Kvalificerade och kreativa forskningsmiljöer som spänner över många discipliner och områden.
Vår forskning eftersträvar en hög samhälls- och samtidsrelevans i förening med ett aktivt och kritiskt förhållningssätt till det förflutna. Forskningen vid högskolan vänder sig i allmänhet ut mot världen även inom ämnen som av hävd studerar den egna nationella kulturen och historien. Ett viktigt ledord är mångvetenskap.
PublikationerHär publiceras löpande publikationer från publikationsdatabasen DiVA.
Trade and Investment in the Baltic Sea Region, 1990-2015 - Lessons and Implications for Region-BuildingMer info
Home is the "place of women's strength" - gendering housing in soviet and post-soviet RussiaMer info
Lanham : Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2018.
This book traces the originality of Andrey Platonov’s vision of the Revolution in readings of his works. It has been common in Platonov scholarship to measure him within the parameters of a political pro et contra the October Revolution and Soviet society, but the proposal of this book is to look for the way in which the writer continuously asked into the disastrous aspects of the implementation of a new proletarian community for what they could tell us about the promise of the Revolution to open up the experience of the world as common. In readings of selected works by Andrei Platonov I follow the development of his chronicle of revolutionary society, and from within it the outline of the forgotten utopian dream of a common world. I bring Platonov into a dialogue with certain questions that arise from the philosophy of Martin Heidegger and that were later re-addressed in the works of Maurice Blanchot, Georges Bataille and Jean-Luc Nancy, related to the experience of the modern world in terms of communality, groundlessness, memory, interiority. I show that Platonov writes the Revolution as an implementation of common being in society that needs to retrieve the forgotten memory of what being in common means.
Endocrine disruption in fish - Effects of 17α-ethinylestradiol exposure on non-reproductive behavior, fertility and brain and testis transcriptomeMer info
Den akvatiska miljön är ofta särskilt utsatt för miljöföroreningar då de flesta ämnen förr eller senare sprids dit genom bland annat markavrinning, nedfall från luften och/eller från vattenreningsverk. Syntetiskt östrogen som används i p-piller, 17α-etinylestradiol (EE2), sprider sig ofta till vattenmiljön från avloppsvatten, då det bara delvis renas bort i vattenreningsprocessen. EE2 är ett hormonstörande ämne med förmågan att ansamlas i organismer och mer än tio gånger så verksamt i fisk som det naturliga hormonet estradiol (E2). Man har tidigare sett att exponering för EE2 även i de låga halter som påvisas vid vattenreningsverk bland annat har lett till minskade produktion av ägg och spermier samt förändrade parningsbeteenden.I denna avhandling undersöks effekterna av EE2 på fiskars icke-reproduktiva beteende och fertilitet. Dessa faktorer är av hög ekologisk relevans för fisk då förändringar på dessa kan ge negativa effekter på populationsnivå. Resultaten visar att zebrafisk som exponeras för låga halter av EE2 under utvecklingen uppvisar ett mer ängsligt beteende och har lägre fertilitet när de blir vuxna även efter en lång återhämtningsperiod i rent vatten. Det förändrade beteendet uppvisas även hos avkomman till dessa fiskar. Förändringarna i beteende och fertilitet åtföljdes av förändringar i hjärnans och testikelvävnadens transkriptom, dvs. förändringar i vilka gener som uttrycks. I zebrafiskens testikelvävnad hittades bland annat en skillnad i uttryck av gener kopplade till könsdifferentiering och utveckling samt spermatogenesen, gener som kan ha betydelse för den nedsatta fertiliteten. I zebrafiskens hjärna hittades ingen skillnad i uttryck på gener direkt kopplade till stressaxeln men däremot på flera andra gener i nätverk som indirekt kan kopplas till det ängsliga beteendet som dygnsrytm och kolesterolsyntes. I naturen exponeras organismer ofta för en blandning av föroreningar. Därför undersöktes också effekter av EE2 i kombination med citalopram, ett antidepressivt läkemedel som ofta påvisas i vattenmiljön, för att undersöka om förändringar i beteende kan påvisas även vid väldigt låga koncentrationer av varje ämne och, om så är fallet, vilka effekter en kombination av de två ämnena ger. Vuxna zebrafiskar uppvisade beteendeförändringar även vid dessa låga koncentrationer efter två veckors exponering och de två ämnena påverkade beteendet olika var för sig och i kombination. Vidare, användes vildfångad storspigg i ett exponeringsexperiment för att undersöka om resultaten från zebrafisken, som är en avlad laboratoriefisk, kan ses också i vilda fiskpopulationer. Även storspiggar som exponerades för EE2 under utveckling fick ett modifierat beteende samt en skev könsfördelning som vuxna: fler honor fanns hos de storspiggar som exponerats och vidare undersökningar visade att dessa var genetiska hanar som utvecklats som honor.Den här avhandlingen visar beständiga förändringar i zebrafiskens transkriptom i hjärna och testikelvävnad efter exponering för EE2 i låga halter under utveckling. Både icke-reproduktiva beteenden och fertilitet visade sig känsliga för EE2 i såväl zebrafisk som storspigg och effekterna verkar vara permanenta. Sammanfattningsvis har EE2 effekter på ekologiskt relevanta faktorer hos fisk i de halter som förekommer i vattenmiljön och hormonstörande föroreningar som EE2 kan ge långvariga effekter som syns senare i livet även vid låga koncentrationer.
Postmemory and Copresence in Lisa Appignanesi and Emilia Degenius - Life Writing of the Polish DiasporaMer info
Visual signs like skin color are just one of many factors in how white femininity is being articulated and interpreted. Other important components are the concept of a Eurocentric and linear temporality and the importance of being situated as modern. This thesis explores how certain forms of white femininity, depending on their locus, are privileged while others are seen as broken according to a hierarchy of white femininityKey to the dissertation are fashion-oriented white Russian women living in Stockholm, St. Petersburg and Moscow who are trying to embody ideas of modernities and normative temporality through the body and the senses. One way of doing so is by controlling their sensory expressions and thus that which white subjectivity has a long history of trying to transcend: the body. An example of this is the attempt to control smell, which works as a reminder of the primitive, animal, and outdated parts of the human being.Instead of investigating the making of the modern body-controlled white femininity through discourses, representations or articulated thoughts, the thesis focuses on how white femininity is inscribed in racialized perceptions through the level of bodily habits – or more specifically bodily habituations of norms and body schedules. This is done through a multisensory method that centers the ways smell, the visual, the haptic and the tactile are used as a way to experience and express modernities. Another important factor is how white femininity never articulates itself alone, but is instead always-already intimately connected to other bodies and objects. Thus, white femininity must always be seen as an intercorporal exchange.
Journal of Genocide Research 2018, : -.
The ritualized memory of genocide has been a cornerstone of Roma political mobilization during at least the last three decades. A uniqueness paradigm has been developing for some time, applying a memorial discourse inspired by the Jewish Holocaust model. While paralleling each other in time, the mass murders of Jews and Roma during the Second World War differed on several points. In the General Government of the Occupied Polish Territories and the territories occupied by Nazi Germany after Operation Barbarossa, the persecution of Roma took place largely in local initiatives. Consequently, the Nazi policies varied considerably, leading to territories in which Roma were annihilated and those in which about half of the Roma population survived. Considerable differences could also appear within the same administrative unit. In Distrikt Galizien, the southeastern-most district of the General Government, Roma were persecuted violently in the countryside, while the district capital of Lemberg (Lwów, Lviv) saw a different course of events. The picture that appears from the available documents also diverges from survivor testimonies and general accounts of the persecution of Roma as being similar and parallel to that of Jews. Roma were present in Lemberg throughout the Nazi occupation and the authorities were aware of their whereabouts. Roma were not confined to the ghetto, but many, along with Poles and Ukrainians, remained within the territory of the ghetto, parts of which had constituted areas of Roma settlement in Lemberg since the mid nineteenth century. Several Roma also lived in wagons in various locations in 1942–43, as well as in quarters close to the town’s centre. Altogether, several hundred Roma lived in Lemberg, and their treatment by the local courts was different from that of Jews, bearing more similarity to the way in which Polish and Ukrainian cases were handled.
In: . : .
Ukrainian media community since 2013 is undergoing a painful process of continuously adjusting to and counteracting the circumstances of conflict, with external and internal propaganda, economic pressure being a consequence of the more general crisis, and guidelines coming from the state institutions, such as the Ministry of Information Policy (MIP) (e.g. Bolin, Jordan & Ståhlberg 2016, Pantti 2016, Nygren & Hök 2016). Nygren et al. (2016), based on content analysis and interviews with journalists, conclude that one of the main challenges for the Ukrainian journalists today is a conflict between the ideal of neutrality in coverage and favoring of “patriotic journalism” in practice. According to Ukrainian scholars, there are today three groups of journalists: patriotism-charged, who give up standards for the sake of fighting propaganda; supporters of universal standards; and a mixed group (Dutsyk 2017). In order to highlight the role of professional journalism organizations in this divide, this paper focuses on a specific case: project “Two countries – one profession” initiated and supported by the OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media. Being based on the dialogue between Ukrainian and Russian professional journalism organizations around professional standards and safety of journalists, the project is perceived as contradictory and provocative by a part of the Ukrainian media community who suggest that it is “non-patriotic” and “anti-Ukrainian”. The paper is based on analysis of observations of meetings between the National Union of Journalists of Ukraine and the Russian Union of Journalists, interviews with representatives of these and other media organizations and experts in Ukraine, focus groups with the journalists involved in the project, and negative and positive reactions to this project by the Ukrainian media community. It uses Hanitzsch’s model of deconstruction of journalism culture (Hanitzsch 2007, Nygren et al 2016) and Mouffe’s (2013, p.7) conceptualization of agonistic vs. antagonistic struggle.
In: Media and austerity. Abingdon : Routledge, 2018. 226-236.
The economic crisis of 2007/2008 constitutes a moment of rupture not only for the financial markets, but also in terms of political engagement. In reaction to the crisis thousands took to the streets and squares in order to express their critique of the current political and economic system. The critical juncture also highlighted the role of media technologies for political organization and participation, which is reflected in comments on protests related to the financial crisis often over-emphasizing digital social media. This chapter provides an alternative way of engaging with crisis-related protest that moves beyond notions such as networked protests and connected action. Instead the chapter suggests reinvigorating more traditional methods of narrative analysis and critical hermeneutics in order to make sense of representations of protest mobilizations in reaction to the financial crisis. The financial crisis and protest that emerged in response serve as backdrop in order to further the theoretical argument about what role narrative mediation plays in the construction of social reality.
International Journal of Early Childhood 2018, 50 (1): 1-14.
This article explores how constructions of identity, race and difference permeate and are challenged in a Swedish preschool class. The study is informed by theories of phenomenology and critical whiteness. Data are drawn from a larger ethnographic study conducted in an ethnically diverse preschool. The purpose of the study was to explore how preschool teachers manage and reflect upon the construction of children’s social identity within the institution of a preschool. This report considers one incident relating to racial identity. It began with a child’s representation, the boy named Stanley, in a self-portrait: ‘I want to be white and blonde when I grow up… I want to be like Oscar, not a black boy’. Within this article we consider teachers’ reflections on this incident, discussing how ‘whiteness’ is performed, constructed and interrogated by young children and adults in the preschool and uncovering a certain institutional ‘colour blindness’. In this example ‘race’ announces itself and the children make it visible as an existing category in their everyday life. Children’s drawings and narratives reveal much about the implicit understandings and norms that surround them, pointing to teachers’ responsibilities for exploring the possibilities and limitations offered in preschool education to deal with these understandings.
East European Politics 2018, 34 (2): 123-151.
This article seeks to explain public attitudes to secret surveillance. Secret surveillance, for example wiretapping by intelligence agencies, is a controversial activity that affects fundamental civil liberties in any democratic system. Several large research projects have recently attempted to explain how people form opinions about surveillance in general. Thereby privacy concerns and institutional trust are often highlighted. In this article, we argue that earlier research uses a too narrow definition of attitudes to surveillance and that secret surveillance is particularly sensitive due to its opaque character. We introduce a two-dimensional concept that focuses on rationalistic and emotional responses to surveillance. Drawing on new data from three post-communist societies – Estonia, Poland, and Serbia – we show how institutional trust is mainly responsible for explaining acceptance of secret surveillance, but not how one feels about it. Instead, it is the level of ontological insecurity and privacy concerns that explains this second dimension. The results are theorised and implications for future research are discussed. © 2018 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group
’They shouldn’t work all by themselves’ - Supervisors’ understandings of student independence in undergraduate projectsMer info
In: NERA 2018 - 46th CONGRESS Educational Research: Boundaries, Breaches and Bridges. Oslo : University of Oslo.
Title: “They shouldn’t work all by themselves!” Supervisors’ understandings of student independence in undergraduate projectsAuthors: Maria Zackariasson, professor, Södertörn University & Jenny Magnusson, lecturer, Södertörn UniversityThat independence is a concept of scholarly interest in relation to higher education, is evident within the research field on independent learning, as well as in research on supervision within higher education (eg Broad 2006; Cukurova et al 2017; Gurr 2010; Lau 2017; Lee 2008). That it also in other ways constitutes a significant concept within the academic context, is evident for instance in how independence in the Swedish Higher Education Ordinance is described as one of the main goals of higher education (Swedish Council for Higher Education 1993).At the same time, independence is characterized by a certain conceptual ambiguity, and, consequently, tends to be understood differently in different academic contexts, both nationally, internationally and interdisciplinary. This may pose a problem not least in relation to the supervision of undergraduate projects. In this paper we examine how supervisors understand the concept independence and how their understandings might influence their attitude to and practice of supervision of undergraduate projects. The analysis is based on focus group interviews with supervisors from two education programs, teacher education and journalism, in two countries, Sweden and Russia.In our findings we highlight and discuss several understandings of independence that were evident in our material, and in which phases of the undergraduate project these were regarded to be most significant. The theoretical framework for the paper connects to how a number of concepts that are central within higher education, such as criticality/critical thinking, learner autonomy and independent learning, tend to be characterized by conceptual ambiguity (cf Borg and Al-Busaidi 2012; Gardner 2007; Moore 2011). Using Wittgenstein’s ideas on family resemblances, we discuss how the concept independence may be understood in relation to such associated concepts (Wittgenstein 1958).The paper is of relevance to Nordic educational research through its focus on a concept that is rarely discussed and defined, even though it is most significant within higher education and for supervisors’ attitudes and didactic choices. ReferencesBorg, Simon, and Saleh Al-Busaidi. 2012. "Teachers’ beliefs and practices regarding learner autonomy." ELT Journal 66(3):283-92.Broad, James. 2006. "Interpretations of independent learning in further education." Journal of Further and Higher Education 30(2):119-43.Cukurova, Mutlu, Judith Bennett, and Ian Abrahams. 2017. "Students’ knowledge acquisition and ability to apply knowledge into different science contexts in two different independent learning settings." Research in Science & Technological Education:1-18.Gurr, Geoff. 2010. "Negotiating the "Rackety Bridge" — a Dynamic Model for Aligning Supervisory Style with Research Student Development." Higher Education Research & Development:81-92.Lau, Ken. 2017. "‘The most important thing is to learn the way to learn: evaluating the effectiveness of independent learning by perceptual changes." Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education 42(3):415-30.Lee, Anne. 2008. "How are doctoral students supervised? Concepts of doctoral research supervision." Studies in Higher Education 33(3):267-81.Moore, Tim John. 2011. "Critical thinking and disciplinary thinking: a continuing debate." Higher Education Research & Development 30(3).Swedish Council for Higher Education 1993. "The Higher Education Ordinance" Ministry of Education and Research. Accessed 2017-04-11. https://www.uhr.se/en/start/laws-and-regulations/Laws-and-regulations/The-Higher-Education-Ordinance/.Wittgenstein, Ludwig. 1958. Philosophical investigations. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Akademiskt utbyte och internationell migration - En studie av stipendiater inom Svenska institutets stipendieprogram 1997-2015Mer info
: , 2018. (Delmi Rapport ; 2018:2)
Akademisk mobilitet är en aspekt av internationell migration, som sällan får samma uppmärksamhet som flykt eller arbetskraftsmigration. Denna mobilitet möjliggörs ofta genom stipendier, och i Sverige är Svenska institutet en av de viktigaste stipendiegivarna. Föreliggande rapport handlar om personer som fått ett mobilitetsstipendium inom Visbyprogrammet. Programmet har funnits sedan 1997 och är inriktat mot länder i östra Europa. Ur ett migrationsperspektiv är dessa stipendiater en intressant grupp vad gäller migrationsmönster och internationella nätverk.Stipendieutdelning är en av många faktorer som är med och formar internationella migrationsflöden. Det innebär att de regler som svenska staten ställer upp för sina stipendier i kombination med Svenska institutets praktiska hantering av samma stipendier påverkar migrationen, då de gör internationell akademisk mobilitet möjlig för vissa specifika grupper. Över tid har Visbyprogrammet gått från att ha en näringslivsfrämjande, biståndspolitisk och tillväxtskapande inriktning till att handla om regionalt samarbete, avspänning och social utveckling. Programmet tillhör alltså tre politikområden, nämligen a) bistånds- och utvecklingsarbete, b) internationaliseringen av den högre utbildningen och c) offentlig diplomati, främjandet av Sverige och svensk ekonomi.Inom existerande forskning är det mycket ovanligt att ovan nämnda politikområden relateras till varandra. Studiens utgångspunkt är dock att relationen dem emellan är grundläggande för att förstå Visbyprogrammet. Utifrån detta antagande undersöks fem olika områden. Först och främst i vilken utsträckning stipendiaterna utgör en viktig resurs för ekonomin, politiken eller forskningen i sina hemländer (1), i vilken mån stipendiaterna fortfarande är förbundna med Sverige och det svenska samhället eller till och med är bosatta i Sverige och verksamma på svensk arbetsmarknad (2), samt om stipendiaterna flyttat vidare till andra länder och en internationell arbetsmarknad (3). Därutöver undersöks även i vilken utsträckning stipendierna skapar ett utbildningskapital, ett språkligt kapital och ett svenskt symboliskt kapital (4), samt hur stipendiaterna själva värderar sin stipendievistelse och de primäramotiven för att söka sig till Sverige (5).Som underlag för den aktuella studien genomfördes en enkätundersökning med tidigarelångtidsstipendiater inom Visbyprogrammet. Enkäten innehöll 34 frågor ochbesvarades av total 482 personer. Huvudresultaten är att stipendiatsgruppen harförändrats mellan 1997 och 2015. Från att initialt ha kommit från Baltikum, Polenoch Ryssland, kommer dagens stipendiater företrädelsevis från Ukraina, Rysslandoch Vitryssland. Dessutom har stipendiaternas ämnesinriktning förskjutits frånteknik och naturvetenskap mot samhällsvetenskap och humaniora. Orsaken tilldetta är att ekonomi och tillväxt tonats ned inom Visbyprogrammet till förmånför säkerhetspolitik och bistånd. Ett politiskt formulerat stipendieprogram som Visbyprogrammet och en mediär som Svenska institutet, har därmed en stor betydelseför hur den internationella student- och forskarmobiliteten ser ut och hur den varierar över tid.Ett annat centralt resultat är att stipendieperioden öppnar upp för tre olika livsbanor. Majoriteten av respondenterna flyttade tillbaka till sina hemländer (50 procent)medan mer än en på fyra (27 procent) bodde kvar i Sverige. En nästan lika stor grupp (23 procent) bosatte sig istället i ett tredje land, vanligtvis ett västeuropeiskt land eller USA. Samma mönster syns även om man ser till de länder där respondenterna bott en kortare period efter stipendieperioden. En vistelse i Sverige genererar alltså utbildningskapital som även har ett värde i andra länder. Visbystipendierna fungerar som en viktig del i en såväl socialt uppåtstigande som geografisk mobilitetsrörelse.Den främsta pullfaktorn för att söka sig till just Sverige var dock existensen av stipendierna och den ekonomiska säkerhet de innebär. En övervägande majoritet av stipendiaterna uppskattar att tiden i Sverige har haft en avgörandebetydelse för deras vidare karriär, men också att de har kunnat etablera stabila kontakter mellan Sverige och ursprungslandet.
