer info
Saving the Baltic Sea, the Inland Waters of Its Drainage Basin, or Both? Spatial Perspectives on Reducing P-Load... Mer info
Ambio 2014, 43 (7): 914-925.
Nutrient loads from inland sources to the Baltic Sea and adjacent inland waters need to be reduced in order to prevent eutrophication and meet requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP). We here investigate the spatial implications of using different possible criteria for reducing water-borne phosphorous (P) loads in the Northern Baltic Sea River Basin District (NBS-RBD) in Sweden. Results show that most catchments that have a high degree of internal eutrophication do not express high export of P from their outlets. Furthermore, due to lake retention, lake catchments with high P-loads per agricultural area (which is potentially of concern for the WFD) did not considerably contribute to the P-loading of the Baltic Sea. Spatially uniform water quality goals may, therefore, not be effective in NBS-RBD, emphasizing more generally the need for regional adaptation of WFD and BSAP-related goals.
Models of science-policy interaction - Exploring approaches to Bisphenol A management in the EUMer info
Science of the Total Environment 2014, 485-486 (1): 23-30.
This study investigated science-policy interaction models and their limitations under conditions of uncertainty. In detail, it looked at the management of the suspected endocrine-disrupting chemical Bisphenol A (BPA). Despite growing evidence that BPA is hazardous to human and environmental health, the level of scientific uncertainty is still high and, as a result, there is significant disagreement on the actual extent and type of risk. Analysis of decision-making processes at different regulatory levels (EU, Sweden, and the Swedish municipality of Gothenburg) exposed chemicals risk management and associated science-policy interaction under uncertainty. The results of the study show that chemicals management and associated science-policy interaction follow the modern model of science-policy interaction, where science is assumed to 'speak truth to policy' and highlights existing limitations of this model under conditions of uncertainty. The study not only explores alternative models (precautionary, consensus, science-policy demarcation. and extended participation) but also shows their limitations. The study concludes that all models come with their particular underlying assumptions, strengths, and limitations. At the same time, by exposing serious limitations of the modern model, the study calls for a rethinking of the relationship between science, policy, and management.
In: Food and Rurality in Europe. Huddinge : COMREC, Södertörns Högskola, 2014. 65-102.
This article highlights the benefits and constraints, as well as the experiences in working with place based branding in Cantabria (Spain) and Gotland (Sweden). In Cantabria, the main tool for place based branding is the protected designation of origin (PDO) quality scheme, while in Gotland, the main common branding tool is a trademark owned by the municipality and used by all local agents that apply for it. The article highlight the different ways in which these tools have been used.
Food and Rurality in Europe - Economy, Environment and Institutions in Contemporary Rural EuropeMer info
Huddinge : COMREC, Södertörns Högskola, 2014.
This book is the result of a workshop about localized agri-food systems held at biannual conference of the International Farming Systems Association in 2010. All articles depart from the reality experienced by rural agents in Europe. Some of the main concerns of rural Europe today include institutional and cultural questions, socio-economic perspectives as well as urgent environmental topics. All of these perspectives are present in this book.A common point of departure of most articles is small scale agriculture and/or local food production. Several of the contributions highlight the growing concerns about food freshness and food security, which are often linked to a demand for traditional cuisine. Some chapters also underline the importance of cooperation between small-scale farmers and food artisans, including their market and branding strategies. European and international branding/quality schemes, such as PDO/PGI, regional trademarks and the Ark of Taste are thoroughly analyzed and linked to the articulation of localized agri-food systems. The contributions also highlight an interesting contrast in the perception of “local” and the strategies of territorial organization used in in different parts of Europe.
Cultivation-Independent Screening Revealed Hot Spots of IncP-1, IncP-7 and IncP-9 Plasmid Occurrence in Differen... Mer info
PLoS ONE 2014, 9 (2): -.
IncP-1, IncP-7 and IncP-9 plasmids often carry genes encoding enzymes involved in the degradation of man-made and natural contaminants, thus contributing to bacterial survival in polluted environments. However, the lack of suitable molecular tools often limits the detection of these plasmids in the environment. In this study, PCR followed by Southern blot hybridization detected the presence of plasmid-specific sequences in total community (TC-) DNA or fosmid DNA from samples originating from different environments and geographic regions. A novel primer system targeting IncP-9 plasmids was developed and applied along with established primers for IncP-1 and IncP-7. Screening TC-DNA from biopurification systems (BPS) which are used on farms for the purification of pesticide-contaminated water revealed high abundances of IncP-1 plasmids belonging to different subgroups as well as IncP-7 and IncP-9. The novel IncP-9 primer-system targeting the rep gene of nine IncP-9 subgroups allowed the detection of a high diversity of IncP-9 plasmid specific sequences in environments with different sources of pollution. Thus polluted sites are "hot spots" of plasmids potentially carrying catabolic genes.
Effects of the SSRI citalopram on behaviours connected to stress and reproduction in Endler guppy, Poecilia ... Mer info
Aquatic Toxicology 2014, 148 : 113-121.
Psychoactive drugs, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) have been identified in high levels in effluents from Swedish sewage treatment plants (STP) at concentrations high enough to give pharmacological effects in fish. In humans SSRIs are used in the treatment of depression and they have anxiolytic effects. In the present study we exposed Endler guppy (Poecilia wingei) of both sexes to citalopram that showed the highest concentrations of SSRIs in STP effluents and studied reproductive and non-reproductive behaviour. Male courting behaviours were not affected compared to control fish after 14-28 days exposure to 1μgL-1. In two experiments exposing both sexes to 0.2, 2.3 or 15μgL-1 for 21 days, fish exposed to the two highest doses showed anxiolytic effects when placed in a novel environment (novel tank diving test, NT). Males were only affected by exposure to 15μgL-1. They had significantly longer latency to explore the upper half of the aquarium, more visits and longer time spent in the upper half, and showed less bottom freezing behaviour, all markers of anxiolytic behaviour. In females exposure to 2.3 or 15μgL-1 significantly increased freezing behaviour, while no effects on other behaviour variables were observed. No effects on shoaling behaviour could be discerned. These results show that citalopram have anxiolytic effects on guppy fish and thus affect ecologically relevant behaviours of importance to survival of fish.
Bacterial chitinase with phytopathogen control capacity from suppressive soil revealed by functional metagenomics Mer info
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 2014, 98 (6): 2819-2828.
Plant disease caused by fungal pathogens results in vast crop damage globally. Microbial communities of soil that is suppressive to fungal crop disease provide a source for the identification of novel enzymes functioning as bioshields against plant pathogens. In this study, we targeted chitin-degrading enzymes of the uncultured bacterial community through a functional metagenomics approach, using a fosmid library of a suppressive soil metagenome. We identified a novel bacterial chitinase, Chi18H8, with antifungal activity against several important crop pathogens. Sequence analyses show that the chi18H8 gene encodes a 425-amino acid protein of 46 kDa with an N-terminal signal peptide, a catalytic domain with the conserved active site F175DGIDIDWE183, and a chitinase insertion domain. Chi18H8 was expressed (pGEX-6P-3 vector) in Escherichia coli and purified. Enzyme characterization shows that Chi18H8 has a prevalent chitobiosidase activity with a maximum activity at 35 °C at pH lower than 6, suggesting a role as exochitinase on native chitin. To our knowledge, Chi18H8 is the first chitinase isolated from a metagenome library obtained in pure form and which has the potential to be used as a candidate agent for controlling fungal crop diseases. Furthermore, Chi18H8 may also answer to the demand for novel chitin-degrading enzymes for a broad range of other industrial processes and medical purposes.