I tre arkivbaserade filmer av Harun Farocki, Yael Hersonski och Eyal Sivan reaktiveras och omtolkas rörliga bilder från Förintelsen. I en tid då de sista vittnena snart kommer att vara borta inställer sig frågan om vad för slags vittnesmål bilder kan ge för att bevara minnet. I den här avhandlingen undersöks rörliga bilder som komplexa enheter som producerats, reproducerats och resituerats i skilda politiska och historiska situationer.Råmaterial som producerats som nazistisk propaganda respektive videoinspelningen av en politiskt laddad rättegång i Förintelsens efterspel får en ny mening. Materialens arkivstatus, kontext och produktionsvillkor, liksom deras representation, ger ett ramverk för en analys genom vilken bilders vittnesmål kan förstås.
Collective action and agency in Baltic Sea marine spatial planning - Transnational policy coordination in the promotion of regional coherenceMer info
Marine Policy 2018, 92 : 138-147.
Despite the increasing attention given to marine spatial planning and the widely acknowledged need for transnational policy coordination, regional coherence has not yet improved a great deal in the Baltic Sea region. Therefore, the main objectives in this article are: (a) to map existing governance structures at all levels that influence how domestic marine spatial planning policy strategies are formed, (b) to identify specific challenges to improved regional cooperation and coordination, and (c) to discuss possible remedies. Based on data from in-depth case studies carried out in the BONUS BALTSPACE research project, it is shown that, despite the shared goal of sustainability and efficient resource use in relevant EU Directives, action plans and other policy instruments, domestic plans are emerging in diverse ways, mainly reflecting varying domestic administrative structures, sectoral interests, political prioritisations, and handling of potentially conflicting policy objectives. A fruitful distinction can be made between, on the one hand, regulatory institutions and structures above the state level where decision-making mechanisms are typically grounded in consensual regimes and, on the other hand, bilateral, issue-specific collaboration, typically between adjacent countries. It is argued that, to improve overall marine spatial planning governance, these two governance components need to be brought together to improve consistency between regional alignment and to enhance opportunities for countries to collaborate at lower levels. Issue-specific transnational working groups or workshops can be one way to identify and act upon such potential synergies.
Insolvensrättslig tidskrift 2018, 3 (1): 12-31.
Uppsatsen redogör för förklaringar till företagsdödlighet i såväl offentliga utredningar som inom ekonomisk och sociologisk forskning och teoribildning. Två fundamentalt olika föreställningar om hur och varför företag beter sig på ett visst sätt har dominerat de flesta studier. Ett perspektiv förutsätter en central roll för företagsledningens beslutsfattande och kompetens. Ett andra och motsatt perspektiv ser företags beteenden bestämda av externa krafter över vilka företagsledningen saknar kontroll. De olika föreställningarna påverkar resultat och slutsatser inom forskningen och har också betydelse för utformningen av den ekonomiska politiken.
In: The Palgrave Handbook of Women and Gender in Twentieth-Century Russia and the Soviet Union. London : Palgrave Macmillan, 2018. 117-131.
This chapter examines the work of the Commission for the Improvement of the Work and Everyday Life of Women (KUTBZh), focusing on the intersection of Soviet policies on women’s emancipation with the politics of emancipation of nations, starting with those who were classified before 1917 as inorodtsy. The chapter examines in particular detail the work of KUTBZh in the Volga-Urals region. KUTBZh held a very unstable position, vacillating between the role of offering choices and new opportunities for women and serving as a state-directed vehicle for forced Sovietisation. As time went by, it was the latter role that dominated. © The Author(s) 2018.
Energilandskap i förändring - Inramningar av kontroversiella lokaliseringar på norra GotlandMer info
Energisystemet omstruktureras. Nya energikällor tillkommer och andra fasas ut samtidigt som efterfrågan på energi kvarstår ur ett globalt perspektiv. Lokaliseringen av de fysiska strukturer som genererar och distribuerar energi innebär en högst praktisk påverkan i den fysiska omgivningen liksom i det sociala landskapet innan, under och efter en etablering, vilket gör det relevant att undersöka hur nya lokaliseringar av energiinfrastruktur tas emot. Det övergripande syftet med den här avhandlingen i sociologi är därför att bidra till en ökad förståelse av lokal hantering av globala energidilemman.I avhandlingen analyseras lokaliseringar av kontroversiella energiprojekt, eller mer specifikt hur två sådana fall förstås och tolkas av berörda aktörer. Det görs genom ett teoretiskt ramverk baserat på inramningsteori (frame analysis) och sociala praktiker. Studien erbjuder en sociologiskt grundad förståelse av plats och förståelsens betydelse för inställningen till lokaliseringar av energiinfrastruktur.Avhandlingens empiriska fall utgörs av lokaliseringen av logistiskt arbete kring byggandet av en storskalig naturgasledning och av en planerad men inte realiserad etablering av en vindkraftspark till nordöstra Gotland. Dessa studeras genom intervjuer, observationer och textanalyser.Studien visar hur olika aktörer kombinerar och väger olika aspekter mot varandra i sina inramningskonstruktioner. Resultaten visar att även komponenter bortom det lokala ingår i inramningarna och att de inkluderar relationer mellan olika aktörer liksom förändring över tid. Denna förståelse presenteras genom en analys av fyra centrala aspekter – platsrelaterade, platsöverskridande, position och process – vilka tillsammans fångar den multidimensionalitet och komplexitet som kännetecknar kontroversiella lokaliseringar. Ett resultat är att den mest framgångsrika inramningsstrategin visade sig vara att särkoppla olika aspekter, det vill säga att uppmärksamma flera olika aspekter men på olika sätt hålla dem isär. En av studiens styrkor är att den inkluderar såväl strategiska inramningar som görs av olika aktörer i syfte att exempelvis få en lokalisering till stånd eller förhindra densamma, som inramningar som görs av dem som inte tar aktiv del i den formella lokaliseringsprocessen. Det ger en komplex bild som sträcker sig bortom policynivån och som visar att det inte finns en enstämmig förståelse i ”lokalsamhället”. Avhandlingen bidrar därmed till att bredda förståelsen av inramningar av kontroversiella lokaliseringar.
Фотографический реализм» в эпоху цифровых медиа - фотожурналистика и визуальная грамотность в России и ШвецииMer info
In: ЖУРНАЛИСТИКА В 2017 ГОДУ [Journalism in 2017]. Moscow : MediaMir, Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University.
С развитием цифровых технологий и онлайн-среды профессии фотожурналистов был брошен вызов. Несмотря на то, что использование любительских фотографий, монтаж и редактирование изображений появились в журналистике не сегодня, по мнению некоторых исследователей, нынешняя ситуация позволяет говорить не просто об изменениях, а о смене парадигм (Solaroli 2015). Одним из аспектов смены парадигм является распространенность гражданской фотожурналистики и моментальность распространения снимков; другим – легкость пост-продакшна, где редактирование фотографий является скорее правилом, чем исключением (Stiegler 2002, Van Dijck 2008). Более того, мы живем в эпоху, когда социальные медиа стали центральным источником новостей, что привело ко все возрастающему недоверию к фактам и элитам. Эти факторы бросают вызов профессиональному журналистскому сообществу и его методам освещения ситуации в мире, идеалам объективности и реалистичности (Mäenpää 2014). Тем не менее, среди множества голосов в цифровом медиа-ландшафте остается необходимость в профессиональном фотографе как надежном источнике интерпретации реальности (Åker 2012).В эпоху “пост-правды” и “альтернативных” фактов особенно важно понимать возможности и ограничения фотожурналистики в том, что касается правдивого освещения общественной ситуации. В данной презентации мы представляем исследовательский проект, целью которого является изучение изменений и вызовов профессии. Объектом исследования являются образовательные программы для будущих фотожурналистов в России и Швеции. Данные программы представляют собой пространство, в котором будущие профессиональные фотографы, преподаватели и опытные фотографы встречаются и формируют дискурсы и практики «фотографического реализма» (Schiller 1977, Barnhurst & Nerone 2000). Для их изучения мы используем теории о фотографической правдивости, культурах (фото)журналистики и визуальной грамотности (Messaris 1998, 2012). Сравнительный исследовательский проект отталкивается от предыдущих исследований, демонстрирующих, что российская и шведская журналистские культуры отличаются в подходах к объективности и реалистичности (Nygren et al 2015, Voronova 2014). Выбор данных двух контекстов может помочь в поиске как отличий, которые бросают вызов представлениям об универсальности журналистских идеалов, так и схожих характеристик.
Well salinization risk and effects of Baltic Sea level rise on the groundwater-dependent Island of Öland, Sweden Mer info
Water 2018, 10 (2): -.
In this study, we estimate baseline conditions in terms of the current risk of well salinization on the Baltic Sea island of öland, Sweden, and assess the effects of future sea level rise on the land area, infrastructure and cultural values. We use a multicriterion geographical information systems (GIS) approach. Geomorphological and physical parameters affect the risk of saltwater intrusion into freshwater aquifers, including their hydrology, geomorphology, and climatology; the spatial distribution of the current risk of salinization is mapped in this study. In the event of a future 2 m sea level rise, a total land area of 67 km2 will be inundated on öland, corresponding to approximately 5% of the island's land surface. Inundation includes urban areas, nature reserves, and animal protection areas, implying the loss of environmental and socioeconomic values. A future 2 m sea level rise will also cause direct inundation of 3% of all wells on the island. Currently, 17.5% of all wells are at a high risk of becoming saltwater contaminated. More generally, the present results add evidence showing a relatively high vulnerability of major Baltic Sea islands and their infrastructure to future sea level rise. The approach used here and related results, including salinization risk maps, may prove useful for decision-makers in the planning of infrastructure. Drilling of new wells could for instance preferably be done in areas with identified lower risk-index values, which would facilitate an overall higher freshwater withdrawal in the interest of the entire island. © 2018 by the authors.
Somatic symptoms and internalizing problems in urban youth - a cross-cultural comparison of Czech and Russian adolescents.Mer info
European Journal of Public Health 2018, : -.
Background: Although the association between somatic complaints and internalizing problems (anxiety, somatic anxiety and depression) is well established, it remains unclear whether the pattern of this relationship differs by gender and in different cultures. The aim of this study was to examine cross-cultural and gender-specific differences in the association between somatic complaints and internalizing problems in youth from the Czech Republic and Russia.Methods: The Social and Health Assessment, a self-report survey, was completed by representative community samples of adolescents, age 12-17 years, from the Czech Republic (N = 4770) and Russia (N = 2728).Results: A strong association was observed between somatic complaints and internalizing psychopathology. Although the levels of internalizing problems differed by country and gender, they increased together with and largely in a similar way to somatic complaints for boys and girls in both countries.Conclusion: The association between somatic symptoms and internalizing problems seems to be similar for boys and girls across cultures.
Community gardening in Stockholm - participation, driving forces and the role of the municipalityMer info
Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 2018, : 1-13.
The paper reports on a study of community gardening in Stockholm. We contribute to the body of knowledge about the sustainability of community gardens and this new form of citizen-led initiatives in Stockholm, with the ambition of creating a debate about the best way to sustain and develop these initiatives in Sweden. We argue that although community gardening may provide leverage for means of developing a sustainable city, it is a marginal phenomenon and contributes little to sustainable development its present form. Through interviews we have investigated how the citizens and municipality officers of Stockholm try to adapt to the renewed interest in community gardening by looking at the policy makers’, municipality officers’ and grassroots movements’ incentives to start community gardens. We specifically focus on how the community gardeners articulate their reasons for participating in collaborative initiatives in the city and how these expectations evolve when they are faced with the reality of gardening and the problems relating to producing food in the city. We have found that there are a growing number of citizens and local authorities advocating community gardening, but the sustainability and endurance of gardens are hampered by vague responsibilities, lack of leadership and unclear expectations of the outcome. Community gardening cases in Stockholm contribute to the debate by exemplifying how formal (e.g. policy making) and informal advocacy (e.g. civic engagement in community gardening) groups are collaborating, but also showing that they often have different agendas and initial motivations for setting up new gardens. We argue that uncritical enthusiasm results in an overly instrumental approach to governance of community gardening and that the sustainability and endurance of the community gardening is not an issue that the governing bodies plan for, and hence it is forgotten. We suggest some routes forward, involving employing facilitators from various stakeholders such as the municipality, housing companies and various NGOs.
In: Handbook on Marine Environment Protection. Dordrecht : Springer, 2018. 715-732.
While modern society is highly dependent on chemicals, numerous substances also turn out to be hazardous and many give rise to severe risks and problems in the marine environment. In response, national, regional and global chemical policies, often focusing on the land-based sources to marine pollution, have been developed, as outlined in the article. As a result, the levels of some pollutants have decreased, but the vast majority of substances are not controlled in line with the internationally stated objectives of sound management of chemicals. An environment-oriented development of present policies, implementing the precautionary principle, is considered needed in order to improve the situation, and the question is raised in the article whether the present main international chemicals agreements would not also gain from being merged into a global framework convention.
Multi biomarker analysis of pollution effect on resident populations of blue mussels from the Baltic Sea Mer info
Aquatic Toxicology 2018, 198 : 240-256.