Community-based Natural Resource Management of the Jozani-Pete Mangrove Forest: Do They Have a Voice? Mer info
Western Indian Ocean journal of marine science 2013, 12 (2): 133-150.
Local participation, especially in natural resource management, has been promoted as a key strategy in the quest for sustainable development. Community-based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) is an approach that has generally been promoted as an institution that genuinely includes and empowers ‘local people' in natural resource use and management. This paper examines how local participation in conservation projects works in practice by drawing on concepts from institutional and actor-oriented theories and applying a case study approach to examine community-based mangrove management at Jozani-Pete, Zanzibar. Here CBNRM became embedded within a conservation agenda that resulted in conflict, resistance, frustration and uncertainty amongst community members. The paper offers insight into how exogenously initiated CBNRM projects have difficulty gaining traction unless they both address existing power relations and deliver on promises of material benefits. If they fail to do so the experience of the Jozani-Pete case study suggests that CBNRM may work to further marginalize already marginalized people.
European realities. Asymmetric rural development and revalorization of marginal Lands in Europe - PrologueMer info
Sweden - an emerging wine country - a case of innovation in the context of the "new rurality" Mer info
Spanish Journal of Rural Development 2013, IV (4): 79-88.
This articla highlights the articulation of the new rurality in Sweden, exemplified by the emergence of the wine sector. Wine production became possible as a result of climate change and Sweden's EU membership that led to the abolishment of the production and wholesale monopoly. Even though wine production is an old activity in other countries, in Sweden, the establishment of wine production is an innovation and as such a reflection of rural entrepreneurship. But not everything is a saga of success. The case study shows that there are still important constraints against the further development of the sector. In this case, due to path dependency in agricultural and alcohol policy and current Swedish alcohol regulations. Some additional obstacles are the prohibition against gate sales and the inability of farms to meet the scale demands imposed by the public retail monopoly.
Kalixlöjom - an institutional analysis of the application and implementation of Sweden's first PDO Mer info
Spanish Journal of Rural Development 2013, 4 (4): 59-66.
The use and implementation of Geographical Indications (GI) is a wellestablished practice in most EU countries. Previous studies show thatthe use of PDOs and PGIs is directly related to previous experiencesas well as the relative importance of the agro-food sector in a country'seconomy. In the case of Sweden, the agro-food sector has beenoriented towards continuous structural rationalization since at least the1930's. However, the transformation pressure exerted by a risingcompetitive level in the market, that emanates both from global aswell as regional European sources led to the adoption of newstrategies. These strategies entail the on-farm elaboration of farmproduce, the diversification of activities as well as the use ofcertification schemes. In the case of Kalixlöjrom, the strategy selectedwas the adoption of a PDO, as a way of entering a valorisation processfor export purposes as well as defending the product against dislojalcompetition of products with less quality. As this is the firstexperience with a PDO in Sweden, the case of Kalixlöjrom caviaroffers a rare opportunity to understand the actual problems inimplementing a policy tool developed by Southern European countriesin a country like Sweden. Thus the article highlights the institutionaland structural shortcomings discovered in this process and offers newknowledge and reflections valuable for the future adaptation andimplementation of previously unknown policy instruments
Stockholm : Stockholm University, 2013. (Plants & Ecology ; 5)
De inre partierna av en skog skiljer sig från kanten då skogskanter i stor utsträckning återspeglar landskapet utanför skogen. När stora skogsområden delas i mindre fragment ökas kontaktytan med omgivningen och olika processer börjar påverkar de återstående skogsekosystemen och de skogsarter som finns i de delade skogspartierna. Skogskanter kan se väldigt olika ut beroende på om de vetter mot stadsmiljö, lantbruk, fält med monokulturer eller betesäng.Denna sammanfattning fokuserar på kanteffekter i skogslandskapet. Mångfald och artsammansättning av kärlväxter i skogen påverkas av kanteffekter genom skogens storlek, form och placering i landskapet. Generellt förväntas kanteffekter påverka växternas mångfald och artsammansättning mer när skogarna är små, har oregelbunden form eller när det omgivande landskapet skiljer sig mycket från skogsmiljön. Effekten är beroende av både biotiska och abiotiska faktorer, rådande skogsbruk och skogens historia. Ytterligare studier på landskapsnivå kan hjälpa till att belysa de underliggande mekanismerna som skapar de mönster vi ser idag.
In: XIV International Environmental Forum "Baltic Sea Day". St.Petersburg : Chelovek.
In: COCE 2013. : .
Urban activist gardening can take many forms and is practiced in cities all over the world from community gardens on vacant lots, that is, the cultivation of what is considered to be neglected land , to the cultivation of tree pits, and to moss graffiti on rocks, logs, pots or statuary. Without communicating these actions, we did not know anything about these movements. For instance, mass media has taken up this issue of transformation in several contributions. Most of the people know about it via mass media, that has frequently taken up activist gardening in cities. However, this paper explores how urban activist gardener themselves communicate their actions on websites. What are the selection criteria for dissemination information on their activities? How do they try to open up for participation for the “right” people?
A Metagenomics Transect into the Deepest Point of the Baltic Sea Reveals Clear Stratification of Microbial Funct... Mer info
PLoS ONE 2013, 8 (9): -.
The Baltic Sea is characterized by hyposaline surface waters, hypoxic and anoxic deep waters and sediments. These conditions, which in turn lead to a steep oxygen gradient, are particularly evident at Landsort Deep in the Baltic Proper. Given these substantial differences in environmental parameters at Landsort Deep, we performed a metagenomic census spanning surface to sediment to establish whether the microbial communities at this site are as stratified as the physical environment. We report strong stratification across a depth transect for both functional capacity and taxonomic affiliation, with functional capacity corresponding most closely to key environmental parameters of oxygen, salinity and temperature.We report similarities in functional capacity between the hypoxic community and hadal zone communities, underscoring the substantial degree of eutrophication in the Baltic Proper. Reconstruction of the nitrogen cycle at Landsort deep shows potential for syntrophy between archaeal ammonium oxidizers and bacterial denitrification at anoxic depths, while anaerobic ammonium oxidation genes are absent, despite substantial ammonium levels below the chemocline. Our census also reveals enrichment in genetic prerequisites for a copiotrophic lifestyle and resistance mechanisms reflecting adaptation to prevalent eutrophic conditions and the accumulation of environmental pollutants resulting from ongoing anthropogenic pressures in the Baltic Sea.
Meeting Report - 1st International Functional Metagenomics Workshop May 7-8, 2012, St. Jacobs, Ontario, CanadaMer info
Standards in Genomic Sciences 2013, 8 (1): 106-111.
This report summarizes the events of the 1st International Functional Metagenomics Workshop. The workshop was held on May 7 and 8, 2012, in St. Jacobs, Ontario, Canada and was focused on building an international functional metagenomics community, exploring strategic research areas, and identifying opportunities for future collaboration and funding. The workshop was initiated by researchers at the University of Waterloo with support from the Ontario Genomics Institute (OGI), Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) and the University of Waterloo.
Characterisation of a transcriptome to find sequence differences between two differentially migrating subspecies... Mer info
BMC Genomics 2013, 14 : -.