Anthropogenic pollution including metals, petroleum, toxins, nutrients and many others is a growing problem in the marine environment. These are important factors altering the environment and by that the fate of many local populations of marine organisms. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of selected point pollution sources on resident populations of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis trossulus) in the Baltic Sea using multiple biomarker approach. The study used a nested sampling scheme in which sites from reference (REF) habitats are geographically paired with selected sites from sewage treatment plants (STP) and harbors (HAR). The results showed that mussels from harbors had a higher frequency of histological abnormalities in the digestive gland compared to mussels from sewage effluent affected areas and reference sites. However these mussels together with mussels from STPs had higher lipid content, body mass index (BMI) and gonado-somatic index (GSI) compared to mussels from reference sites. A marked spatial variability was found with a stronger toxicity of ambient environment affecting resident mussel populations in the Gulf of Gdańsk area, while an opposite pattern was found in Tvärminne area. Yet the blue mussels sampled in the Gulf of Gdańsk were characterized by the highest GSI and BMI values compared to Askö and Tvärminne populations. No differences in analyzed biomarker response related to species identity, measured by a species-specific genetic marker, were found indicative of strong genetic introgression in the Baltic Proper.
Childhood hunger and depressive symptoms in adulthood - findings from a population-based studyMer info
Journal of Affective Disorders 2018, 226 : 332-338.
Background: Several studies have linked childhood hunger to an increased risk for later depression. However, as yet, there has been little research on this relation in adults of all ages or whether there are sex differences in this association. The current study examined these issues using data from a national population-based sample.Methods: Data were analyzed from 5095 adults aged 25–84 collected during the Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006. Information was obtained on the frequency of going to bed hungry in childhood and on depressive symptoms using the Emotional State Questionnaire (EST-Q). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between hunger and depression while controlling for other demographic, socioeconomic and health-related variables.Results: In a fully adjusted model, going to bed hungry in childhood either sometimes or often was associated with significantly increased odds for adult depressive symptoms. When the analysis was stratified by sex the association was more evident in men where any frequency of childhood hunger was linked to adult depression while only women who had experienced hunger often had higher odds for depressive symptoms in the final model.Limitations: Data on childhood hunger were retrospectively reported and may have been affected by recall bias. We also lacked information on potentially relevant variables such as other childhood adversities that might have been important for the observed associations.Conclusion: Childhood hunger is associated with an increased risk for depressive symptoms among adults. Preventing hunger in childhood may be important for mental health across the life course.
Identities 2018, : -.
Migration literature has traditionally distinguished between different motivations of migration, such as labour, family and newly also lifestyle migration, never fully exploring the background of these motivations. This article suggests that these different motivations may be explained by different modes of reflexivity as distinguished by Margaret Archer. Linking modes of reflexivity with migration motivations addresses two problems in current migration literature. First, it provides for practical application of reflexivity in explaining migration motivations, which has been missing so far. Second, the article advocates using psycho-social approach as opposed to more commonly adapted ethnical or class based explanations in understanding migration behavior, hence avoiding the potential trap of falling into the trap of methodological nationalism or classism. Through the interview with highly-skilled Estonian migrants it is shown that the reasons of migration among highly skilled are versatile and cannot be explained solely by their class background.
Social Identities 2018, 24 (1): 120-133.
Whereas migration research has been heavily influenced by the individualization paradigm, studies on return migration have been more inspired by theories on attachment and belonging. It is common for this kind of research to assert that the main motivations for returning are social contacts and a homing desire. Although this article does not question the importance of such motivations for some, it does argue that return migration needs to be more problematized, not least by studying people who have decided not to return. Based on interviews with highly skilled Estonians, this article suggests that return decisions are influenced by three types of comparisons: social, temporal, and intra-subjective. The first two comparisons have been discussed to some degree in migration literature; however, a focus on intra-subjective comparisons – in which people compare different parts of their identity in order to decide on a potential return – has been scarce. This article suggests that, in line with the individualization of social relationships, but also with the introduction of a new EU mobility space, it is the latter type of comparison that is becoming increasingly widespread.
Journalism Studies 2018, 19 (7): 1059-1078.
War reporting has mostly been analyzed as a struggle between political and military control over information and journalistic professionalism. An analysis of reporting in mainstream media from the conflict in eastern Ukraine in 2014 shows that many other aspects must also be considered. In a comparative study, mainstream media coverage in four countries, Ukraine, Russia, Poland, and Sweden, was analyzed and interviews were held with journalists in the media included in the content analysis. Findings revealed significant variations in the framing of the conflict, portrayal of actors involved, and word choice across national settings. Interviews with journalists also highlighted crucial differences in approaches and perceptions. Results show that the specific journalistic culture in each country, self-censorship, and the degree of activist approach among journalists similarly play an important role in war reporting. Researchers from all four countries participated in the project.
Memoria e Ricerca 2017, 55 (2): 313-330.
After its inauguration in 2000, the Oresund bridge has allowed major mobility and flow of manpower, goods, and services between Sweden and Denmark. Was this the vision that Danes and Swedes have imagined over the past century and a half, when thinking of a bridge over the Sound? And, if so, why did it take more than one hundred years in order to start the construction of the øresundsförbindelsen? The aim of this article is to inquire how linking the two shores of the Sound, from being in the nineteenth century an idea of literates and politicians, was progressively filtered through a system of innovation to which actors and suprain-dividual social structures contributed. The study examines the political and economic ideas of the actors that have imagined the consequences of linking the two shores of the Sound: entrepreneurs, politicians, engineers, intellectuals, Swedish and Danish institutions, and the bilateral commissions. Contextualizing the idea of the link in the Swedish and Danish political history, the study offers an understanding of why the Oresund bridge has been finalized only at the end of the twentieth century. The study is based on published and unpublished sources conserved in several Swedish and Danish archives and libraries.
The Memory of Taras Bul'ba-Borovets' - A Regional Perspective on the Formation of the Founding Myth of the UPAMer info
Introduction: The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) in Post‐Soviet Ukrainian Memory Politics, Public ... Mer info
Ikaros, tidskrift om människan och vetenskapen 2017, 14 (2): 37-39.
Ett projekt som inleddes som en studie i nation branding i Ukraina kom efter Majdanrevolten 2013-14 att övergå i en undersökning av hur ukrainska myndigheter och medier hanterar information i konflikten mellan Ukraina och Ryssland. Ryssland antas ha en mäktig propagandaapparat, men hur agerar Ukraina i informationskriget mot Ryssland?
Revolutionary Russia 2017, 30 (2): 247-267.
Studies on Soviet culture have treated the aesthetics of the sublime predominantly in terms of the Soviet sublime as manifested in Stalinist culture. This article will argue that the sublime cannot, in its impact on Soviet aesthetics, be delimited to imperial representations. The aesthetics of the sublime in Romanticism and its continuation into modernism in European Literatures arose from a problematization of the very notion of representation in art, in the mind and in politics. The legacy of this aesthetics in Soviet literature can be linked to the paradoxical quest for a means of representing or writing the breakdown in the understanding of the world that occurred after the Revolution. As will be shown in examples from 1920s Soviet literature, the people appear as an immense natural force that demands a different means of presentation.
Musulʹmane v sovetskom Petrograde--Leningrade (1917-1991) = Muslims in Soviet Petrograd - Leningrad (1917-1991) Mer info
Нечёткие методы формализации стратегических карт Стейкхолдер организаций [Fuzzy methods of formalizing strategy ... Mer info
Azimuth of Scientific Research: Economics and Administration [Азимут научных исследований: Экономика и управление] 2017, 6 (4(21)): 216-220.
In: . : .
Background of the study While tourism in Stockholm is booming the little statistics that might serve as proxy indicates a standstill for the archipelago (Tillväxtverket 2016). Over the years, there has been some projects, e.g. Scandinavian Islands, Skärgårdssmak, and recently Hållbar Destinationsutveckling to get the businesses in the archipelago going. These seem not to have lasting impact and have preconceived solutions of the problems. The Central Baltic project Archipelago Business Development intends instead to inductively assess and address what problems entrepreneurs identify, systematising these in terms of business model development implications. A central feature of the project is also student participation, where university students om Finland and Sweden work with the problems in courses. Purpose of the study In terms of business strategy discussions, the infrastructural situation of the islanders, e.g. logistics, transportation and internet infrastructure, a configurational approach can be deepened, embellishing on the works like Wiklund & Shepherd (2005) assessing business performance based on the onstructs entrepreneurial orientation (Covin & Slevin, 1991), environmental dynamism (Miller, 1987a,b; Ketchen et al., 1993) and access to financial capital (Bourgeois, 1981; Zahra, 1991; Cooper et al., 1994, ). Also, the specific characteristics of the customers to the archipelago need to be addressed. The purpose of the study is to understand the entrepreneurs’ conception of tourist behaviour and its consequences for strategy. Methodology In an initial step, entrepreneurs are being tapped on their perceptions of customer behaviour through interviews and register data on actual tourist behaviour. For example in a course on business intelligence, students interview entrepreneurs, and then use the customers’ utilization of web based resources of one of the destinations is being used as base for students’ suggestions on destination approach to development issues. The project thus generates behavioural data, that can be assessed directly as well as indirectly through the entrepreneurs’ understanding. Results The project is not finished, so conclusive results are not at hand as of yet. Indications so far point in the direction that the rather large share of second home tourists are sceptical towards costly or peace- disturbing projects, which is in line with earlier findings (e.g. Löfgren, 1999), whereas occasional events have substantial attraction value. So far there has been limited data on occasional tourists, du to that high season has not been covered by the project yet. Expectations are here that it is more relevant to understand consumer behaviour from Belk’s (1988) idea that consumption patterns are best understood as identity building processes. Here preference for well-being is a hypothesised top candidate of travel motivation, based in preliminary interview data with entrepreneurs. The approach will also enable considering the geographical aspects of localisation and destination scale, which is not properly taken into consideration in the aforementioned model, as well as customer characteristics. The concept of environmental dynamics can be deeper understood, since many of the archipelago actors experience both high and low dynamism in different seasons. Since tourism generally is consumed as complex products, value architecture (Spieth & Schneider, 2016) and its implications for Coopetition (Bouncken & Fredrick, 2016a) and Business model innovation Bouncken & Fredrick, 2016b) will be further explored in other areas than ICT and Biotech SMEs. Conclusions, research implications and limitations As the project is not finished, there is not really grounds for drawing conclusions, and implications and limitations should also await the increased robustness available when the whole project is finished before evaluation. Of course, the shortcomings of idiosyncratic studies, like unclear representativeness of case studies, and volatility of values as well as memory problems affect on interview trustworthiness. References References Belk R.W. (1988). Possessions and the Extended Self. Journal of Consumer Research. 15(2), 139-168. Bouncken R.B., & Fredrick V. (2016a). Learning in coopetition: Alliance orientation, network size, and firm types. Journal of Business Research. 69(5), 1753–1758. Bouncken R.B., & Fredrick V. (2016b). Business model innovation in alliances: Successful configurations. Journal of Business Research, 69, 3584-3590. Bourgeois, L.J. (1981). On the measurement of organizational slack. Academy of Management Review. 6(1), 29–39. Cooper, A.C., Gimeno-Gascon, F.J., & Woo, C.Y. (1994). Initial human and financial capital as predictors of new venture performance. Journal of Business Venturing. 9, 371-395. Covin, J.G., & Slevin, D.P. (1991). A Conceptual Model of Entrepreneurship as Firm Behavior. Entrepreneurship, Theory and Practice, Fall, 7-25. Ketchen, D.J.Jr., Thomas, J.B., & Snow, C.C. (1993) Organizational configurations and performance: a comparison of theoretical approaches. Academy of Managent Journal. 36(6), 1278–1313. Löfgren, O. (1999). On holiday: A history of vacationing, California studies in critical human geography, 6. Berkeley, Ca.: University of California Press Miller, D. (1987a). Strategy making and structure: analysis and implication for performance. Academy of Managent Journal. 30 (1), 7–32. Miller, D. (1987b). The structural and environmental correlates of business strategy. Strategic Management. Journal. 8(1), 55–76. Spieth, P., & Schneider, S. (2016). Business model innovativeness: Designing a formative measure for business model innovation. Journal of Business Economics. Special Issue Business Model Innovation and Transformation, 86(6), 671–696. Tillväxtverket (2016). Fakta om Svensk Turism 2015. Stockholm: Tillväxtverket. Wiklund, J. & Shepherd, D. (2005). Entrepreneurial orientation and small business performance: a configurational approach. Journal of Business Venturing. 20, 71–91.
Educational Community Engagement – a chance for students in tourism to get closer to the chaos of the archipelag... Mer info
In: 26th Nordic Symposium of Tourism and Hospitality Research, October 4-6 2017, Falun, Sweden. Falun : Högskolan Dalarna.
While Tourism in Sweden is booming, the Stockholm Archipelago seems to be at a standstill at best (Tillväxtverket 2016) Attempts at seasonal prolongation show no clear results. Archipelago Business Development is a 3-years EU-Interreg project commenced October 2016 aiming at business model improvement. At Södertörn University, students from Tourism studies, Business Studies and Media Technology are enrolled. The project is on the Swedish side currently recruiting businesses to participate in the project. Pilots using course work, where students find their own empirical objects include intermediate level projects in Net-based Information Systems, Tourism innovation projects pursuing improvements in business models. Several bachelor, and master essays are under way. Students are to interact with entrepreneurs through business clinics –speed-dating like consultancies where the business bring their problems and students collaborate in teams to suggest solutions to the problems, possibly backed up by experts. Also, there is to be an accelerator programme where a selected number of entrepreneurs are in for a long term business model development project of longitudinal character, where students may join at a certain point or follow the process. In April 24th, there will be a student kick-off at Södertörn University with participants from the business side, municipalities and Swedish project partners and on April 26th, the corresponding event will be in Turku with all project partners. Expectations are that students will get a closer grip on the reality of businesses. At the time of the conference, experience from this pedagogical experiment will have some results to discuss.
In: 26th Nordic Symposium of Tourism and Hospitality Research, October 4-6 2017, Falun, Sweden. Falun : Högskolan Dalarna.
A BarCamp is a “non-conference” where neither speaker, program events nor seminars are predetermined. The starting point is just a common theme on which the participants shape the content and the setup of the event. The actual agenda is decided on the spot on issues agreed among the participants. Everyone participates equally in conversations and discussions and they are supposed to generously share their knowledge and experience. This paper aims to evaluate if a BarCamp actually is a NEW type of meeting or if it just a face-lift of all already well-known meeting forms in the literature. The study is based on observations and empirical material from three BarCamps that took place in Sigtuna, Sweden, between 2013 and 2016. Although nominations and votes on different topics suggestions and/or interesting issues in the initial plenary-meeting will decide what to be brought up on the BarCamp, it can be questioned how objective and “free minded” such determination actually is? As in every field based on social relations; professions, titles and experience might have a crucial effect on how the agenda will be set. Economic and/or political intentions might play a role as well, and perhaps the personality of the participants. However, result points out that there is a difference between such meetings where the participants creates the agenda without preparation on beforehand and more traditional meetings as for example company-meetings, conferences, congresses, incentives and events.
[A review of] Colby Howard & Ruslan Pukhov (eds), Brothers Armed: Military Aspects of the Crisis in Ukraine.... Mer info
Genetic differences between willow warbler migratory phenotypes are few and cluster in large haplotype blocks Mer info
Evolution Letters 2017, 1 (3): 155-168.
It is well established that differences in migratory behavior between populations of songbirds have a genetic basis but the actual genes underlying these traits remains largely unknown. In an attempt to identify such candidate genes we de novo assembled the genome of the willow warbler Phylloscopus trochilus, and used whole-genome resequencing and a SNP array to associate genomic variation with migratory phenotypes across two migratory divides around the Baltic Sea that separate SW migrating P. t. trochilus wintering in western Africa and SSE migrating P. t. acredula wintering in eastern and southern Africa. We found that the genomes of the two migratory phenotypes lack clear differences except for three highly differentiated regions located on chromosomes 1, 3, and 5 (containing 146, 135, and 53 genes, respectively). Within each migratory phenotype we found virtually no differences in allele frequencies for thousands of SNPs, even when comparing geographically distant populations breeding in Scandinavia and Far East Russia (>6000 km). In each of the three differentiated regions, multidimensional scaling-based clustering of SNP genotypes from more than 1100 individuals demonstrates the presence of distinct haplotype clusters that are associated with each migratory phenotype. In turn, this suggests that recombination is absent or rare between haplotypes, which could be explained by inversion polymorphisms. Whereas SNP alleles on chromosome 3 correlate with breeding altitude and latitude, the allele distribution within the regions on chromosomes 1 and 5 perfectly matches the geographical distribution of the migratory phenotypes. The most differentiated 10 kb windows and missense mutations within these differentiated regions are associated with genes involved in fatty acid synthesis, possibly representing physiological adaptations to the different migratory strategies. The ∼200 genes in these regions, of which several lack described function, will direct future experimental and comparative studies in the search for genes that underlie important migratory traits.
Stockholm Archipelago – arena for goose feeding entrepreneurs with solutions to non-prioritised problems or entr... Mer info
In: Nordic Geographers Meeting, Stockholm 18th –21st June 2017, Session L3: Rural entrepreneurship. : .