BACKGROUND: Animal migration requires adaptations in morphological, physiological and behavioural traits. Several of these traits have been shown to possess a strong heritable component in birds, but little is known about their genetic architecture. Here we used 454 sequencing of brain-derived transcriptomes from two differentially migrating subspecies of the willow warbler Phylloscopus trochilus to detect genes potentially underlying traits associated with migration.RESULTS: The transcriptome sequencing resulted in 1.8 million reads following filtering steps. Most of the reads (84%) were successfully mapped to the genome of the zebra finch Taeniopygia gutatta. The mapped reads were situated within at least 12,101 predicted zebra finch genes, with the greatest sequencing depth in exons. Reads that were mapped to intergenic regions were generally located close to predicted genes and possibly located in uncharacterized untranslated regions (UTRs). Out of 85,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with a minimum sequencing depth of eight reads from each of two subspecies-specific pools, only 55 showed high differentiation, confirming previous studies showing that most of the genetic variation is shared between the subspecies. Validation of a subset of the most highly differentiated SNPs using Sanger sequencing demonstrated that several of them also were differentiated between an independent set of individuals of each subspecies. These SNPs were clustered in two chromosome regions that are likely to be influenced by divergent selection between the subspecies and that could potentially be associated with adaptations to their different migratory strategies.CONCLUSIONS: Our study represents the first large-scale sequencing analysis aiming at detecting genes underlying migratory phenotypes in birds and provides new candidates for genes potentially involved in migration.
Towards an Ecosystem Approach to Management in Regional Marine Governance? - The Baltic Sea ContextMer info
Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 2013, 15 (2): 225-245.
Currently, European marine governance seems to be undergoing significantchanges. From having been based largely on scientific expert knowledge, restricted riskassessments and governmental regulation, we are now witnessing a management turntowards holistic perspectives, the inclusion of stakeholders, adaptive governance, and coproductionof knowledge—the so-called ecosystem approach to management (EAM). Byusing the Baltic Sea as an example of these changes, we have taken a closer look at the2007 Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) of the Helsinki Commission and the recent organizationalchanges within the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES).Informed by a Reflexive Governance perspective, the primary objective has been toanalyse the extent to which institutional preconditions for using an EAM exist in thesetwo cases. Our results show that even though the BSAP has been designed with anEAM approach as its core philosophy, existing implementation, financing, monitoring,and enforcement structures make it unlikely that actual management modes will changesignificantly in the near feature. Changes in the ICES have occurred as a result of aninternal restructuring process characterized by integrative and learning elements. It hasbeen shown that adopting a broad social science perspective and a reflexive governanceviewpoint can elucidate how factors such as inadequate institutional change, limitedcooperation over sector borders, and adjustment problems caused by path dependencycan threaten the successful turn towards the EAM in marine governance.
Seeing and Doing Conservation Differently - A Discussion of Landscape Aesthetics, Wilderness, and Biodiversity ConservationMer info
Journal of Environment and Development 2013, 22 (1): 3-24.
This article argues that conservation agendas need to be informed by a landscape aesthetics that embraces the cultural and material richness of people’s relationship to place to better inform conservation agendas. Historical and contemporary views of landscape aesthetics and their relationship to nature conservation and notions of wilderness need to be included to complement a scientific expert assessment of conservation needs and approaches. Recent examples of conservation projects in Zanzibar are used to reveal how representations and symbols in nature are deeply embedded in biodiversity conservation aspirations and practices promoted by conservation experts. The article posits that an embodied and pluralistic approach to landscape aesthetics can more profoundly contextualize the specificity of interaction between people and between people and their environments and lead to more viable conservation and development outcomes. This would provide a contingent perspective that would to help elucidate nuanced understandings of social relations and place, thereby better serving both conservation and development agendas.
Advances in Food, Hospitality and Tourism 2012, 2 (1): 2-10.
This article highlights how farm dairies in Jämtland combine gastronomy and tourism as an integral part or a component in their marketing strategies. These activities have been promoted and supported by authorities and NGO’s. Farm dairies contribute to tourism by producing gastronomic products that can be served by local restaurants and hotels, but they are also visiting targets for tourists and create important work opportunities in the villages. As a precursor in using gastronomy and tourism to promote regional development the experiences of Jämtland are of a high relevance for the future development in Sweden
Genetic Identification and Population Structure of Juvenile Mullet (Mugilidae) Collected for Aquaculture in East... Mer info
Western Indian Ocean journal of marine science 2012, 11 (1): 41-54.
There is a growing demand for wild caught juvenile fish to supply the market for aquaculture. However, little is known about the genetic effects of juvenile collection from wild populations. There are a number of imminent threats to both aquaculture systems and wild fish populations. Juvenile collection from a single population can for example reduce population’s evolutionary potential as well as the disease resistance within an aquaculture pond. In this study, we investigated the local genetic structure of juvenile mullets collected from five sites around Bagamoyo (Tanzanian mainland) and Zanzibar Island, East Africa. Fish were caught in low tide using a seine net. The fish were morphologically identified, and then genetically identified using direct sequencing of the CO1 gene with cross referencing with the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) systems. Molecular variance analyses were used to infer genetic subdivision based on geographic sampling site as well as inferring population structure through the Bayesian assignment test implemented in STRUCTURE 2.3. Our results showed that samples morphologically identified as Mugil cephalus where in fact Valamugil buchanani and we also found evidence of an introgression genome event, where the gene flow from one species may have affected the general gene pool. The Bayesian analysis revealed a clear genetic population structure among the sampled fish; the main difference was the presence of a unique mainland cluster. Our findings may have important implications for management and conservation of mullet fishes in the region and elsewhere.
HavsUtsikt 2012, 2 : 8-9.
Miljöproblemen i Östersjön är allvarliga, och kunskapen om exakt vilka risker de innebär är omdebatterad. I ett forskningsprojekt har vi kartlagt hur miljöriskerna bedöms och hanteras idag, och konstaterar att det finns ett behov av att den traditionella riskbedömningen kompletteras med ett större mått av försiktighet och ett ökat deltagande av samhällets olika aktörer.
: , 2012. ( ; )
Environmental risk governance in the Baltic Sea area is still unable to fully support implementation of the ecosystem approach to management. Hence, the aims of the international RISKGOV project were: 1) to improve our understanding of environmental risk governance and its challenges in the Baltic Sea; 2) to suggest possible avenues for improvement.These aims were addressed by integrating social and natural science approaches on five strategically selected environmental risks (eutrophication, overfishing, invasive species, chemical pollution and oil discharges).The findings, recommendations and dissemination products of RISKGOV are described in detail in the Final report (http://www.sh.se/riskgov). Researchers from Södertörn University were involved in all case studies and cross-case comparisons. In summary, RISKGOV concludes that it is necessary to improve the robustness and responsiveness of governance practices to achieve sustainable ecosystem management. Specifically, RISKGOV recommends that: (i) Governance structures need to move towards more reflexive governance by improving regulatory coordination, cross sector collaboration, and interaction space for reflexivity. This is, for example, exemplified by increased interactions between HELCOM and the EU aiming at the combination of mandatory regulation and voluntary agreements; (ii) Assessment-management interactions require improvements e.g. relating to the regional and interdisciplinary knowledge-base, stakeholder participation and coping with scientific uncertainty and disagreement; (iii) Stakeholder participation and communication require improvements in terms of a more integrated system of stakeholder input possibly via an expansion of HELCOM’s stakeholder involvement policy and enhanced efforts to communicate environmental issues to the general public. Implications of these general recommendations for specific actors and stakeholders were analysed and developed through thematic roundtable discussions.
: , 2012. ( ; )
Moving towards sustainable ecosystem governance practices is potentially a complex and time consuming endeavour. The RISKGOV project identified three main governance challenges linked to implementing an ecosystem approach to management in the medium to long term time span (i.e. years to decades), that, if adequately addressed by actors and stakeholders, could help improve the governance of environmental problems and risks in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Firstly, fostering a move towards reflexive and adaptive governance structures and processes by improving regulatory coordination, cross sector collaboration and forming spaces for interaction and dialogue. Secondly, strengthening the regional and ecosystem basis of knowledge generation and management is needed, including integration of various forms of scientific knowledge, stakeholder input, and increased attention to interdependencies among environmental problems and risks to better address uncertainties and disagreements. Thirdly, to develop a more integrated system of stakeholder input and communication, e.g. in the form of a “regional marine advisory council”, to face issues of inclusiveness, create a common concern for the Baltic ecosystem, improve the motivation and capacity, and improve coordination across scales and sectors.
In: Encyclopedia of Lakes and Reservoirs. Dordrecht : Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2012. 95-102.
Process length variation of the cyst of thedinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum in the NorthPacific and Balt... Mer info
Journal of Quaternary Science 2012, 27 (7): 734-744.
Process length variation of cysts of the dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum (Claparede et Lachmann) Butschli in surface sediments from the North Pacific was investigated. The average process length showeda significant inverse relation to annual seawater density: t annual= -0.8674 x average process length +1029.3(R2=0.84), with a standard error of 0.78 kgm-3. A sediment trap study from Effingham Inlet in British Columbiarevealed the same relationship between average process length and local seawater density variations. In the Baltic–Skagerrak region, the average process length variation was related significantly to annual seawater density: t annual =3.5457 x average process length -993.28 (R2=0.86), with a standard error of 3.09 kgm3. These calibrations cannot be reconciled, which accentuates the regional character of the calibrations. This can be related to variations in molecular data (small subunit, long subunit and internal transcribed spacer sequences), whichshow the presence of several genotypes and the occurrence of pseudo-cryptic speciation within this species.
Molecular identification of hybrids of the invasive gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio and crucian carp Carass... Mer info
Journal of Fish Biology 2012, 80 (7): 2595-2604.
Both mitochondrial DNA sequence and two nuclear microsatellite markers were used to confirm the identity of the first record of Carassius auratus gibelio in the western (Swedish) Baltic Sea region. A total of 49 fishes were analysed, where 22 were from three Swedish sites connected to the Baltic Sea. The D-loop mitochondrial DNA sequences showed that 16 of 22 Swedish fishes were related to C. a. gibelio. The phylogenetic analysis of these sequences showed that these fish are probably not native, but represent different lineages of C. a. gibelio from China, Japan and Russia. All except three of these 16 fishes had microsatellite alleles suggesting hybridization with Carassius carassius. These findings suggest that a cryptic invasion of C. a. gibelio might be in progress.
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2012.
In this book Artur Granstedt - Ph.D. in Agronomics and Associate Professor at Södertörn University, and Coordinator of the BERAS project (Baltic Ecological Recycling Agriculture and Society) - describes how ecologically adapted farming based on local recycling and renewable energy sources can reduce the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea and even help to reduce global warming. Widespread conversion to organic farming methods would furthermore stop the spread of toxic chemicals on farmland, benefit biodiversity and stimulate social and economic development in rural areas in the Baltic Sea region.The book starts with a description of the ecosystems that support the health of the biosphere - terrestrial and marine, the climate, and global food production. Granstedt also gives a historical overview of agricultural practices, noting the various ways in which human activity alters the natural order of things and, if we are not mindful, can deplete the resources that support our existence. But he also gives examples of how we can turn negative trends to the better, how we can restore fertility to the soil and bring depleted land to bloom once again and produce nourishing food that can feed the world.Artur Granstedt writes on the basis of decades of experience as an organic farmer, researcher, adviser and teacher of ecologically sustainable agriculture. The book reports the results of field trials and evaluation on farms in eight countries around the Baltic Sea that were conducted in the BERAS project. This comprehensive project, which was supported in part by funding from the European Union, is now continuing in an implementation phase, focusing on how agriculture throughout the region can be converted to profitable and ecologically sustainable methods of production.The publication of this book has been made possible through a grant from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) to the BERAS project at Södertörn University and the Biodynamic Research Institute in Järna, and funding from the Swedish Government and the Swedish Research Council, Formas.
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2012.
Artur Granstedt, agronomie doktor, docent vid Södertörns högskola och koordinator för Östersjöprojektet BERAS beskriver här hur ett ekologiskt jordbruk, baserat på lokala kretslopp och förnyelsebar energi, kan minska övergödningen av Östersjön och även bidra till att minska den globala uppvärmningen. Det kan dessutom förhindra spridningen av kemiska bekämpningsmedel, gynna den biologiska mångfalden och stimulera social och ekonomisk landsbygdsutveckling i Östersjöområdet.Boken inleds med en beskrivning av de livsuppehållande ekosystemen och deras betydelse för jorden, havet, klimatet och vår mat. Författaren ger också en överblick över odlandets historia: hur vi människor griper in och förändrar det naturgivna och hur vi på kort tid kan förbruka det som naturen byggt upp. Han visar också på hur vi kan odla jord, skapa ökad bördighet, få jorden att blomstra och ge närande mat åt alla.Till grund för boken ligger Artur Granstedts mångåriga arbete med odling, forskning, rådgivning och undervisning i ekologiskt jordbruk. Här redovisas också resultat från studier av det rent praktiska arbetet på ett antal gårdar, dokumenterade och utvärderade i åtta länder i det av EU delfinansierade Östersjöprojektet BERAS (Baltic Ecological Recycling Agriculture and Society). Detta arbete drivs nu vidare med fokus på hur en omläggning av jordbruket kan ske i hela Östersjöregionen i fortsättningsprojektet BERAS Implementation.Bokens utgivning har finansierats av Europeiska regionala utvecklingsfonden (ERUF) inom ramen för Östersjöprojektet BERAS vid Södertörns högskola samt Biodynamiska Forskningsinstitutet i Järna med bidrag från den svenska regeringen via det statiliga forskningsrådet Formas.
Brain circuit imprints of developmental 17α-ethinylestradiol exposure in guppies (Poecilia reticula... - Persistent effects on anxiety but not on reproductive behaviourMer info
General and Comparative Endocrinology 2012, 178 (2): 282-290.