While tourism in Stockholm is booming the little statistics that might serve as proxy indicates a standstill for the archipelago (Tillväxtverket 2016). Over the years, there has been some projects, e.g. Scandinavian Islands, Skärgårdssmak, and recently Hållbar Destinationsutveckling to get the businesses in the archipelago going. These seem not to have lasting impact and have preconceived solutions of the problems. The Central Baltic project Archipelago Business Development intends instead to inductively assess and address what problems entrepreneurs identify, systematising these in terms of business model development implications. In terms of business strategy discussions, the infrastructural situation of the islanders, e.g. logistics, transportation and internet infrastructure, a configurational approach can be deepened, embellishing on the works like Wiklund & Shepherd (2005) assessing business performance based on the constructs entrepreneurial orientation (Covin & Slevin, 1991), environmental dynamism (Miller, 1987a,b; Ketchen et al., 1993) and access to financial capital (Bourgeois, 1981; Zahra, 1991; Cooper et al., 1994, ). The approach will also enable considering the geographical aspects of localisation and destination scale, which is not properly taken into consideration in the aforementioned model. The concept of environmental dynamics can be deeper understood, since many of the archipelago actors experience both high and low dynamism in different seasons. Since tourism generally is consumed as complex products, value architecture (Spieth & Schneider, 2016) and its implications for Coopetition (Bouncken & Fredrick, 2016a) and Business model innovation (Bouncken & Fredrick, 2016b) will be further explored in other areas than ICT and Biotech SMEs.References Bouncken R.B. & Fredrick V. (2016a) ”Learning in coopetition: Alliance orientation, network size, and firm types”, Journal of Business Research, 69(5), 1753–1758. Bouncken R.B. & Fredrick V. (2016b) ”Business model innovation in alliances: Successful configurations”, Journal of Business Research, 69, 3584-3590. Bourgeois, L.J. (1981) “On the measurement of organizational slack”, Academy of Management Review, 6(1), 29–39. Cooper, A.C. Gimeno-Gascon, F.J. & Woo, C.Y. (1994) “Initial human and financial capital as predictors of new venture performance”, Journal of Business Venturing, 9, 371-395. Covin, J.G. & Slevin, D.P. (1991) “A Conceptual Model of Entrepreneurship as Firm Behavior”, Entrepreneurship, Theory and Practice, Fall 1991, 7-25. Ketchen et al., (1993) Ketchen, D.J.Jr., Thomas, J.B. & Snow, C.C. (1993) “Organizational configurations and performance: a comparison of theoretical approaches” Academy of Managent Journal, 36(6), 1278–1313. Miller, D. (1987a) “Strategy making and structure: analysis and implication for performance”, Academy of Managent Journal, 30 (1), 7–32. Miller, D. (1987b) The structural and environmental correlates of business strategy” Strategic Management. Journal, 8(1), 55–76. Spieth, P., & Schneider, S. (2016) “Business model innovativeness: Designing a formative measure for business model innovation.” Journal of Business Economics. Special Issue Business Model Innovation and Transformation, 86(6), 671–696.Tillväxtverket (2016) Fakta om Svensk Turism 2015, Stockholm: Tillväxtverket. Wiklund & Shepherd (2005) “Entrepreneurial orientation and small business performance: a configurational approach”, Journal of Business Venturing, 20, 71–91.
Student Involvement as a Tool for Nurturing Business Model Development in Tourism Businesses in the Stockholm Ar... Mer info
In: 6th International Tourism Conference ENCUENTROS / AIRTH 2017 : Innovation in Tourism and Hospitality – Preparing for the Future. : AIRTH.
Tourism consumption in Sweden 2015 was SEK 263 billion, an increase by 7% from 2014 and 46,7% from 2005 (Tillväxtverket, 2016, p. 16). For Stockholm Archipelago, no statistics are available, but guest nights in the guest harbours can be a proxy for tourism development. In 2015 there were 172,531 overnight guests in private yachts, a decrease by 31% from 2014 and 29% from 2005. During the same period, the other types of commercial lodging in the country as a whole has had a monotonous increase in over night guests totalling 40,7% in the past decade. According to Löfmarck & Wolgast (2010) more than 50% of employees worked for businesses with 6 employees or less, while 10 companies supplied about a quarter of the jobs in the tourism sector and the seven largest companies constituted the top quartile in terms of revenue; there were few rather large companies and many small businesses. The archipelago is considered a good tourist amenity, but obviously there is dire need for rethinking how things are done in the region in, order to catch up, and one reasonable point of departure is assessing the business models in use. For this reason an EU-Interreg financed project was launched on October 1st, 2016. A first issue to settle is updating the situation on businesses active in the archipelago, where after comes the assessment of their business models, in which businesses are to be linked to students, where the former get access to up to date tools for business model assessment in collaboration between Drivhuset, a foundation coaching incubator activities at many Nordic universities, Södertörn university in Sweden, and Åbo Akademi University and Novia university of applied sciences in the Finnish archipelagos of Turku and Nyland. Student participation is planned in two ways: In course work students in work groups assess the situation each participant enterprise is in, analyse their business models and suggest alterations. Also, students will do thesis work on bachelor’s and master’s levels. The course work will be assessed on academic as well as practical utility merits, while the theses are assessed on academic merits only. Researchers will follow the development of participant enterprises as well as the project’s impact on quality of education. The project is based on Osterwalder’s business model canvas approach to innovation utilising hypothesis driven design methods, where academic staff guides the process. Going through the literature on business models, it seems that on the one hand, little consensus is about when it comes to the exact definition of the term, while a rather broad one is about, when it comes to that somehow involves value creation – and often value capture, and what the necessary means of doing so are (e.g. Osterwalder, 2004; Teece, 2010; Zott et al. 2011), i.e. it is on how businesses are blue printed in order to sustain themselves, In that sense, it is related to business strategy. (c.f. Teece, 2010). Often there is a presumption on entrepreneurial activity, especially when it comes to business model innovation. In the entrepreneurship literature, there is a distinction between entrepreneur by nature and entrepreneur by necessity. Many of the inhabitants of the Stockholm archipelago are lifestyle entrepreneurs, and hence maximum profit is not self-evident as objective, even though better earnings are welcome; there is not really an option of taking place out of the configuration the business model is based in. The lifestyle entrepreneur is characterised by being able to lead the life at hand as motivation for activities, while the ‘normal’ corporation are taking on economic activity in order to maximise value added, often implying the building of shareholder wealth. The difference implies that the corporation is expected to pursue all businesses that are above the internal rate of interest on investments, while the lifestyle entrepreneur shuns any option that is not relevant to her/his lifestyle. Commonly this means enduring low profitability requirements. These rather atypical businesses open the possibility of widening the scope of the literature to alternatives to entrepreneurial orientation towards strategy, other forms of packaging, and through that, further exploration of the relation between networks and alliances and business models.References:Löfmarck A & Wolgast H. (2010). Studie av turismrelaterad näring i åtta skärgårdskommuner, Unpublished report to Stockholm County.Osterwalder, A. (2004). The Business Model Ontology – A Proposition in a Design Science Approach, Doctoral Thesis, l’Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales de l’Université de Lausanne, Lausanne. Teece, D.J. (2010). Business Models, Business Strategy and Innovation, Long Range Planning, 43(2-3), 172-194. Tillväxtverket (2016) Fakta om Svensk Turism 2015, Stockholm: Tillväxtverket. Zott, C., Amit, R. & Massa, L. (2011). The Business Model: Recent Developments and Future Research, Journal of Management, 37(4), 1019-1042.
State of the Region Report 2017 - The Top of Europe – A Competitive Baltic Sea Region Ready for the Future?Mer info
Молчание военнопленных Эльзасцев и Мозелян после возвращения во Францию. The Silence of the Alsatian-Mosellans f... Mer info
In: Социальная история Второй мировой войны (Social History of the Second World War). Tambov, Russia : TSU Publishing House G.R. Derzhavin, 2017. 193-200.
This chapter concerns the lingering after-effects of World War II – as well as theindividual and collective efforts to overcome them. The focus lies on the Alsatians-Mosellans’ war prisoners in the USSR at the former prison camp of Tambov. Thecase of these French men, enlisted by force in the German army during World WarII and sent to the Eastern Front, the Malgré-Nous as they call themselves, is veryinteresting.War being a traumatic event which is difficult to overcome, how can soldiers,who were forced to make war within the army of their initial enemies, be able tomove on and get on with their lives in a post-war context? Alsatian/Mosellan conscriptswere French and at the same time they were forced to wear the Germanfeldgrau army uniform and fight the Allies. I examine in this paper the personaland collective strategies used by these people to come to terms with their contentiouspast when re-integrating the French nation after the war and subsequently. Thestudy materials consist of interviews with former POWs and their descendants andthe ethnographical study of the memorial practices at the site of the former sovietprison camp of Tambov.Since the living memory of these war experiences is slowly disappearing withthe witnesses, the problematic of the transmission, often incomplete or paradoxical,of their memories will also be considered. Consequently, I am also examining howpainful memories are handed down from a generation to another, transforming theheredity into a heritage.
Knowledge synthesis for environmental decisions - an evaluation of existing methods, and guidance for their selection, use and development : a report from the EKLIPSE projectMer info
Comment témoigner del’enrôlement de force dans l’armée allemande? - Les enrôlés de force Alsaciens-Mosellans sur le front Est. Une approche ethnologiqueMer info
In: Les enrôlés de force dans les camps soviétiques (1941-1955). Saarbrücken : Éd. universitaires européennes, 2017. 119-146.
Nordisk Østforum 2017, 31 : 62-79.
What makes a good father? Ideals and practices in late socialist Russia This article investigates fatherhood ideals and practices in late Soviet Russia, 1960–1989. For the theoretical basis, dominant ideals on masculinity and fatherhood have been derived from the rich but predominantly Western research literature of the past three decades. These are used as guiding tools in examining the research material for this study: the monthly magazine Semia i shkola. Zhurnal dlia roditelei (Family and School; Journal for Parents) and eleven in-depth interviews with men in Russia on their memories of fatherhood in the 1960s–1980s. The research questions are: What did the ideal image of fatherhood look like in this period? What remembered practices do respondents communicate in interviews, and how do these relate to dominant public/official ideals of the time? Are there differences in the emphasis on various aspects of fatherhood ideals/practices between public discourses and the accounts given by these men? The interview narratives yield a multifaceted picture, with both coinciding and contradictory representations of the respondents’ ideal images, on the one hand, and remembered practices, on the other. Possible explanations are then discussed. In conclusion, Soviet Russian fatherhood is tentatively contextualized within the framework of research results on Western fatherhood.
How independent are journalism students in the course of their individiual work? - Representations of independence in two academic contexts.Mer info
Righting the writing. The power dynamic of Soviet Ukraine language policies and reforms in the 1920s-1930s Mer info
Studi Slavistici 2017, 14 : 67-89.
Righting the Writing. The Power Dynamic of Soviet Ukraine Language Policies and Reforms in the 1920s-1930s The first post-revolutionary decades became decisive for the development of the Ukrainian language, national culture and identity. The Ukrainian language, previously subject to a number of bans, finally entered the stage of intensive status and corpus planning. Thanks to this, it became a decisive factor in the rivalry between different forms of statehood vying on the Ukrainian territory after 1917. At the same time, the status upgrade and broader public use called for the standardisation of the language. The first practical steps towards the unification of different orthographic traditions were undertaken from 1918 to 1921. The turbulence of civil war, however, determined the failure of comprehensive language reform. Calls for linguistic unification gained new force in the second half of the 1920s: with the introduction of Ukrainizacija, the local variant of the all-Union nationalities policy of korenizacija introduced in 1923, the Ukrainian language was acknowledged as the means to the republic’s Sovietisation. This was part and parcel of the Soviet "affirmative action empire" (Terry Martin) which had to contain the 1917-1921 rise of nationalism of the empire’s minorities. Locally, the elites had to negotiate their own interests and the centre’s demands. How exactly do the debates on the "correct" codification of the language and the actual steps towards different ideals reflect the changing power dynamic between the centre and the republics in the interbellum ussr This is the problem this study sets out to tackle using the example of Soviet Ukraine. The paper explores the link between language and politics in Soviet Ukraine in the 1920s and 1930s. While examining the political preconditions for the language policies in Ukraine, significant attention will also be devoted to the specifics of the 1928 spelling reform and its reception by the general public in Ukraine and abroad. In general, it is argued that in the Soviet Union language was often used as a tool of political consolidation, and the power struggle between different visions of the future of the republics can be seen in debates and reforms of language. Hence, the correlation between Soviet language policies and the subsequent Sovietisation (or Russification) is highlighted. The subsequent debates around the status of the Ukrainian language, its orthography and vocabulary exposed the unbridgeable differences between the political elites in the republic and powers in Moscow. The draft of the new orthography was thoroughly discussed by academics and linguists, representing different parts of Ukraine and the final draft was publicly discussed republic-wide. The spelling reform, adopted in 1929, can rightly be regarded as one of the greatest achievements of Ukrainizacija. This newly-acquired status was significantly challenged by the centralisation drive of the Moscow party leadership. This orthography, widely known as ’skrypnykivka’ (after the then Commissar for Education Mykola Skrypnyk) or ’Charkiv orthography’ was attacked for its attempts to dissociate the Ukrainian language from Russian and ’westernise’ the language. After 1933, the main principles of the spelling reform were labelled ’nationalistic’. The reform was quickly abandoned. Furthermore, after 1937, all the corpus planning attempts were geared towards ’purifying’ the Ukrainian language from foreign influence, when Russian equivalents and cognates were introduced or prioritised. © 2017 Author(s).
Review of Walke, Anika, Pioneers and Partisans: An Oral History of Nazi Genocide in Belorussia. Mer info
Lärande och omsorg som process eller resultat? - Förskolan möter näringslivets verksamhetsstyrningMer info
Nordic fishermen in the Soviet Union - Ethnic Purges and the Cleansing of the Cultural LandscapeMer info
In: The Barents and the Baltic Sea Region. Rovaniemi : Pohjois-Suomen historiallinen yhdistys, 2017. 39-56.
Kulturella perspektiv - Svensk etnologisk tidskrift 2017, 3-4 : 25-31.
This article focuses on late modern discursive clashes and contradictions in everyday situations at Flextronics, mainly from the workplace in Karlskrona in southern Sweden. This is a space currently crisscrossed by discourses anchored in two different types of capitalist production systems, which Richard Sennett has described as social capitalism and flexible capitalism (with lean production and customer orientation as guiding principles), the latter beginning to take shape in parallel with the emergence of neoliberal politics in the 1980s. How do individual subjects position themselves in relation to these competing discourses? How is this contradiction articulated and negotiated in the workers´ descriptions about work and their life situation? The result of this study shows that workers feel that they are being squeezed between incompatible standpoints. They express an understanding of the late capitalist companies need for flexibility and just-in-time production, while at the same time not accepting the life in the margin that short contracts in line with lean production compels them to. They are forced to live a life in what they perceive as irregular and abnormal, because society in general is based on the fact that people have secured full-time employment. This applies for example to be able to get a loan in a bank. Therefore they tend to assent to a system that simultaneously relegates them to exclusion.
BONUS BALTSPACE D2:2 - Ambitions and Realities in Baltic Sea Marine Spatial Planning and the Ecosystem Approach: Policy and Sector Coordination in Promotion of Regional IntegrationMer info
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2017. ( ; )
This report is part of the BONUS BALTSPACE project and is focused on challenges for policy and sector integration in Baltic Sea marine spatial planning (MSP). The main objectives have been to identify concrete coordination problems, to analyse why they have emerged and to discuss possible remedies. It is based on selected aspects extracted from case studies carried out in this project related to the development of regional MSP approaches in Denmark, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Sweden and on an additional case study on the HELCOM-VASAB Working Group on MSP. To facilitate the analysis of vertical policy interactions between institutions at different levels as well as of horizontal interactions over sector and country borders, an analytical framework was constructed. This framework consists of two main components; (a) institution-driven coordination where institutions such as global treaties, the EU, regional organisations, and state authorities provide boundaries for decisions taken at lower levels and (b) benefit-driven coordination capturing horizontal coordination across sector and country borders.