The effects of endocrine disruptors may vary with the timing of exposure. The physiological implications of adult exposure are present during and shortly after exposure while embryonic exposure can imprint changes manifested in adulthood. In this study, guppy (Poecilia reticulata) embryos were exposed to 2 ng/L and 20 ng/L of 17α-ethinylestradiol during development via the mother and reared in clean water from gestation until 6 months of age. As adults, fish exposed to 20ng/L during development showed significantly altered behaviour in the Novel Tank test, where anxiety is determined as the tendency to remain at the bottom upon introduction into an unfamiliar tank. 17α-ethinylestradiol treatment increased the latency time before swimming to the upper half of the tank and decreased the number of transitions to the upper half. In control females the basal stress behaviour responses were significantly higher than in males, as indicated by longer latency period and fewer and shorter visits to the upper half, supporting the importance of gonadal hormones for the behaviour. The anxiety increased, however, with treatment in both sexes, suggesting that the observed response is not entirely due to feminization of the males. Shoaling behaviour, analyzed as tendency to leave a shoal of littermates, was neither sex-differentiated nor changed by treatment. Also male reproductive behaviour, brain aromatase activity and testes histology, previously shown to respond to oestrogen exposure in adult guppy, were unaffected by the developmental treatment. This suggests that the stress system in the guppy is very sensitive to 17α-ethinylestradiol, which possibly causes an early organisational imprint on the brain circuit that regulates stress reactions.
The Problematic Social Dimension of Sustainable Development - the Case of the Forest Stewardship CouncilMer info
Impact of the European Water Framework Directive on local-level water management - Case study Oxunda Catchment, SwedenMer info
Land use policy 2012, 29 (1): 73-82.
The Water Framework Directive (WFD) of the European Union provides a common framework for water policy that focuses on holistic and integrated water management in river basins. In many member states, implementation of the WFD has shifted the main responsibility for local water issues from the municipal level to the regional or supra-regional levels. In this study, we investigated how the implementation of the WFD has influenced local-level water management including the interpretation of the new environmental quality standards. Specifically, we considered Sweden, which has traditionally had relatively strong governance at the municipal level. Because a sufficient amount of time has now passed for evaluation of WFD-related effects on operational water handling, we interviewed individuals directly involved in water planning and land use planning at the municipal level in one sub catchment in the Northern Baltic Sea River Basin District of Sweden, as well as representatives for superior levels and associations. Despite divergent views regarding the priority of water issues in physical planning among the local-level planners interviewed, they had all participated in successful inter-municipal pre-WFD collaboration projects. Although such collaborations could help increase the understanding and acceptance of WFD-related goals and costs, as well as facilitate conflict solving, as shown in the Oxunda Catchment, they have not gained much attention in the WFD implementation process. Additionally, physical planners have generally been reluctant to accept new environmental quality standards resulting from WFD implementation, in part because they lack precise definitions, but also because they could challenge the municipal routine of weighing various objectives against each other. Furthermore, despite WFD-related increases in ambition levels, lack of resource improvements at the municipal level were identified as potential problems by local environmental planners.
Structures and processes of stakeholder and public communication on Baltic Seaenvironmental risks - RISKGOV Deliverable 10Mer info
: , 2011. ( ; )
In: Current issues in European cultural studies. Linköping : Linköping University Electronic Press.
Why didn’t we notice them earlier? The invasive fish Carassius gibelio(gibel carp) identified by genetic methods... Mer info
"Säg får jag bjuda ur sumpen på en sprittande ruda" - En bortglömd läckerhet från gångna tiders prästgårdskökMer info
Environmental risk governance in the Baltic Sea - A comparison between five key areas - Deliverable number 8Mer info
Helsinki : Baltic Sea research and development programme BONUS, 2011. (BONUS briefing ; 17, October 2011)
In: Political State of the Region Report 2011. Köpenhamn : Baltic Development Forum, 2011. 68-71.
Interactions between risk assessment and risk management for environmental risks in the Baltic Sea - RISKGOV Deliverable 9Mer info
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2011. ( ; )
This report has been produced within the interdisciplinary RISKGOV project with the overall aim of comparing risk assessment – risk management interactions connected with five severe Baltic Sea environmental risks (eutrophication, overfishing, invasive species, chemical pollution and oil discharges linked to marine transports).Specifically, we compare three major aspects connected with assessment – management interactions and, based on this analysis, suggest possible routes for improving interaction between science-based advice and environmental (risk) management:Organisational structure of the risk assessment activities and the generation, selection and implementation of management options.The management of scientific uncertainties and disagreements.Implementation of the ecosystem approach to management (EAM) and modes of ‘good governance’.In order to understand these aspects we started by describing and analysing the characteristics of the five risk cases. This revealed substantial differences in terms of sources, effects and complexities (in terms of scientific uncertainty and socio-political ambiguity). For example, chemical risks are associated with great uncertainty and oil spill with much lower; fisheries relate to very high socio-political ambiguity, whereas invasive species show the opposite nature and oil spill fit with more traditional risk parameters. Our analysis also revealed a great variation in the societal risk responses, which far from always seems rational in relation to the risk characteristics.When it comes to the organisational structures, we can conclude that different forms of institutions and institutional arrangements and relations have evolved over time in the various cases, for instance relatively well-formalised in the overfishing case, and rather informal for combating eutrophication. Similarly, we see different forms of expert dependencies. In the overfishing case there are institutionalised formal links between e.g. ICES and the EU Commission and the historic path-dependency is quite strong, thereby causing institutional inertia, even though the development of Regional Advisory Councils (RACs) such as the Baltic RAC are gradually changing the picture. In relation to many other environmental risk cases (e.g. eutrophication and chemicals) HELCOM provides a regional basis for assessment and management (although implementation of management recommendations have often proved complex). Still, assessment-management interactions seem more developed and better organised in the overfishing case, even though it is obvious that the last link, the political decision-making on quotas, has deviated substantially from the science-based advice, thereby opening for continued overfishing. Similarly, well-developed institutions seem to allow for improved deliberative processes for fisheries, including improved analysis of socio-economic dimensions, which we cannot find to the same extent for e.g. chemicals, eutrophication and invasive species.The assessment and management responses we see to the studied risks do not seem to be based on any thorough analysis of the specific risk characteristics, or on the suitability of different overall strategies (e.g. traditional science-based assessment, precautionary, deliberative). Instead, all studied assessment-management interactions can be classified as being built primarily on traditional science-based assessment of risks. Of course, we see elements of for example precaution in e.g. the chemicals case, and deliberation in the fish case, and the inclusion of the EAM as a starting point for assessment exercises and management decisions is becoming more common, but overall this happens only partially and infrequently.Thus, to summarise, we conclude that there are substantial differences among environmental risks in relation to, for example, complexity, uncertainty and ambiguity, and we argue that it is important to maintain a balance between ideals of holistic approaches such as EAM and context dependent requirements of various management objectives, environmental risks and sectors. For example, high levels of uncertainty (e.g. chemical pollution) and ambiguity (e.g. overfishing) can be assumed to require assessment-management approaches focussed on precaution and participatory deliberation, respectively.Furthermore, our analysis identifies six key issues and challenges that, if adequately addressed, may improve assessment-management interactions and facilitate the implementation of the ecosystem approach to management.1. We see a need to further develop the regional and ecosystem basis of assessment-management interactions in terms of addressing prioritised knowledge gaps, as well as developing regional knowledge management and monitoring to strengthen regionally-based scientific advice.2. Integration of various forms of scientific knowledge is currently rather undeveloped in assessment and scientific advice, which reduces possibilities of addressing also the social dimension of sustainable development as well as possibilities of identifying and reducing ‘blind spots’.3. Stakeholder participation requires more consideration since incorporation of practitioner and local knowledge in risk assessments as well as stakeholder deliberation in risk management often are vital for the successful implementation of the ecosystem approach to management.4. We identify substantial room for improvements linked to coping with scientific uncertainty and disagreement in both risk assessment and risk management. We conclude that there in fact are examples of science-based precautionary approaches and methods, but that a comprehensive and coherent strategy for addressing uncertainty is often lacking.5. Interdependencies among environmental risk issues need to be more specifically addressed than today. Climate change will, for example, influence both the outcome of risk assessments as well as the possibilities for successful management in all the studied environmental risk cases.6. Despite a commonly expressed idea of a clear separation between assessment and management, the studied science-policy interactions are in general rather diffuse and politicised. This lack of transparency about how these interactions evolve and are constructed may mislead political decision makers and the public and thus potentially hamper management progress.
Ambio 2011, 40 (2): 179-190.
Environmental change challenges local and global survival of populations and species. In a species-poor environment like the Baltic Sea this is particularly critical as major ecosystem functions may be upheld by single species. A complex interplay between demographic and genetic characteristics of species and populations determines risks of local extinction, chances of re-establishment of lost populations, and tolerance to environmental changes by evolution of new adaptations. Recent studies show that Baltic populations of dominant marine species are locally adapted, have lost genetic variation and are relatively isolated. In addition, some have evolved unusually high degrees of clonality and others are representatives of endemic (unique) evolutionary lineages. We here suggest that a consequence of local adaptation, isolation and genetic endemism is an increased risk of failure in restoring extinct Baltic populations. Additionally, restricted availability of genetic variation owing to lost variation and isolation may negatively impact the potential for evolutionary rescue following environmental change.
Directional genetic selection by pulp mill effluent on multiple natural populations of three-spined stickleback ... Mer info
Ecotoxicology 2011, 20 : 503-512.
Contamination can cause a rapid environmental change which may require populations to respond with evolutionary changes. To evaluate the effects of pulp mill effluents on population genetics, we sampled three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) near four pulp mills and four adjacent reference sites and analyzed Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) to compare genetic variability. A fine scale genetic structure was detected and samples from polluted sites separated from reference sites in multidimensional scaling plots (P < 0.005, 1000 permutations) and locus-by-locus Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) further confirmed that habitats are significantly separated (F(ST) = 0.021, P < 0.01, 1023 permutations). The amount of genetic variation between populations did not differ between habitats, and populations from both habitats had similar levels of heterozygosity (polluted sites Nei's Hs = 0.11, reference sites Nei's Hs = 0.11). Still, pairwise F(ST): s between three, out of four, pairs of polluted-reference sites were significant. A F(ST)-outlier analysis showed that 21 (8.4%) loci were statistically different from a neutral distribution at the P < 0.05 level and therefore indicated to be under divergent selection. When removing 13 F(ST)-outlier loci, significant at the P < 0.01 level, differentiation between habitats disappeared in a multidimensional scaling plot. In conclusion, pulp mill effluence has acted as a selective agent on natural populations of G. aculeatus, causing a convergence in genotype composition change at multiple sites in an open environment.
Hantering av miljö- och hälsorisker i textila produktkedjor - En fallstudie av Stockholms läns landstingMer info
Accidental Versus Operational Oil Spills from Shipping in the Baltic Sea - Risk Governance and Management StrategiesMer info
Ambio 2011, 40 (2): 170-178.
Marine governance of oil transportation is complex. Due to difficulties in effectively monitoring procedures on vessels en voyage, incentives to save costs by not following established regulations on issues such as cleaning of tanks, crew size, and safe navigation may be substantial. The issue of problem structure is placed in focus, that is, to what degree the specific characteristics and complexity of intentional versus accidental oil spill risks affect institutional responses. It is shown that whereas the risk of accidental oil spills primarily has been met by technical requirements on the vessels in combination with Port State control, attempts have been made to curb intentional pollution by for example increased surveillance and smart governance mechanisms such as the No-Special-Fee system. It is suggested that environmental safety could be improved by increased use of smart governance mechanisms tightly adapted to key actors’ incentives to alter behavior in preferable directions.
Population Genetic Structure and Connectivity of the Abundant Sea Urchin, Diadema setosum around Unguja Island (... Mer info
Western Indian Ocean journal of marine science 2010, 9 (2): 165-174.
Abstract—Uncontrolled growth of sea urchin populations may have a negative effect on coral reefs, making them barren. To avoid this, different methods of sea urchin reduction have been developed but, without knowledge of their genetic structure and connectivity, these methods may be ineffective. The aim of this study was to examine the fine-scale genetic structure and connectivity in the sea urchin, Diadema setosum, population around Unguja, Zanzibar, using AFLP. We found evidence of different genetic clusters, high migration between the sites and high genetic diversity within the sites. These findings indicate that a manual reduction of sea urchins with similar genetic connectivity, implemented on the same geographic scale as our study, would be ineffective since sites are probably repopulated from many sources.
Hazardous substances - a case study of environmental risk governance in the Baltic Sea regionMer info
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2010. ( ; )
This report aims to describe and analyse the structures and processes that shape risk governance of hazardous chemicals in the Baltic Sea area and, based on this, discuss conditions and opportunities that could improve chemical risk governance. With this purpose in mind we have analysed the risk governance of hazardous chemicals along three dimensions and Work Packages (WP): governance structures (WP 1), risk assessment-risk management interactions (WP 2) and stakeholder communication (WP 3). The report is an initial outcome of the RISKGOV project, in which risk governance in various areas eventually will be compared in order to gain new insights on environmental risk governance and to extract policy-relevant advise on how to better deal with environmental risks in the Baltic Sea context. The report is based on a study of key documents treating policies and risks, 22 semi-structured in-depth interviews with stakeholders conducted in the period February–October 2010, as well as participatory observations at scientific conferences and stakeholder meetings.WP 1 identifies the most important risk governance structures, and maps actors and regulations. In particular, it is concluded that development at the EU and HELCOM level are of main importance for the management of chemicals in the Baltic Sea region. Thus, actors within the EU and HELCOM, as well as regulations within EU – most notably the Water Framework Directive (WFD), the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), and the REACH regulation – and regulations and recommendations dealt with by HELCOM – in particular the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) – were identified as crucial for further analyses in WP 2 and WP 3. Although we recognise the importance and the substantial improvements that have been made in chemical regulation within the EU and HELCOM, these developments are not sufficient in order to meet key objective at hand, nor do they adequately manage relations with Russia. WP 1 concludes that, although there are numerous of national and international regulations creating a massive web of regulations, existing chemical regulation and informal governance structures are very far from covering all existing chemical risks (especially new chemicals and mixtures of chemicals) and to allow for a sufficient extent of safety. Care must be taken in the development of new regulations to promote synergies and data exchange rather than causing further barriers, overlaps and conflicts that could reduce the efficiency. Innovative policy developments, as well as improved international collaboration, are therefore needed, which will be placed in focus in further studies within the RISKGOV project.WP 2 focuses on an in-depth understanding of the interactions between risk assessment and risk management of chemicals. The main assessment and management activities in the Baltic Sea region are identified and analysed. It is concluded that assessments commonly are based on a rather technocratic separation of assessment and management activities (with often unclear strategies for bringing these activities together in decision-making). Assessments also generally suffer from lack of data, insufficient harmonisation of methodology, as well as unclear strategies for assessing uncertainties and adjusted communication of assessment results. Consequently, assessments would benefit greatly from more harmonised assessment methodologies, not least for chemical mixtures, ecological effects as well as methods for integrating various lines of evidence. Both assessment and management might benefit from increased stakeholder participation. Furthermore, we have analysed risk assessment and management interactions through the prisms of uncertainty and the Ecosystem Approach to Management (EAM). These aspects have become top challenges for the assessment and management of chemical risks as well as