BONUS BALTSPACE Deliverable D2.4 - MSP as a governance approach? Knowledge integration challenges in MSP in the Baltic SeaMer info
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2017. ( ; )
Developing integrative decision-making underpinned by a diverse knowledge base is seen as essential to meet marine spatial planning’s (MSP) sustainable development aspirations. In contributing to a better understanding of how this might be achieved, this report considers knowledge integration challenges drawing on several MSP empirical cases across the Baltic Sea Region. Each case-study, involves Baltic Sea states at different stages of developing national marine spatial plans. At the Baltic-wide level, HELCOM-VASAB has interpreted the Ecosystem Approach in MSP as relying heavily on an evidence-base informed by natural scientific and expert knowledge. The results of the report show that challenges arise when trying to apply scientific knowledge to MSP events or processes for a number of reasons such as, incomplete data and associated substantial uncertainty or because stakeholders contest the policy interpretation of the data. This raises questions of how to assess or evaluate the quality and comprehensiveness/sufficiency of scientific and stakeholder knowledge or input into MSP decision-making, particularly in highly politicised, conflictual contexts, such as the integration of parts of the fishing sector in MSP in Poland. MSP in German territorial waters provides a positive example, where science and stakeholder knowledge input have been integrated in decision-making through informal and formal processes. This case exhibits evidence of social learning where authorities have reflected on previous experiences and invested in actively nurturing the meaningful participation of a wide variety of stakeholders (to form a community of practice) over an extended period of time. The key findings of the report call for more attention to be paid to ways that scientific and stakeholder knowledge can be fruitfully incorporated in MSP, through initiatives such as: the development of knowledge evaluation measures; drawing more actively on social science expertise to help facilitate processes of stakeholder engagement and knowledge inclusion; and paying more attention to how to include heterogeneous socio-cultural values and knowledge (placed-based) in a way that improves the salience of scientific knowledge and the legitimacy of MSP decision-making.
BONUS BALTSPACE Deliverable D1.3 - Evaluating the sustainability of governance: a proposal for evaluating marine spatial planning in the Baltic SeaMer info
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2017. ( ; )
This Deliverable elaborates an evaluation design for MSP that responds to a growing call for a more nuanced and critical conceptualisation and implementation of MSP as complex sites of governance. Here we posit that such an evaluation design should be based on 'sustainability of governance' in MSP. Furthermore, that such an evaluation approach should be built on good governance principles of participation, coordination, openness and collaboration in governance processes with the aim to strengthen MSP on both democratic and functionality grounds. To advance this position, we elaborate the relationship between integration as a concept that can be used to examine the sustainability of governance in practice. The conceptual framework is then used to structure a discussion of illustrative examples of the relationship between integration and sustainability of governance across several Baltic Sea case-studies. The results of these case studies are then framed in a discussion on aspects that need to be considered when designing an evaluation process for MSP. Points highlighted here are the need to adopt a deliberative and reflexive approach that draws on a wide body of evidence in evaluation. A set of clustered evaluative criteria (CEC), referring to practices deemed to be desirable for sustainability of MSP governance, are proposed to guide or direct an evaluation process. The CEC were derived through an assessment of what is deemed important in the relevant literature as well as through consideration of the experience of the Baltic cases. The CEC could be seen as indicators of integration that relate to aspects of sustainability of governance in MSP, as well as, in more instrumental terms to support problem-solving aimed at improving MSP coherence. The evaluation design outlined here would require to be tested and trialled in MSP settings to assess its saliency and refine its usability in practice.
Holocaust and Genocide Studies 2017, 31 (3): 457-479.
On September 25, 1942, the government of Sweden ordered a census of Roma and Travellers in the country. The mapping of these groups was to serve as a first step towards solving the perceived "Gypsy problem." The census did not proceed smoothly, mainly because of conflicts within the scholarly community. On the basis of studies undertaken in fully sovereign Sweden during the World War II period, the author of this article clarifies the role "experts" played in the "scientific" legitimization of the registration process.
Journal of Contemporary Archaeology 2017, 4 (1): 19-37.
The wrecks of two Soviet submarines, the S7 and the SC-305, were discovered by private wreck-searching teams in 1998 and 2007 respectively. For more than half a century the whereabouts of the wrecks had remained a mystery. Drawing from the case of the two sunken Second World War submarines, this paper addresses the archaeological significance of moving-image documentation produced in non-archaeological contexts as a tool for interpreting the sites. What kind of research can archaeologists, denied direct access to a site, conduct through the use of film documentation gathered by nonarchaeologists? Is it possible to use films produced by divers or marine survey teams (non-archaeologists) to interpret underwater sites? Can film be considered an archaeological documentation method, and how can data gathered in this way be handled and interpreted? Moreover, how does the distance created though lack of physical contact with sites and the non-professional gathering of data affect the research and analysis? Our work indicates that using already existing film and photographic material, created for purposes other than archaeological documentation, can be a valuable source material for understanding past events as well as how archaeological sites are experienced today. We found that working with material created by non-archaeologists had limitations, but it also opened up a whole new set of opportunities of viewing and understanding the sites.
Про деконфедерацію у Сполучених Штатах Америки і про те, який це може мати стосунок до України Mer info
Monuments as Reminders and Triggers - A contemporary comparison between memory work in Ukraine and USMer info
Baltic Worlds 2017, X (3): 12-17.
There are parallels in discussions about monuments in Ukraine and the USA. The reminder of the Soviet past (or in the American context, of the Confederacy) is an abject that is difficult to assimilate. On the one hand, the abject is our unwillingness to see the past and accept it; on the other hand, for those who associate themselves with this past, this is the threat of castration because through the negation of a given past a certain group is cast out from the space of representation. That is why it is questionable whether a monument can be inclusive at all. Which memory does the monument recall? Which past is castrated when a new monument is built? Which groups are fighting for recognition and representation? Which groups lose this right? These questions confront researchers and memory workers and are discussed in this essay.
Reclaiming the Past, Confronting the Past: OUN-UPA Memory Politics and Nation-Building in Ukraine (1991-2016) Mer info
Intellectuals in times of troubles: Between empowerment and disenchantment during the Orange Revolution and Euro... Mer info
In: Traitors, Collaborators and Deserters in Contemporary European Politics of Memory. Cham : Palgrave Macmillan, 2017. 141-168.
Yuliya Yurchuk and Alla Marchenko present an analysis of intellectuals’ narratives on betrayal in the most transformative period of recent Ukrainian history—the Orange Revolution and the Euromaidan protests. While it was observed that after both these revolutions the people’s attitudes oscillated between two polarities of great expectations and great disillusionments, the authors analyze the narratives of betrayal through the concept of disenchantment. The analysis shows that disenchantment can be an empowering device, which serves as a push for the search for internal powers and capabilities. At the same time, the authors also observed that some groups of Ukrainian people were dismissed by intellectuals as betrayers or not sufficiently capable of acting in accordance with intellectual ideals.
Creating the Revolutionary Heroines - The Case of Female Terrorists of the PSR (Russia, Beginning of the 20th Century)Mer info
Representing revolutionary terrorists as heroes and martyrs was a typical feature of the mythology of the Russian revolutionary underground at the beginning of the 20th century. This mythology described Underground Russia, the world of the revolutionaries, as an ideal country inhabited by ideal people. The purpose of that epos was to represent the revolutionary struggle, and individual revolutionaries in such a way that they would gain sympathy from the wider public and become role models for other revolutionary fighters. Sympathetic representations of women who committed political violence seem to be especially shocking in the context of Russia at the beginning of the twentieth century, since female violent behavior contradicted the existing gender order.Employing theoretical perspectives of Critical Discourse Analysis, gender history and intersectionality, the dissertation analyzes the way narratives about the individual life paths of female terrorists of the Party of Socialist Revolutionaries (the PSR), the biggest socialist party in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century, were constructed in their revolutionary auto/biographies. It analyzes how the lives of women from different social and ethnic origins, of different ages, with different life paths, who happened to be united only by their participation in the political terrorism of the PSR, were recounted with the help of narratives used in the Russian revolutionary underground.The research findings demonstrate that the accounts of the lives of female PSR terrorists were constructed with the help of the dominant narrative that was formed as a conversion story. Within the framework of that narrative, the lives of individual women were adapted to the dominant discourse of heroism and martyrdom, and at the same time were contextualized within the dominant discourse on “good” femininity that existed in the Russian society, and even within the discourse on Jews as perpetual “Others” in the Russian empire in case of Jewish women. Social and ethnic backgrounds as well as individual circumstances of the terrorist women, however, transformed the dominant narrative, and thus created diversity of representations. The discursive practice of writing a revolutionary life accepted by Bolsheviks influenced the discursive practice employed in revolutionary auto/biographies of female terrorists written during the early Soviet period.
The Woman of Orient is not the Voiceless Slave Anymore – the Non-Russian Women of Volga-Ural Region and ‘Woman’s... Mer info
In: Ethnic and Religious Minorities in Stalin's Soviet Union. Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2017. 91-121.
In: Ethnic and Religious Minorities in Stalin's Soviet Union. Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2017. 15-30.
International Reveiw of Entrepreneurship 2017, 4 : -.
We analyse firm survival and focus on several levels of analysis (both firm level and macro-level). We employ a unique longitudinal data set, recorded at the firm-level and covering nine complete entry cohorts of Swedish companies. The companies were founded between 1899 and 1992, and each firm is followed over nearly a decade. We adopt the semi-parametric complementary log-log (cloglog) model. The main novelty of our approach is that, unlike extant studies so far, we are able to distinguish between the impact on the hazard rate of founding conditions and contemporaneous, post-entry conditions. Using our new approach we test several hypotheses derived from the Industrial Organization and Organizational Ecology literatures.
In: Danmark og Finland i 100 år (1917–2017). Greifswald : Universität Greifswald, 2017. 159-184.
Gender politics of the ‘war of narratives’ - Russian TV-news in the times of conflict in UkraineMer info
Catalan Journal of Communication & Cultural Studies 2017, 9 (2): 217-235.
This article focuses on the gender politics of the news broadcast on the Russian state-controlled TV channels – Channel One (Pervyj kanal), Russia-1 (Rossiya-1), Russia-24 (Rossiya-24), NTV and RT (formerly Russia Today) – from January to September 2015, a period when the TV news closely followed the conflict in Ukraine and the growing tensions between Russia and Europe. The study shows that the news on the state-controlled TV channels interpret the state politics in only one possible way – ascribing the most traditional and essentialist characteristics to the country, prioritizing male actors and military activities and suggesting no alternatives to ‘(re)masculinization’ of the image of Russia in the situation of the conflict on the territory of another state, despite the alleged disengagement of the country in it. The article concludes that the state-controlled TV channels use essentialist gendering as a part of nation-branding and nation-building strategies, with an aim to construct the gendered and intersectionalized ideology of the ‘Russian world’ that would target both internal and external audiences and go beyond the borders of the Russian Federation.
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2017.
This anthology presents studies of Stalinism in the ethnic and religious borderlands of the Soviet Union. The authors not only cover hitherto less researched geographical areas, but have also addressed new questions and added new source material. Most of the contributors to this anthology use a micro-historical approach. With this approach, it is not the entire area of the country, with millions of separate individuals that are in focus but rather particular and cohesive ethnic and religious communities.Micro-history does not mean ignoring a macro-historical perspective. What happened on the local level had an all-Union context, and communism was a European-wide phenomenon. This means that the history of minorities in the Soviet Union during Stalin’s rule cannot be grasped outside the national and international context; aspects which are also considered in this volume. The chapters of the book are case studies on various minority groups, both ethnic and religious. In this way, the book gives a more complex picture of the causes and effects of the state-run mass violence during Stalinism.The publication is the outcome of a multidisciplinary international research network lead by Andrej Kotljarchuk (Södertörn University, Sweden) and Olle Sundström (Umeå University, Sweden) and consisting of specialists from Estonia, France, Germany, Russia, Sweden, Ukraine and the United States. These scholars represent various disciplines: Anthropology, Cultural Studies, History and the History of Religions.
Därför blev det revolution i Ryssland - Håkan Blomqvist om kriget som knäckte tsarväldet och ett land som befann sig i fritt fall hösten 1917Mer info
In: Språk och norm. Uppsala : ASLA: Svenska föreningen för tillämpad språkvetenskap.
De flesta svenska landsting rekryterar aktivt läkare, framför allt specialister, i andra länder. Hela 58 procent av de läkare som fick sin svenska läkarlegitimation 2014 var utbildade i ett annat land. Vårt forskningsprojekt berör läkare som rekryterats från Öst-och Sydeuropa och som får intensivutbildning i svenska i Polen, innan de börjar sina anställningar i Sverige. Det övergripande syftet med projektet är att undersöka hur en yrkesrelaterad språkutbildning som äger rum utanför målspråksmiljön förbereder deltagarna för mötet med svenskt arbetsliv. Inledningsvis har vi undersökt utbildningen på plats i Polen vid tre tillfällen för att få svar på frågor som hur språkutbildningen förbereder för arbetet på ett nytt arbetsspråk och vilka kommunikativa färdigheter som tränas. Senare, efter att läkarna påbörjat sina anställningar i Sverige, kommer vi att undersöka hur väl förberedda de är inför de kommunikativa utmaningar de ställs inför i mötet med den svenska sjukvården. I denna delstudie fokuserar vi på läkarnas förväntningar om sitt arbetsliv i Sverige och deras föreställningar om vad bytet av arbetsspråk kan innebära. Vi intresserar oss för hur deras tidigare erfarenheter från arbete som läkare kan överföras till den nya kontexten och hur deras erfarenheter kan tillämpas på ett nytt språk. Materialet består av intervjuer och fokusgruppssamtal som genomförts med läkarna i slutet av deras språkutbildning, där de utbyter tankar om läkarens samtalskompetens (interaktionskompetens) och hur sådan utvecklas. Visst material från intervjuer med läkare som hunnit påbörja sitt arbete i Sverige ingår också.
The ship Riksäpplet and the introduction of English naval architecture in Sweden in the 17th century Mer info
Post-Medieval Archaeology 2017, 51 (2): 309-331.
SUMMARY: The 84-gun ship Riksäpplet was one of the first ships in Sweden built under supervision of the newly recruited English master. In 1676, the ship came adrift, struck a rock and sank. In 2015 a minor field survey of the wreck was undertaken. An inventory of finds recovered from the wreck in various museum collections and in private hands has been compiled and the preserved correspondence from the construction of the ship has been re-examined. This material has provided new insights regarding the peculiarities and special architecture of Riksäpplet.
Journal of Cultural Geography 2017, 35 (2): 230-250.
Little empirical research has considered the way in which macro-regions are perceived outside academic and political circles. Such studies alone can determine what regional narratives mean for the wider public, and the extent to which they coincide with region-building images produced by elites. This article examines the mental maps of high school seniors in 10 cities in the Baltic Sea and Mediterranean regions, focusing upon their perception and knowledge of other countries in those areas. Despite efforts at region building since the Cold War, the two regions remain divided on mental maps. Students have little knowledge of countries across the sea from their own, although such knowledge is generally greater among those from coastal (and particularly island) locations. A comparison with maps constructed by Gould in 1966 reveals that the perception of countries within one's own region among Italian and Swedish students has become more negative over the last 50 years.
In: Anti-gender campaigns in Europe. London and New York : Rowman & Littlefield International, 2017. 175-194.
This paper examines the mobilization against “gender” which has spread across Poland since 2012, pointing to both local specificities and links to the transnational context. It is shown that while Polish anti-genderism is part of a boarder transnational trend (a fact long invisible to most of Poland’s liberal defenders of gender), some aspects of this phenomenon are indeed locally embedded. The campaign has consisted of many initiatives undertaken by the Catholic Church and conservative groups to fight gender equality education and legislation, sexual and reproductive rights, as well as the very use of the term “gender” in policy documents and public discourse. Polish anti-gender campaigners claim that their aim is to protect the Polish family (especially children) against feminists and the “homosexual lobby”; to defend authentic Polish cultural values (which are equated with Catholic values) against the foreign influence of the corrupt West and liberal European Union. Targets include sexual education, ratification of the Istanbul Convention and gender equality policies more broadly. The authors argue that the current wave of anti-gender mobilization in Poland is not business as usual or another wave of conservative backlash, but a new ideological and political configuration, which successfully combines the local and the transnational, making possible a politically effective mass movement. We argue that the success of anti-gender mobilization can be explained by its leaders’ skillful references to ordinary people’s dignity and their identity as an oppressed majority. Anti-genderism consistently presents itself as an effort to defend authentic indigenous values against foreign forces and corrupt elites – a discourse which we interpret as a variant of right-wing appropriation of the anti-colonial frame. What may be construed as an Eastern European peculiarity is that in the region gender tends to be discredited as totalitarian ideology as exemplified by the following statement made in 2013 by Polish Bishop Tadeusz Pieronek: “Gender ideology is worse than communism and Nazism put together”. While the contested policies are coming from the West and are presented as Western impositions, genderism itself is seen as a vast project of social engineering rooted in Marxism and comparable to Stalinism. This tension or ambivalence persists in many of the documents and statements examined here: genderism is demonized as a cultural imposition a foreign body that is Western and Eastern at the same time.
Global Dialogue 2017, 7 (1): -.