for coping with science-policy interactions connected with the governance of chemical risks. We conclude that the enormous knowledge gap (for most chemicals, for the risks of chemical mixtures, for ecosystem-specific risks etc) need to be addressed by combining increased efforts on data and knowledge production with better ways of assessing, communicating and managing uncertainty. Hence, a main question is how much evidence is needed for motivating decision-making on risk reduction. This is a policy-related issue, not a scientific one. However, science does need to develop and implement improved methodology for assessing and communicating uncertainty to relevant stakeholders. On the management side, the precautionary principle is increasingly stipulated for coping with uncertainty. In spite of that, there is no consensus on the exact implementation of the principle in practice, and regulations such as REACH, the WFD, the MSFD and the BSAP ought to be developed on this point. Risk reduction is needed and motivated even, or even particularly, under uncertainty. Looking at the EAM, the approach is clearly receiving increase attention (e.g. in the BSAP and the MSFD), but only partially in the field of chemical regulation and concrete measures. So far, it is therefore not certain that the EAM will substantially improve risk management in cases of high uncertainty. On the contrary, requirements on implementation of the EAM may stall measures and increase complexity. These initial insights will be further developed in coming RISKGOV publications.WP 3 describes and analyses how risks of hazardous chemicals are framed by key actors and stakeholders in the Baltic Sea region, such as governments, agencies, regionally inter-governmental agencies such as HELCOM, economic actors, academia, and civil society. It is shown that different actors have different ways of framing the risk of chemicals in the Baltic Sea. For example, differences were observed along a gradient spanning from framing chemicals and chemical products as basically useful for society, to framing chemicals as substantial threats to the environment and human health. Most interviewed stakeholders could be placed somewhere in the middle of this gradient between benefit and cost. This is reflected in the dominant opinions expressed on required general management approaches, which do not fundamentally question abundant production of chemicals, but rather suggest a focus on managing chemicals with proven hazardous properties, thus tilting towards a market rather than an environmental starting point. This view on chemical risk management is rather surprising given the major uncertainties and lack of data described in WP 2. In light of this we propose that the management of chemicals might benefit from a shift towards seeing quality of life as based on sufficiency of chemicals rather than on (over)-abundance of them. Many of the interviewed stakeholders (e.g. politicians, journalists and NGO staff) also expressed a surprising lack of interest in the environmental risks of hazardous chemicals in the Baltic Sea region. If concern mostly expressed was health risks of chemicals. It is also clear that besides some NGOs and other stakeholders, quite few have a primary focus on taking initiatives for improving the management of chemicals, something that is a problem given the common political ambitions to increase participation in connection with implementation of the EAM. WP 3 also analyses existing institutional arrangements for and procedures of risk communication at the regional Baltic Sea level. Clearly, communication between the EU and Russia is still in need of improvement, as is two-way communications and cooperation between stakeholders, as well as between actors connected with risk assessment and risk management and the general public. For example, in those (rare) cases when scientific information about chemicals does exist, it is not well communicated among knowledge producers and stakeholders, and current scientific assessment activities seldom relate directly to concerns of stakeholders or the public. In conclusion our initial analysis and conclusions show that risks of chemicals are rather dealt with by traditional risk-based governmental strategies, than by broad environmental governance, based on precaution and the ecosystem approach to management. Furthermore, there are no clear strategies or guidelines on how to cope with uncertainty in assessment and management. As a result, even though there is a growing scientific capacity to develop new chemicals, there is at present no well functioning system for their safe management. We will address these challenges further in future RISKGOV publications.
Ocean and Coastal Management 2010, 53 (4): 150-160.
Coastal areas in East Africa are experiencing rapid economic, resource management, demographic and technological shifts. In response diverse Community-based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) applications have been embraced to provide mutual conservation and use benefits. These initiatives have met with mixed success in practice. Reflecting on the limitations of past research using common pool resources theory theory to study CBNRM we use insights from actor oriented theory combined with satellite image analysis to describe and discuss the forces dynamically influencing institutional and mangrove forest cover change at Kisakasaka, Zanzibar focussing on the formal CBNRM project period between 1996 and 2001, but also considering the period before and after this. We examine the shifting social relations that affected the performance and viability of the formal CBNRM arrangements. An integrated approach was taken to the presentation and discussion of results where it was possible to enrich and expand explanations of socio-environmental change, which was driven by a lack of government support, the undermining effects of party political divisions, and the lack of institutional adaptive capacity. We conclude that this was a useful approach to explain CBNRM intervention events at Kisakasaka.
Chitinase genes revealed and compared in bacterial isolates, DNA extracts and a metagenomic library from a phyto... Mer info
FEMS Microbiology Ecology 2010, 71 (2): 197-207.
Soil that is suppressive to disease caused by fungal pathogens is an interesting source to target for novel chitinases that might be contributing towards disease suppression. In this study, we screened for chitinase genes, in a phytopathogen-suppressive soil in three ways: (1) from a metagenomic library constructed from microbial cells extracted from soil, (2) from directly extracted DNA and (3) from bacterial isolates with antifungal and chitinase activities. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of chitinase genes revealed differences in amplified chitinase genes from the metagenomic library and the directly extracted DNA, but approximately 40% of the identified chitinase terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) were found in both sources. All of the chitinase TRFs from the isolates were matched to TRFs in the directly extracted DNA and the metagenomic library. The most abundant chitinase TRF in the soil DNA and the metagenomic library corresponded to the TRF103 of the isolate Streptomyces mutomycini and/or Streptomyces clavifer. There were good matches between T-RFLP profiles of chitinase gene fragments obtained from different sources of DNA. However, there were also differences in both the chitinase and the 16S rRNA gene T-RFLP patterns depending on the source of DNA, emphasizing the lack of complete coverage of the gene diversity by any of the approaches used.
International Assessment of Agricultural Science and Technology for Development - North Americaand Europe (NAE) ReportMer info
International Assessment of Agricultural Science and Technology for Development - Synthesis Report : A Synthesis of the Global and Sub-Global IAASTD ReportsMer info
The Commons Digest 2009, 8 : 1-10.
Common pool resource theory has become the dominant theoretical and practical strategy to study and design natural resource management institutions. This paper contrasts the common pool resource theory (CPR) with that of actor-network theory (ANT) by employing the rhetorical device of a conversational piece between two researchers. Examining their respective approaches to understanding highlights the ontological and epistemological differences between the two approaches, and how they could be used to investigate community based nature resource management. For illustrative purposes we draw on our empirical work on community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) in Kisakasaka, Zanzibar. Some common misconceptualizations and misunderstandings of actor-network theory are clarified by examining some often taken for granted common pool resource assumptions about rationality, objectivity, framing, scale and what constitutes common sense when undertaking social science research. The paper concludes equivocally by suggesting that although the two research approaches should not be hybridised, separately employed they might shed light on different aspects of community-based natural resource management projects.
Trends in Biotechnology 2008, 26 (11): 591-601.
Soil teems with microbial genetic information that can be exploited for biotechnological innovation. Because only a fraction of the soil microbiota is cultivable, our ability to unlock this genetic complement has been hampered. Recently developed molecular tools, which make it possible to utilize genomic DNA from soil, can bypass cultivation and provide information on the collective soil metagenome with the aim to explore genes that encode functions of key interest to biotechnology. The metagenome of disease-suppressive soils is of particular interest given the expected prevalence of antibiotic biosynthetic clusters. However, owing to the complexity of soil microbial communities, deciphering this key genetic information is challenging. Here, we examine crucial issues and challenges that so far have hindered the metagenomic exploration of soil by drawing on experience from a trans-European project on disease-suppressive soils denoted METACONTROL.
Environmental Management 2008, 41 (5): 663-675.
This study employs insights largely derived from critical reflections on the common pool resources (CPR) theory to examine the current governance arrangements in place to manage the mangrove forest at Kisakasaka, in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Kisakasaka was used as a site for a community-based management pilot project of forest resources in Zanzibar. After some initial success in setting up a local management structure and regulating access to the mangrove for mainly charcoal production, there are now clear indications that forest conditions have deteriorated dramatically with concomitant ongoing resource use problems for local villagers who have relied heavily on forest resources as a source of cash income. Extra-local factors, such as urban population increases and associated market pressures for charcoal, are also conjectured to overlay and interact with the institutional problems at Kisakasaka. As a result, over concern about the deterioration in the condition of the mangrove forest, the responsible government authority decided not to renew the community-based governance arrangements after an initial five-year pilot period. While revealing the inadequacies of existing governance arrangements and of its relationship to deteriorating forest conditions at Kisakasaka, this study concludes by suggesting an approach to more fully understand forces driving local resource management and use.
Environmental Microbiology 2008, 10 (8): 2051-2063.
Community structures of active bacterial populations were investigated along a vertical redox profile in coastal Baltic Sea sediments by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library analysis. According to correspondence analysis of T-RFLP results and sequencing of cloned 16S rRNA genes, the microbial community structures at three redox depths (179, -64 and -337 mV) differed significantly. The bacterial communities in the community DNA differed from those in bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labelled DNA, indicating that the growing members of the community that incorporated BrdU were not necessarily the most dominant members. The structures of the actively growing bacterial communities were most strongly correlated to organic carbon followed by total nitrogen and redox potentials. Bacterial identification by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from clones of BrdU-labelled DNA and DNA from reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that bacterial taxa involved in nitrogen and sulfur cycling were metabolically active along the redox profiles. Several sequences had low similarities to previously detected sequences, indicating that novel lineages of bacteria are present in Baltic Sea sediments. Also, a high number of different 16S rRNA gene sequences representing different phyla were detected at all sampling depths.
Metagenomic approach for the isolation of a novel low-temperature-active lipase from uncultured bacteria of mari... Mer info
FEMS Microbiology Ecology 2007, 59 (2): 524-534.
A novel lipase was isolated from a metagenomic library of Baltic Sea sediment bacteria. Prokaryotic DNA was extracted and cloned into a copy control fosmid vector (pCC1FOS) generating a library of > 7000 clones with inserts of 24-39 kb. Screening for clones expressing lipolytic activity based on the hydrolysis of tributyrin and p-nitrophenyl esters, identified 1% of the fosmids as positive. An insert of 29 kb was fragmented and subcloned. Subclones with lipolytic activity were sequenced and an open reading frame of 978 bp encoding a 35.4-kDa putative lipase/esterase h1Lip1 (DQ118648) with 54% amino acid similarity to a Pseudomomas putida esterase (BAD07370) was identified. Conserved regions, including the putative active site, GDSAG, a catalytic triad (Ser148, Glu242 and His272) and a HGG motif, were identified. The h1Lip1 lipase was over expressed, (pGEX-6P-3 vector), purified and shown to hydrolyse p-nitrophenyl esters of fatty acids with chain lengths up to C-14. Hydrolysis of the triglyceride derivative 1,2-di-O-lauryl-rac-glycero-3-glutaric acid 6'-methylresorufin ester (DGGR) confirmed that h1Lip1 was a lipase. The apparent optimal temperature for h1Lip1, by hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl butyrate, was 35 degrees C. Thermal stability analysis showed that h1Lip1 was unstable at 25 degrees C and inactivated at 40 degrees C with t(1/2) < 5 min.
Environmental Microbiology 2006, 8 (2): 223-232.
Nearly half the seabed of the Baltic Proper is incapable of supporting life of higher organisms as a consequence of oxygen depletion resulting from eutrophication. However, these areas are actually teeming with microbial life. Here we used terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) to investigate the dominant archaeal and bacterial groups, with respect to community structure, in surface layers of bottom sediments of the Baltic Sea along a coastal pollution gradient. Both archaeal and bacterial communities formed distinct clusters along the pollution gradient and the community compositions were different at the polluted sites compared with the relatively clean reference sites. The structures of the bacterial communities were most strongly correlated to water depth, followed by organic carbon, oxygen, salinity and silicate levels. In contrast, the structures of the archaeal communities were most strongly correlated to oxygen, salinity, organic carbon, silicate and nitrate levels. Some members of the microbial communities were identified using a combination of traditional and molecular approaches. Isolates obtained on different culture media were identified by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA genes and some novel species were found. In addition, we developed a computer program, APLAUS, to elucidate the putative identities of the most dominant community members by T-RFLP.
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 2005, 63 (3): 397-406.
The bacterial diversity and nutrient dynamics of mangrove sediments in Kisakasaka, Tanzania, was investigated in order to evaluate potential changes associated with deforestation of mangroves. Study sites included relatively undisturbed, recently protected mangroves and clear-cut mangrove areas that were sampled during both the wet and dry seasons. Physicochemical parameters, nitrogenase activity, pore water nutrient concentrations and bacterial diversity were measured in sediment depth profiles using both molecular and chemical techniques. Results show that there are significant differences in sediment pore water nutrient concentrations and bacterial diversity in sediments of mangrove areas which have been deforested compared to those which have been protected. Average measured values for protected and deforested areas, respectively, were: sulphide (S-2-),S- < 42 +/- 10 mu M and > 1.9 +/- 0.5 mM at 30 cm depth; ammonium (NH4+), 58 +/- 2 mu M and 113 +/- 12 mu M at 4-5 cm depth; soluble reactive phosphate, 40.2 +/- 11 mu M and 18.4 +/- 1.2 at 4-5 cm depth. Nitrogen fixation rates were lower in deforested areas during day and night, organic content was higher in protected areas (20 +/- 5%) compared to deforested areas (12 +/- 3%). The bacterial diversity was lower in deforested areas as determined by Shannon index using 16S rRNA gene analysis with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism.
A population genomic analysis of blue mussels identifies genomic regions associated with sewage treatment plant ... Mer info
This paper presents a study of the roles of a business person articulated byteachers in the classroom when the concept of sustainable development is incorporated into the subject of business economics. The empirical material, consisting of video recorded observations in five teachers’ classrooms, was collected two years after the inclusion of the concept in theupper secondary school syllabus in Sweden. The concept of logics developed within a discourse theoretical framework is used to analyse the meaning of ‘doing business sustainably’ as depicted by teachers in classroom practice. The paper illustrates that different rules and conditions for doing business are foregrounded in classroom practice by distinguishing between the logics of self-interest, conscious consumers and stakeholders’ interests. Each logic positions a business person differently. These positions are analysed using a typology of responsibility. The conclusion is that students could become unequipped, ill-equipped or better equipped to address uncertain and complex sustainability issues depending on how sustainable development is integrated into the business curriculum.