Gender matters in global politics. After the US elections, we know this better than ever: the mass appeal of Trump’s blatant misogyny is just a part of the problem. Populism in the US and elsewhere feeds not only on economic instability and fear, but also on anxieties around gender relations, (homo)sexuality and reproduction. In country after country, critiques of what conservatives (especially Catholics) term “gender” or “genderism” – gender equality policies, sex education, LGBTQ and reproductive rights – have helped to mobilize men as well as women, paving the way for populist leaders. This article argues that while opposition to feminism and gender equality policies is not new, the current upsurge marks a departure from the previous neoconservative paradigm: social conservatism is now explicitly linked to hostility towards global capital.
Celebrating Borderlands in a Wider Europe. Nations and Identities in Ukraine, Georgia and Estonia Mer info
Baltic Worlds 2017, X (3): 53-62.
The article provides a closer reading of Walter Benjamin’s essays Experience and Poverty and Moscow, by juxtaposing the records of his visit to Russia in 1926–1927 with the author’s reflections on the nature of the transformations in the urban space of an early Soviet city. By using the dystopian image of Mickey Mouse as the desired inhabitant of modernity introduced by Benjamin in Experience and Poverty, Seits gives the allegorical and comparative interpretation to the substantial changes in the living space of Moscow that were witnessed by Walter Benjamin.
In: Rebellious parents. Bloomington and Indianapolis : Indiana University Press, 2017. -.
This chapter examines fathers’ activism in contemporary Poland, focusing on the ways in which activists frame the problem, their claims and expected outcomes, and on the specificity of the fathers’ activism in a post-socialist context in comparison to other cultural and political environments. The authors apply analytical tools of social movement theory, specifically the notion of framing, which is defined as a process of interpretation and meaning production in a given political, cultural and social context. Three main frames that the Polish activists have employed are distinguished: 1) “misogynist” frame which highlights fathers’ rights as men rights, 2) “state violence” frame which focus on fathers rights as citizens, and 3) “equality” frame which stresses fathers’ engagement as part of a gender equality agenda. Each of these types of self-representation and arguments combines to a different degree transnational and local discourses on fathering, masculinity, and the family, which reflects the hybrid nature of contemporary discourses and ideals of fathering. The empirical illustration of the analysis is derived from a case-study of fathers' activism in Poland between 2012 and 2014.
In: Civil society revisited. New York : Berghahn Books, 2017. 1-35.
The text argues that a re-assessment of the post-socialist civil societies in general and Polish civil society in particular is called for on both empirical and theoretical grounds. For the purpose of such re-thinking, the authors address critically the way in which civil society has been conceptualized in the post-socialist context, with special focus on Poland; and, secondly, discuss the limitations of the common indicators used to assess the strength and character of the civil societies in the region. It is argued that there are forms of collective action that have tended to escape observers’ lenses for theoretical, methodological as well as normative and ideological reasons. Consequently, the authors calls attention to the exclusionary practices entailed in the “making up” of civil societies in the region, revealing how the concept of civil society as commonly applied in political discourses as well as empirical research in fact excludes many forms of social activism.
In: Rebellious parents. Bloomington and Indianapolis : Indiana University Press, 2017. -.
This chapter introduces the readers to the theme of a broad range of parental movements that have emerged in contemporary Central-Eastern Europe and Russia over the past two decades. Examples of such movements include social mobilizations of conservative parental groups against legal and discursive changes that would affect gender equality in Ukraine and Russia, Czech parents opposing mandatory vaccination of children, and fathers’ groups in Poland and the Czech Republic focusing on custody rights. Parental activism is increasingly visible and influential, but it has been the subject of relatively little research to date. The aim is to rectify this by analyzing representative cases of parental movements in Central-Eastern Europe and Russia, with the hope to enrich and explain the current interpretations of social activism and civil society in the postcommunist region, which is often associated with a low level of social engagement and weak civil society, and to offer new conceptualization of mothers’ and fathers’ activism that may be applicable in other geographical contexts. The introduction to the collection of essays aims to fill a gap in the scholarship on civil society and social movements that is both empirical and theoretical, presenting an entirely new set of observations on the developments in contemporary parental activism in Central-Eastern Europe and Russia and proposing new conceptualizations of civic activism and civil society.
Bloomington and Indianapolis : Indiana University Press, 2017.
Parental movements are strengthening around the world and often spark tense personal and political debate. With an emphasis on Russia and Central and Eastern Europe, this collection analyzes formal organizations as well as informal networks and online platforms which mobilize parents to advocate for change on a grassroots level. In doing so, the work collected here explores the interactions between the politics, everyday life, and social activism of mothers and fathers. From fathers’ rights movements to natural childbirth to vaccination debates, these essays provide new insight into the identities and strategies applied by these movements as they confront local ideals of gender and family with global ideologies. “This is an excellent collection with conceptual and methodological unity and high quality contributions that are thoroughly researched.... The work makes a real contribution to the field (both theoretically and empirically), challenges stereotypes, and presents new areas of valuable research.” — Nanette Funk, coeditor of Gender Politics and Post-Communism: Reflections from Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union “We see here evidence of engaged citizens, not directly challenging political leaders about broad economic or political policies, but seeking to change public atti¬tudes to vital issues facing people in their everyday lives as parents. ...This is very much a contribution to scholarship and knowledge. We just don’t know about this type of activism.” —David Ost, author of The Defeat of Solidarity: Anger and Politics in Postcommunist Europe
Saarbrücken : Lambert Academic Publishing, 2017.
The Nordic countries top every survey on overall well-being and expressed happiness and satisfaction with living conditions and the environment, and, moreover, emerge on top even in measures of global competitiveness. This book unravels the unique economic and social processes by which these countries have achieved such universally acclaimed success. The authors note that the Nordic success has not been a sudden surge forward, and provide substance to the argument that conditions going back to feudal times, and unique societal relations and a social consensus allowing low power distances and smooth decentralization have played key roles in the Nordic transition into full-fledged knowledge economies. Indeed, as they note, “if there is a Valhalla for Nordic politicians, policy-makers and organization leaders, it will surely provide them an idyllic island under a mellow sun for holding amiable discussions, lowering their guards in a give-and-take spirit, on issues pertaining to the well-being of that Nordic paradise.”
In: Migration and Communication Flows: Rethinking borders, conflict and identity through the digital. : .
In eighty countries of the world (excluding Russia), there are produced around 3,5 thousand media in Russian language for 30 million Russian speakers (Astafyev 2012). Russophone diaspora is specific, as it has a multilayered (different waves of migration) and multiethnic character (see Pivovar 2008, 2010). The printed media of the three first waves of the Russian emigration are thoroughly studied (e.g., Bogomolov 1994, 2004; Esin 2003; Mikhalev 2009; Suomela 2014; Zhirkov 2003). There are as well several studies on the online space of the “Russian abroad” (e.g., Morgunova 2014; Reut and Teterevleva 2014). Yet, the currently existing printed Russian-language media remain somewhat of a blind spot on the map of the diaspora studies and media studies alike, despite the scale of this media segment.This study focuses on the printed media segment of the Russophone media abroad. The study is based on a twelve-year long monitoring of Russian-language press that consisted of a basic content analysis of 65 printed media and survey of 64 journalists working for 50 outlets. The materials were collected during the trainings for these journalists organized by the Universal Association of Russian Press (VARP) and Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University.The study maps the space of the Russian-language press abroad, describes the tendencies characteristic for it, and highlights the typological models within this segment. On the one hand, the Russian-language media abroad are influenced by global processes, which lead to their commercialization, standardization, concentration and integration with non-established media online. On the other hand, these media are oriented at specific audiences, united by the language and culture. The current challenges of these media are related to the political events (such as Ukrainian conflict), as well as the broader problem of self-identification of the Russophone diaspora.
Russian Journalists Moving to Ukraine: Russophone Journalism Culture, ‘Imagined Communities’ and Challenges of A... Mer info
In: . : .
Since 2013, scholars have been discussing events happening in Ukraine from the perspective of the “war of narratives” (Khaldarova and Pantti 2016). In this war, information has become one of the main weapons (Hoskins and O’Loughlin 2010), and fight for the publics has crossed the borders of the ordinary economic and political struggles. Previous research has mainly focused on the attempts of the Russian mainstream state-controlled media to influence the Russian-speaking audiences in Ukraine, Russia and elsewhere by spreading pro-Kremlin propaganda (see Pantti 2016). Less attention has been given to the Ukrainian media community and the internal processes in it in the period of crisis (Bolin, Jordan & Ståhlberg 2016). Being a part of the research project ”From nation branding to information war”, this paper focuses on a very particular group of the representatives of the Ukrainian media community – Russian journalists who moved to Ukraine and work for Ukrainian audiences. This paper applies the theoretical prism of “imagined audiences” (e.g. Litt and Hargitai 2016, boyd 2008) and “imagined communities” (Anderson 2006). The analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with seven journalists conducted in 2017. What are the motivations behind their choice of the new geographic location and place of work? What are the challenges that they face adjusting to the new journalism culture and how do they see their role in the “war of narratives”? How do they imagine and perceive their audiences? And how do they relate to the language issue, as Ukrainian language is becoming more and more dominant both in broadcast and printed media?
In: Nordmedia conference 2017. : .
Journalism culture is described by scholars as “one of the resources journalists draw upon to coordinate their activities as reporters, photographers, and editors” (Zelizer 2005, p. 204). Importantly, journalism cultures should be analyzed not only in connection to the contexts, but also in and as processes (Voronova 2014, p. 221). While most journalism cultures in the world face similar challenges, such as commercialization and digitalization, some of them are challenged by more radical challenges, such as war conflicts. Ukrainian journalism culture since 2013 is undergoing a painful process of continuously adjusting to and counteracting the circumstances of conflict, with external and internal propaganda (e.g. coming from the so-called “people’s republics” of Donetsk and Luhansk), economic pressure being a consequence of the more general crisis, and guidelines coming from the state institutions, such as the Ministry of Information Policy (MIP) (e.g. Bolin, Jordan & Ståhlberg 2016, Pantti 2016, Nygren & Hök 2016). Nygren et al. (2016), based on content analysis and interviews with journalists, conclude that one of the main challenges for the Ukrainian journalists today is a conflict between the ideal of neutrality in coverage and favoring of “patriotic journalism” in practice. This paper takes this discussion further and suggests to look at how the professional journalism organizations in Ukraine reflect upon this conflict, which journalists themselves define as a split between journalists and “Glory-to-Ukraine-journalists” (Sklyarevskaya 2016, October 20th). How does the participation of Ukrainian journalism organizations in the discussion of objectivity vs. patriotism look like on different levels – international, regional, national and local? Is there a possibility to retain a national culture of journalism in the situation of crisis, or does it inevitably end up in splitting to many journalism cultures that have their own rules, beliefs and ideals? Using Hanitzsch’s model of deconstruction of journalism culture (Hanitzsch 2007, Nygren et al 2016), and focusing specifically on the dimension of epistemological beliefs, this paper analyzes a specific case: project ”Two countries – one profession” initiated and supported by the OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media. The project consists of regular round tables where senior representatives from Ukrainian and Russian professional journalism organizations meet to discuss ways to improve professional standards and safety of journalists, as well as collaborative projects between young journalists from the two countries. The project is perceived as contradictory and provocative by a part of the Ukrainian media community (e.g. Rudenko 2016, December 15th). The paper is based on analysis of observations of meetings between the National Union of Journalists of Ukraine and the Russian Union of Journalists, interviews with representatives of these and other media organizations and experts in Ukraine, focus groups with the young journalists involved in the project, and negative and positive reactions to this project by the Ukrainian media community.
In: IAMCR 2017. : .
Since 2013, scholars have been discussing events happening in Ukraine from the perspective of the “war of narratives” (Khaldarova and Pantti 2016). In this war, information has become one of the main weapons (Hoskins and O’Loughlin 2010), and fight for the publics has crossed the borders of the ordinary economic and political struggles. Previous research has mainly focused on the attempts of the Russian mainstream state-controlled media and other actors (e.g. trolls on social media) to influence the Russian-speaking audiences in Ukraine, Russia and elsewhere by spreading pro-Kremlin propaganda (see Pantti 2016). Less attention has been given to the Ukrainian media community and the internal processes in it in the period of crisis (Bolin, Jordan & Ståhlberg 2016). Being a part of the research project ”From nation branding to information war”, this paper focuses on the visions of the publics by the Ukrainian media community today. How do representatives of the media community imagine and perceive their audiences? What are the changes that have occurred along with the territorial changes – loss of Crimea to Russia and establishment of selfproclaimed ”people’s republics” in the East of the country? And which language do media producers choose today to speak to their audiences? Through the prism of “imagined audiences” (e.g. Litt and Hargitai 2016, boyd 2008) and “imagined communities” (Anderson 2006), this paper discusses several aspects of the changes in the visions of the audiences by the Ukrainian media community. First, it focuses on the visions of the audiences by the journalists who due to the crisis had to move geographically and, thus, work for a different audience today. As such, it takes up the cases of journalists who moved from Crimea and the socalled LPR and DPR to Kyiv or other Ukrainian regions. Another case is journalists from Russia who moved to Ukraine for ideological reasons. Second, the paper discusses the reactions of the media community to the need for reaching out to the audiences in Crimea and so-called DPR/LPR, the technological and ideological challenges of this communication. Third, it focuses on a serious challenge and change concerning the language, in which the audiences are addressed. Due to new legislative proposals and, according to some media experts, economic reasons, Ukrainian language is becoming more and more dominant both in broadcast and printed media. Yet, simultaneously Ukraine is one of successful producers of transnational entertainment products in Russian language (e.g. popular travel show “Oryol i Reshka” by TeenSpirit Production which is broadcast in Ukraine, Russia and Kazakhstan).
In: IAMCR 2017. : .
There are more than 30 million Russian speakers living outside of the current borders of the Russian Federation. “Russian abroad” can partly be viewed as diaspora (e.g. Cohen 1997, Hoyle 2013, Safran 1991, Sheffer 2003, Vertovec 1999) and partly as a cultural macro-social group. Its specificity is its multilayered (different waves of migration) and multiethnic character (see Pivovar 2008, 2010). “Russian abroad” consists of two groups: Russian migrants who left the country in different periods and their descendants, and Russian-speakers who found themselves abroad after the collapse of the USSR. In eighty countries of the world, there are published around 3.5 thousand media in Russian language. The printed media of the three first waves of the Russian emigration are thoroughly studied (e.g., Bogomolov 1994, 2004; Esin 2003; Mikhalev 2009; Suomela 2014; Zhirkov 2003). There are as well several studies on the online space of the “Russian abroad” (e.g., Morgunova 2014; Reut and Teterevleva 2014). Yet, the currently existing printed Russian-language media, their role, political orientation, functions, professional views of the journalists, diapason of influence, audiences - remain somewhat of a blind spot on the map of the diaspora studies and media studies alike, despite the scale of this media segment. Empirical studies of these media are challenged by the fact that not all of these media have their online versions and absence of a common catalogue (see O. Voronova 2016). The existing studies are either country-based or focus on the linguistic aspects exclusively. This study focuses on the printed media segment and suggests a typology of the Russian-language press abroad. The study is based on a twelve-year long monitoring of Russian-language press that consisted of a basic content analysis of 65 printed media and survey of 64 journalists working for 50 outlets. The materials were collected during the trainings for these journalists organized by the Universal Association of Russian Press (VARP) and Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University. The study maps the space of the Russian-language press abroad, describes the tendencies characteristic for it, and highlights the typological models within this segment. On the one hand, the Russian-language media abroad are influenced by global processes, which lead to their commercialization, standardization, concentration and integration with non-established media online. On the other hand, these media are oriented at specific audiences, united by the Russian language, culture, traditions; for the post-Soviet countries – by the common experience of living in the same state. These media have features of both global and national media, as their audiences are influenced by at least two cultures. Being spread in the world, these media have the same language, similar functions and, often, a common agenda. The current challenges of these media are related to the political events (such as Ukrainian conflict), as well as the broader problem of self-identification of the Russian-language diaspora. The study suggests viewing the Russian-language media abroad as a cultural phenomenon that should be analyzed in dynamics and in the context of the geopolitical changes and challenges.
Ця студія присвячена медіярепрезентаціям Европи під час Евромайдану та дальшої українсько-російської кризи, аналізуючи емпіричний матеріял з України, Польщі й Росії. Отой матеріял охоплює статті з дев’яти розмаїтих своєю політичною і журналістською орієнтацією газет, а також інтерв’ю з журналістами, дипломатами та експертами зі зовнішньої політики, користаючи при тім із доречних політичних документів, онлайнових та історичних джерел.Матеріял розглянуто з перспективи дискурсивної теорії влади Мішеля Фуко, постколоніяльної теорії, теорії громадськости Юрґена Габермаса, теорії полів П’єра Бурдьє, “hauntology” Жака Дерріди та поняття «порожнього означника» Ернеста Лякляу. Методи аналізу охоплюють історію понять (Райнгарт Козелек), критичну лінґвістику та якісний дискурс-аналіз (дискурсивно-історичний підхід підо впливом Віденської школи) і кількісний контент-аналіз (в інтерпретації Клявса Кріппендорфа).Історично національним наративам Европи у цих трьох країнах притаманна залежність від Заходу, яка також стимулює періоди його відштовхування. Ті наративи вагаються між трьома головними полюсами: захопленого ідеалізму, матеріялістичного прагматизму та геополітичного очорнення. Вони не є винятково притаманними якійсь одній країні і певною мірою присутні в кожній. Проте слабші актори схильні до ідеалізації, бо Европу сприймають за джерело важливого технологічного й соціяльного інструментарію. Авторам в усіх трьох країнах трудно визначити межі Европи, і, тимчасом як ця проблема переплелася була з їхньою власною ідентифікацією, европейськість зазвичай конструйовано на кшталт хвилі, що згасає в міру руху на Схід од епіцентру, розташованого десь ото в Північно-Східній Европі.Оці дискурси посилилися й розвинулися в 2013 – 2014 рр. В аналізованих газетах Европу асоціюють із цілим континентом (найчастіше в Польщі) або з ЕС (у Росії та в Україні), але розповсюджена й схема, де Европу використано на позначення певного набору вартостей, зрідка в Польщі, але найчастіше в Україні. Ідеологічно ліберальні видання в усіх трьох країнах зосереджені на позитивних вартостях, тоді як консервативні та бізнесові газети схиляються до неґативних. Серед позитивних якостей в українських газетах переважають гуманістичні, тоді як раціонально-технократичні типові для російської вибірки. Українська преса має найбільше позитивного висвітлення успішної Европи, а російські газети мають найбільше з усіх неґативного (Европа як ворог чи невдаха). Українські та російські дискурси найдужче різняться щодо того, чи своя країна мусить здійснювати европейські реформи (Україна) а чи ні (Росія). Польське висвітлення розривається межи позитивними а негативними вартостями.Під час та після Евромайдану українські журналісти використали впливове поняття Европи яко гуманістичних вартостей, щоб активно втрутитися в політичне поле й реконтекстуалізувати цей наратив Европи як офіційний наратив зовнішньої політики держави. Цьому парадоксально сприяла слабка професіоналізація, що дозволяє іґнорувати вимогу неупереджености. Порівняно з цим, потужний дискурс газетярської об’єктивности в Росії стримує журналістів у репертуарі соціяльної дії, відтак то радше медії реконтекстуалізують офіційний дискурс. Польські ж газетярі, непевні щодо власного впливу, працюють у замкненому колі, де політичне поле реконтекстуалізує наративи медіясфери і навпаки.
Genetic Aspects of Environmental Disturbances in Marine Ecosystems - Studies of the Blue Mussel in the Baltic SeaMer info
Anthropogenic environmental changes can serve as drivers for evolutionary responses in wild populations. To predict the long-term impact of anthropogenic changes on populations, it is crucial to understand the genetic effects caused by these disturbances. The Baltic Sea is considered to be one of the world’s most contaminated seas, and the increase of anthropogenic chemical pollution is a major threat to its ecosystems. This thesis assesses the impact of harbors and sewage treatment plants on physiological traits and genetic structure of resident populations of blue mussels at replicated sites in the Baltic Sea. The initial evaluation of the overall genetic pattern in blue mussel populations in the Swedish West Coast, the Baltic Proper and the Bothnian Sea found genetic differentiation between the three water basins and a low genetic differentiation within each basin, especially within the Baltic Proper. Despite the low genetic differentiation among blue mussels within the Baltic Proper, a parallel genetic differentiation associated with sewage treatment plant effluents was found in this basin. This included genomic regions with a high degree of differentiation between reference sites and sites affected by sewage plants effluent. This genetic differentiation is suggested to be due to post-dispersal selection acting in each generation. In contrast, no parallel genetic differentiation was associated with harbors. We identified five genomic regions in blue mussels, showing strong signs of selection, shared among three out of four replicated reference sites and sites affected by sewage effluents in the Baltic Proper i.e. Askö, Tvärminne and Karlskrona. An initial characterization of these genomic regions revealed functions related to immune and endocrine responses, oxidative stress and shell formation. Our results indicate that selection caused by sewage effluents involves multiple loci. The same genomic regions are found across different locations in the Baltic Proper but there are also unique genomic regions at each location. No genotoxic or histopathological effects were found among blue mussels from sewage effluent-affected areas but a higher frequency of histological abnormalities in the digestive gland were observed in mussels from harbors.
This thesis studies the uses of the concept of revolution in Swedish socialist press from 1917 to 1924. Political revolution and civil wars shook several countries. The Russian February and October Revolutions were soon followed by uprisings in countries such as Germany and Finland.While the social and political history of this period, with its mass demonstrations for bread and voting rights, often called the Swedish revolution, has been covered extensively in existing research, we know much less about the theoretical understanding of revolution among Swedish socialists. This thesis examines the concept of revolution from a perspective inspired by the Begriffsgeschichte of German historian Reinhart Koselleck. This foundation in the history of concepts aims at understanding how Swedish socialists, in a wide sense, understood their own time, how they related to the past and what they expected from the future, during the years of the First World War and the immediately following years. By focusing on what might be the most central, but also the most contested and most difficult to define, concept I hope to complement earlier research focusing on the social and political history of the period and its socialist movements.The main purpose of the thesis is to analyse how the labour movement understood revolution with particular weight placed upon the theoretical and ideological tensions between revolution and reform, determinism and voluntarism and localized and universal revolution. The starting point is the political and social changes in Sweden and abroad at that time and the place of the political press as opinion leaders capable of negotiating the space of political action. A secondary aim is to discuss how focusing on temporality can inspire new perspectives on the use of conceptual history.My research shows that how the concept of revolution was used was shaped both by already established notions regarding the socialist revolution as well as by the political situation at hand. The October Revolution forced a sharpening of its meaning, wherein different factions elaborated their understanding of it in relation to each other, which in turn determined how the concept was used fom that point on.
Smoking Guns - New Research on Two Early-Modern battlefields in the Baltic Sea: Mars (1564) and Svärdet (1676)Mer info
Joint Exploration of the Sunken Past - Examples of Maritime Archaeoogical Collaboration Between Industry and Academica in the BalticMer info
In: Under the Sea. Cham : Springer, 2017. 53-63.
This chapter examines the benefits and constraints of collaboration between an archaeological research unit and a commercial company, using as examples joint research conducted by MARIS (Maritime Archaeological Research Institute at Södertörn University) and the Swedish commercial marine survey company MMT. The examples presented here included the detailed reconstruction by remote sensing of deeply submerged shipwrecks and the mapping and discovery of submerged archaeological landscapes and associated artefacts such as fish traps, which can then be examined more closely by archaeological divers. The benefits to archaeologists of collaborating with well-equipped commercial companies are obvious, but the benefits are mutual. The demands of archaeological research can generate new technological solutions that have commercial application, as well as producing results with wider educational and social benefits. Provided that archaeological investigations are embedded in the normal commercial operations of the company, such collaboration can be cost-effective for both parties, and is further enhanced by collaboration with film companies, which generates wider public interest and publicity for all concerned.
Vägvisare - Program och praktik för undervisning om religioner och icke-religiösa livsåskådningar i interkulturell utbildningMer info
Strasbourg : Council of Europe Publishing, 2017.
Skriften Vägvisare redogör, med pedagogisk-teoretisk förankring och en rad ämnesdidaktiska exempel, hur studiet av religioner och icke-religiösa livsåskådningar kan utgöra ett väsentligt bidrag till interkulturell utbildning i Europas skolor. I en rekommendation 2008 från Europarådets ministerkommitté om religioners och icke-religiösa livsåskådningars dimension av interkulturell utbildning beskrevs utbildningsformens art och mål. Vägvisare erbjuder ett stöd till beslutsfattare,skolor (lärare, skolledare, huvudmän) och lärarutbildare i hanteringen av frågeställningar som rekommendationen kan ge upphov till i olika länder och skolsammanhang. Med omfattande feedback från utbildningsmyndigheter, lärare och lärarutbildare i Europarådets medlemsländer ger Vägvisare konkreta råd, till exempel hur begrepp som används i utbildningsformen kan förklaras, hur kompetenser för undervisning och lärande kan utvecklas och vilka didaktiska metoder som går att tillämpa, hur en “fredad zon” för elevdialog kan skapas i klassrummet, hur elever kan stöttas i analysen av medierepresentationer av religioner, hur icke-religiösa livsåskådningar kan diskuteras jämsides med det religiösa perspektivet, hur människorättsfrågor kan behandlas i relation till religions- och trosuppfattningsfrågor, hur kontakter kan skapas mellan skolor och skolsystem med organisationer, samfund, föreningar och myndigheter i det omgivande samhället. Vägvisare är ingen läroplan eller policyförklaring. Syftet är att erbjuda beslutsfattare, skolor och lärarutbildare i Europarådets medlemsländer, liksom andra intressenter inom verksamhetsfältet, verktyg att arbeta med frågor som uppstår i tolkningen av Europarådets rekommendation om religioners och andra livsåskådningars dimension i interkulturell utbildning, för att möta enskilda länders behov. Vägvisare är frukten av en internationell expertgrupps arbete inom Europarådet i samarbete med Europeiska Wergelandcentret.
En av våra samtida stora utmaningar är hanteringen av de miljö- och hälsoproblem som följer i svallvågorna av en globaliserad handel. En av dessa utmaningar rör hanteringen av kemikalierisker. Inom textilbranschen är produktionen kemikalieintensiv och handelsmönstren karakteriseras av komplexa varukedjor som inte sällan sträcker sig över flera kontinenter. Samtidigt pågår en förändring av inblandade aktörers roller, där marknadsaktörer uppmanas att på ett ansvarstagande sätt hantera frågan om kemikalierisker och de utmaningar som hör därtill. Denna process försvåras ofta till följd av ett komplext samhälle präglat av kunskapsbrister. Detta komplicerar ansvarstagande och gör det svårt att hålla specifika aktörer, såsom företag och inköpande organisationer, ansvariga, då det inte är uppenbart vem som är ansvarig för vad. Denna avhandling undersöker hur en grupp marknadsaktörer – privata och offentliga textilinköpare – tar ansvar för kemikalierisker längs med sina varukedjor i en situation som karaktäriseras av osäkerhet och komplexitet. Avhandlingen syftar till att fördjupa förståelsen för vad som händer när marknadsaktörer uppmanas att hantera miljö- och hälsorisker från till exempel kemikalier i textil. Fokus ligger på svenska privata och offentliga textilinköpare, som exempelvis kläd- och textilföretag, offentlig förvaltning och andra inköpande organisationer. I avhandlingen konstrueras en analytisk modell baserad på nyckelbegreppen responsible governance, responsibilisation och responsible supply chain management. Avhandlingen är explorativ och genom intervjuer, deltagande observationer och litteraturstudier samt fallstudier undersöks en potentiell process av ansvarstagande samt de hinder, utmaningar och möjligheter som de inköpande organisationerna möter i sitt arbete med kemikalierisker längs med sina varukedjor. Resultaten belyser en pågående process av ansvarsförfarande på både organisations och sektornsivå. Avhandlingen visar också att på grund av kedjans komplexa struktur så förekommer större hinder och utmaningar än möjligheter för de textilinköpare som strävar efter ansvarstagande. Trots detta pekar resultaten på att samarbete, kraftfullare styrmedel och ett reflexivt tillvägagångssätt skulle kunna vara en väg mot ökat ansvarstagande inom textilsektorn.
Media Technologies in the Making - User-driven Software and Infrastructures for Computer Graphics ProductionMer info
Under det senaste decenniet har nya medieteknologier för kommunikationoch digitalt skapande möjliggjort för såväl professionella medieproducentersom amatörer att skapa och sprida olika typer av medieinnehåll. Samtidigt finns fler möjligheter än tidigare att bidra till utvecklingen av digitala medieteknologer, såsom programvaruverktyg och infrastrukturer för att producera och cirkulera medieinnehåll (t.ex. Coleman, 2013; Kannengießer,2016; Kubitschko, 2017; Löwgren and Reimer, 2013; Ratto, 2011; Rosneroch Fox, 2016; Toombs et al., 2014).Denna avhandling undersöker hur dessa ökade möjligheter för skapandet av teknologier och infrastrukturer för digital medieproduktion, i synnerhet programvara, har tagits tillvara av mediekreatörer som arbetar, eller strävar efter att arbeta, med datorgrafik. Avhandlingen fokuserar på kulturella, teknologiska och ekonomiska praktiker genom vilka frilansare, oetablerade mediekreatörer och mindre produktionsbolag skapar användardrivna programvaror. Med användardriven avser jag programvara som utvecklas av dess användare: digitalkonstnärer, amatörer och professionellaskapare av digitalt visuell media, snarare än de industriella producenter som traditionellt satt de tekniska ramarna för medieproduktion.Avhandlingen baseras på två empiriska fallstudier som rör skapandet av fri programvara för datoranimation. Med fri programvara avses program där användarna har frihet att använda, kopiera, distribuera, studera, ändra och förbättra programvaran (GNUProject, 2017). De huvudsakliga forskningsfrågorna är: a) hur skapare av datorgrafik utvecklar, formar och guidarde fria programvaror som utgör ett alternativ till industriella programvarorför digital animation, och b) vilken mening dessa alternativ tillskrivs när de används i medieproduktion.Den första fallstudien fokuserar på arbetet av Blender Institute, en oberoende animationsstudio i Amsterdam, Nederländerna. Sedan 2006 har studion arbetat med att utveckla och förbättra en populär programvara för 3D-animation, Blender. Detta har skett genom skapandet av så kallade ‘open-source animation films’, korta animerade filmer med höga produktionsvärden genom vilka programvara, filmelement och utbildning i programvaranhar delats online. Genom den här fallstudien har jag diskuterat programvaruutveckling i en kontext av delningsekonomi. Jag har visat hur strategiskt delande kan vara ett sätt att erövra en maktposition inom digitalmedieproduktion. Jag har också belyst de olika spänningar som uppstår när kulturproducenter söker förena olika perspektiv på programvaror, individuella ambitioner och existerande marknadsstrukturer.Den andra fallstudien fokuserar på praktikerna av Morevna project, ett kollektiv av animé-fans, geografiskt situerade i staden Gorno-Altaysk, i ryska Sibirien. Kollektivet har skapat korta datoranimerade filmer genom vilka man utforskat, lagat och distribuerat den fria programvara de använt i sina produktioner: Synfig för 2D animering. I denna fallstudie har jag argumenterat för värdet av att undersöka spänningar, misslyckanden och lagning snarare än innovationer för att förstå hur alternativa infrastrukturerför digital medieproduktion kan uppstå i kontexter starkt präglade av piratverksamhet.Fallstudierna presenteras och analyseras i fyra olika tidskriftsartiklar och ett bokkapitel, som alla ingår i denna avhandling. De tre första artiklarna svarar mot den första forskningsfrågan och de två sista artiklarna mot den andra. Metodologiskt utgår avhandlingen ifrån kvalitativa ansatser, såsom grounded theory och etnografi. Det empiriska materialet har samlats inmellan 2012 och 2016. Som en del av fältarbetet har jag genomfört kvalitativaintervjuer med 37 informanter. Bland dessa ingår skapare av datorgrafikoch animationer, programmerare och projektledare på Blender Institute och i Morevna.Teoretiskt utgår avhandlingen från ett perspektiv på medier som praktik (Couldry, 2004, 2012). Specifika praktiker som analyseras och teoretiseras i artiklarna är dekommodifiering av programvara; förankrandet av lagningav programvara i medieproduktion; samt delning online av programvara, filmer och filmmaterial; produktionsarbete; samt utbildningsmaterial.Praktikerna analyseras genom begreppen politics and regimes of value (Appadurai, 1986); repair och artful integrations (Jackson, 2014; Suchman,2000); och gifting (Baudrillard, 1981; Mauss, 1925/2002). Jag har också utgått från begreppet autonomi (jfr. Bourdieu, 1993) för att utforska frågan om meningsproduktion vid utveckling av användardriven fri programvaraför medieproduktion.Begreppen beskriver hur olika relationer upprätthålls mellan digitala artefakter, ekonomi och personer. Jag förenar dem i ett gemensamt teoretiskt ramverk genom begreppet infrastructuring (Karasti och Syrjänen, 2004) från science and technology studies. Genom detta begrepp vidgar jag perspektivet på medier som praktik med fokus på praktiker där icke-programmerare och amatörer skapar digitala infrastrukturer genom att integrera nya verktyg och teknik med socialt praktik.Resultaten av denna studie visar hur skapandet av fri programvara av frilansare, oetablerade mediekreatörer och mindre produktionsbolag är ett sätt att skapa infrastrukturell trygghet på en osäker arbetsmarknad. Olika former av autonomi förhandlas i relation till olika konfigurationer av infrastrukturer för teknikproduktion och distribution, till exempel infrastrukturerför piratkopiering eller för att komma runt industriellt skapade begränsningar i förändringen av programvara. I linje med Jackson (2014) betonar jag vikten av att väga upp diskursen kring ‘användarinnovation’ (von Hippel, 2005) genom att betrakta misslyckanden, förfall och haverier som en del av processen av att utveckla nya medier och ny medieteknik, och på så sätt omförhandla uppdelningen och hierarkin mellan olika medieproducenter. Programvaruförfall, dekommodifiering och åldrande kan göra programvaror till ‘residual media’ (Acland, 2007), som i sig kan fungera som en plats där mening, värde och maktförhållanden omförhandlas och skapas på nytt. Dessa omförhandlingar är inte sprungna ur snabba och spontana förändringsprocesser möjliggjorda genom nätverk av kommunikationsteknologier. Snarare karakteriseras de av långsamhet (Paper 3), strategi, dolt kapital (Paper 2), samt konstant förhandling mellan olika intressen (Paper 1, 4 och 5). Litteratur som behandlar organisationen av öppen medieproduktion baserad på allmänningar såsom fri programvara och digitala artefakter som delas online har ofta beskrivits som något som utvecklas organiskt när de frikopplats från etablerade upphovsrättsformer (t.ex. Benkler, 2006; Shirky, 2009). Denna avhandling visar dock att det krävs strategiskt och långsiktigt engagemang för att skapa och etablera en programvara, engagera grupper av användare och integrera programvaran i aktuell medieproduktion. Dessutom antas det ofta att det är hackare, programmerare eller ingenjörer som har makten att tänka ut och realisera faktiska infrastrukturer för digital medieproduktion. Denna studie visardock att mikroanställningar och retorik gör det möjligt även för användare att initiera och påverka medieteknikutvecklingen (Paper 5).Genom att anlägga ett perspektiv på medier som praktik och utveckla det perspektivet med begreppet infrastructuring till det jag kallar för ‘mediarelated infrastructuring practices’ har jag visat hur användardriven programvara och infrastrukturer för datografik skapas och stabiliseras genom att skapa nya och integrera existerande resurser i det digitala medielandskapet. Detta perspektiv öppnar upp möjligheter för att etablera kopplingar mellan olika delfält inom medievetenskapen som fokuserar på medieproduktion, såsom studier av industriell medieproduktion; amatördriven öppenteknikproduktion; samt studier av medieinfrastruktur. Genom infrastructuring kan man se hur medieproducenter skapar nya, förändrar och kritiserar existerande arbetsrelationer, ekonomiska relationer samt kunskapsrelationer. Dessutom kan det växande fältet av infrastrukturstudierutvecklas genom att byta fokus från studier av stora etablerade medieinfrastrukturertill processer av pågående infrastrukturformering av mindre och nya aktörer i det digitala medielandskapet.Sammanfattningsvis bidrar denna avhandling med empiriskt material vilket skapar en större förståelse för formeringen av delar av de digitalamedieproduktionsinfrastrkturer genom en analys av skapandet av användardrivenfri programvara för digital animation. Den bidrar också teoretiskt till en utveckling av perspektivet på medier som praktik (Couldry, 2012). Metodologiskt bidrar den genom att betona värdet av platsbaserad deltagande observation och etnografi även i sammanhang av decentraliserad medieproduktionspraktik. Den bidrar även till att skapa en större förståelse för produktionen av tekniken som underbygger och möjliggör de visuella uttrycken som präglar det mesta av vårt digitala medieinnehållsutbud idag.
Postcolonial Studies 2017, 20 (3): 294-316.
Some states create geographical imaginaries that envision the homeland as coherent and good, and the spaces of Others as disordered, dangerous and therefore legitimate objects of violence. Such ‘violent cartographies’ serve not only to justify policy actions, but constitute bordering practices aiming to provide stability, integrity and continuity to the Self, sometimes referred to as ‘ontological security’. This article examines the role of creativity and artistic imagination in challenging dominant geopolitical narratives. It examines satire on the Russian-language internet, which played upon the Russian state’s geopolitical narrative about the war in Ukraine 2014–15. Three themes within this dominant narrative – (1) the imperialist idea of Russia as a modernising force, (2) the gendering of Ukraine as feminine and Europe as homosexual and (3) the idea that the current war was a re-enactment of Russia’s historical battle against fascism – all became the object of fun-making in satire. I argue that satire, by appropriating, repeating but slightly displacing official rhetoric in ways that make it appear ridiculous, may destabilise dominant narratives of ontological security and challenge their strive towards closure. Satire may expose the silences of dominant narratives and undermine the essentialism and binarism upon which they rely, opening up for estrangement and disidentification.
New Media and Society 2017, : 1-17.
This article discusses how alternative software infrastructures can emerge out offrictions, failure, and repair in the attempts of media creators to evade piracy. Usinga case from the geographical fringes of Russia called Morevna Project, and theoriesof infrastructures and repair, the article suggests how repair can lead to the slow,mundane and fragile formation of what I refer to as ‘situated’ digital infrastructures forcultural production. While pirate-based media production can push creators to searchfor and develop alternative infrastructures, the latter emerge as fragile frameworksthat are constantly threatened from collapse and suspension. The continuous work ofintegrating diverse interests across local and online media-related contexts and practicesbecomes an essential stabilising force needed to perpetuate these infrastructures andprevents them from falling back into oblivion.
Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe 2017, 16 (2): 41-66.
Immigration into states with historical linguistic minorities creates the dilemma of which language newly arrived immigrants should learn in the state-provided integration programmes. Research has shown how territorially concentrated historical minorities have used immigrants to favour their own nation-building projects. While these minorities to some extent operate like a majority within their federal state or province, this paper explores how constitutionally bilingual Finland, having a Swedish-speaking non-territorial minority with the same linguistic rights as the majority, governs immigrant integration. It investigates the implications of the strong legal and weak societal status of Swedish for immigrant integration by connecting scholarship on liberal multiculturalism and integration in multilingual states to laws, reports and interviews on integration in Swedish-speaking Finland. It shows tensions between Finland-Swedish integration aspirations and state level policies promoting a majority-monolingual integration. Unlike minorities with federal protection, the non-territorial Swedish-speaking minority largely relies on the voluntary choice of immigrants to choose Swedish as their language of integration. Structural obstacles, however, hinder this choice in bilingual regions, having resulted in political debates and actions. This article bridges research on Finnish multiculturalism and research on integration policy in contexts where historical minorities are present by introducing a non-territorial, formerly dominant minority to the research field.
Gender equality on a grand tour - politics and institutions – the Nordic Council, Sweden, Lithuania and RussiaMer info
Abingdon, Oxon : Routledge, 2017.
When the Iron Curtain lifted in 1989, it was seen by some as proof of the final demise of the ideas and aspirations of the radical left. Not many years passed, however, before the critique of capitalism and social inequalities were once again the main protest themes of social movements. This book provides an account of radical left movements in today’s Europe and how they are trying to accomplish social and political change.The book’s international group of leading experts provide detailed analysis on social movement organizations, activist groups, and networks that are rooted in the left-wing ideologies of anarchism, Marxism, socialism, and communism in both newly democratized post-communist and longstanding liberal-democratic polities. Through a range of case studies, the authors explore how radical left movements are influenced by their situated political and social contexts, and how contemporary radical left activism differs from both new and old social movements on one hand, and the activities of radical left parliamentary parties on the other. Ultimately, this volume investigates what it means to be ‘radical left’ in current day liberal-democratic and capi- talist societies after the fall of European state socialism.This is valuable reading for students and researchers interested in European politics, contemporary social movements and political sociology.
Frihetstida policyskapande - Uppfostringskommissionen och de akademiska konstitutionerna 1738–1766Mer info
Regulating education is a vital part of government. This thesis is inspired by recent changes on the political landscape of higher education. It is guided by an interest in how political objectives and concepts of ideal social relationships are transformed and expressed through government university policies and their consequences. An early stage of what is now commonly referred to as the modern state and the modern research university, rather than present or relatively recent developments, will be explored. Instead of studying trends on the European continent, the thesis inquiries into an attempt made by the Swedish government to revise the constitutions of Swedish schools and universities through the so-called Educational Commission appointed in 1745.The purpose of the thesis is to apply a modern policy perspective to the Educational Commission’s attempt at reforming the constitution of the Swedish universities. The aim is to illuminate the construction of university regulations and to place this within a larger framework of policy making during the Age of Liberty (Frihetstiden) in Sweden.The Commission was an attempt by the Swedish government to implement educational changes based on a holistic view of the realm. It was one of several contemporary initiatives with nationwide ambitions. The Commission did not, however, succeed in reaching its formal objectives, but by placing too much emphasis on what the Commission did not achieve one risks overlooking other results and consequences. It initiated new communication structures, operating procedures and accountability schemes. It changed the regulations for assessing higher education making the university transparent and accountable to the government in new ways. New administrative routines for producing university reform were introduced.The Commission also provided university actors with a legitimate channel for voicing their opinions in relation to the government. They were given a legitimate position to formulate problems, questions and solutions regarding the university. The demands of the professors for increased autonomy in seeking knowledge and providing education stood against the claims made by the government for added control and insight into academic affairs. Through the Commission, the views of the professors were put into circulation in an official political context.
From the Baltic rim to growth markets - Contextual issues and market strategies of dairy companies in the Baltic rim – the case of ArlaMer info
The danger of being inattentive – ADHD symptoms and risky sexual behaviour in Russian adolescents Mer info
European psychiatry 2017, 47 : 42-48.
AbstractBackground Prior research has indicated that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms may be associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviour (RSB). However, research on this association among adolescents has been comparatively limited and mainly confined to North America. The aim of this study was to examine if inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms were linked to RSB in a community cohort sample of Russian adolescents. Methods The study was based on a group of 537 adolescents from Northern Russia. Information on inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity as well as conduct problems was obtained through teacher ratings, while information on RSB (previous unprotected sex, number of sexual partners, sex while intoxicated and partner pregnancies), substance use, perception of risk, and parenting behaviour was based on students’ self-reports. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables. Results Teacher-rated inattention symptoms predicted RSB, independently of co-morbid conduct problems, substance use, risk perception, and different parenting styles (parental warmth, involvement and control). In addition, male sex, binge drinking and a lower assessment of perceived risk were all significantly associated with RSB in an adjusted model. Neither teacher-rated hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms nor conduct problems were linked to RSB in the full model. Conclusions Deficits in planning and organizing behaviours, being easily distracted and forgetful seem to be of importance for RSB in Russian adolescents. This highlights the importance of discriminating between different types of ADHD symptoms in adolescence to prevent risk behaviours and their potentially detrimental outcomes on health and well-being.
Coastal ecosystem effects of increased summer temperature and contamination by the flame retardant HBCDD Mer info
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 2017, 5 (2): -20.
The combined effects of ocean warming and contaminants on marine ecosystems are poorly understood. In this study, we exposed model ecosystems comprising typical shallow coastal Baltic Sea communities to elevated temperature (+5 °C) and the flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), both singly and in combination, for 13 days. Higher temperatures caused the release of PO4 from the sediment, which in turn stimulated the growth of the cyanobacteria Dolichospermum sp. This in turn led to an increase in the copepod Acartia bifilosa and other indirect effects in the plankton, interpreted as being caused by changes in predation, grazing, and competition. Elevated temperatures also stimulated benthic primary production and increased production of benthic mollusk larvae. Although increased temperature was the dominant driver of effects in these systems, HBCDD also appeared to have some effects, mainly in the zooplankton (both direct and indirect effects) and benthic meiofauna (an interactive effect with temperature). Although the study used model ecosystems, which are an approximation of field conditions, it highlights that interactive ecosystem effects between two stressors are possible and demonstrates the ecological and temporal complexity of such responses. Such unpredictable responses to warming and contaminants are a major challenge for ecosystem management to deal with multistressor situations in the Baltic Sea.
Bakhtin In Bits And Pieces - Poetic Scholarship, Exilic Theory, And A Close Reading Of The DisasterMer info
Slavic and East European Journal 2017, 61 (2): 278-298.
Бахтин в осколках: Фрагменты и записи военного времени (в сопоставлении с “Катастрофическим письмом” Мориса Бланшо), Ирина СандомирскаяВ этой статье делается попытка интерпретации черновых фрагментов и рабочих записок М. М. Бахтина, датированных 1943-46 гг. в сопоставительном чтении с концепцией письма Мориса Бланшо (L’écriture du désastre, The Writing of the Disaster). Не имея между собой прямой интертекстуальной или биографической связи, не являясь также современными друг другу, заметки Бахтина и фрагменты Бланшо, тем не менее, посвящены осмыслению общего опыта европейской модерности ХХ столетия, века тотального истребления жизни и культуры. В статье делается попытка осмысления места и специфики бахтинских фрагментов с точки зрения их принадлежности “письму катастрофы”. Категории, которые конструирует Бланшо, позволяют предложить новую интерпретацию бахтинских отрывков. В то же время, тогда как Бланшо пишет катастрофу, опираясь на воображение, Бахтин из своей повседневности административно-ссыльного военного и послевоенного времени анализирует катастрофу изнутри ее реального опыта, частично предвосхищая, частично подтверждая, частично оспаривая философские выводы, к которым Бланшо придет в совсем ином контексте почти сорока годами позже.
Central European Journal of International and Security Studies 2017, 11 (2): 9-27.
Environmental Impacts of Rural Landscape Change During the Post-Communist Period in the Baltic Sea Region Mer info
Politics of visibility and belonging - from Russia’s "homosexual propaganda" laws to the Ukraine warMer info
The answers you seek will never be found at home - Reflexivity, biographical narratives and lifestyle migration among highly-skilled EstoniansMer info
Det övergripande syftet med denna avhandling är att undersöka förhållandet mellan migration, reflexivitet och social klass. I fokus för den empiriska analysen står högt kvalificerade estniska emigranter. Reflexivitet har hittills inte varit ett viktigt begrepp i migrationsstudier. Även om vissa studier använt ordet reflexivitet, har det i huvudsak fungerat som bakgrundsbegrepp. Det finns en påtaglig brist på empiriskt orienterade studier av reflexivitet i migrationsstudier.Avhandlingen består av fyra artiklar med något olika inriktning. Den första undersöker det empiriska fallet i sin helhet utifrån en survey-undersökning om estniska migranter. Den andra artikeln diskuterar den brittiske sociologen Margaret Archers sätt att analysera migration och argumenterar i hennes efterföljd för ett socialpsykologiskt synsätt på de skiftande motiven att migrera. Den tredje artikeln utmanar tanken på att migranters återvändande i huvudsak kan förstås som saknad efter sociala relationer och känslor av hemlängtan. I den fjärde artikeln föreslås ett sätt för livsstilsorienterade migrationsstudier att hantera frågan om reflexivitet. Här positioneras livsstilsmigranter teoretiskt till andra typer av migranter och hur variationer ilivsstilsmigration kan analyseras. Trots inbördes variation har samtliga artiklar en gemensam nämnare.
Psychological Trauma 2017, 9 (Suppl 1): 93-97.
OBJECTIVE: To assess, at a clinical level, the mental health of former Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia by comparing them with same-age controls.METHOD: The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was administered during 2011-2012 to 99 cleanup workers and 100 population-based controls previously screened for mental health symptoms.RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis showed that cleanup workers had higher odds of current depressive disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 3.07, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.34, 7.01]), alcohol dependence (OR = 3.47, 95% CI [1.29, 9.34]), and suicide ideation (OR = 3.44, 95% CI [1.28, 9.21]) than did controls. Except for suicide ideation, associations with Chernobyl exposure became statistically nonsignificant when adjusted for education and ethnicity.CONCLUSION: A quarter of a century after the Chernobyl accident, Estonian cleanup workers were still at increased risk of mental disorders, which was partly attributable to sociodemographic factors. (PsycINFO Database Record
The present investigation analyses the political thought of the Czech philosopher Jan Patočka. It focuses on the question of how we are to understand political life: what are its distinguishing features and how we are to circumscribe it conceptually. According to Patočka the experience of politics is one characterized by a loss of meaning, a loss of a foundation or principle that could lend stability to our lives. It is an experience of a tremor by and through which the foundations of our experience are shaken.Philosophy’s political task is, however, not to provide any foundation for political life, but rather to address the question of why man is inclined to posit metaphysical foundations and why refuge in ideological principles is sought. Philosophy must instead engage with the groundlessness and negativity permeating human existence as such. In order to provide an analysis of human existence, and how this very groundlessness of existence is exposed in politics, Patočka calls for an “a-subjective phenomenology” that abandons the traditional notion of the subject and of subjectivity. An “a-subjective” phenomenological analysis is central for the present investigation. The author shows that it is only by and through Patočka’s a-subjective phenomenology that his political thought can be understood; out of his distinctive phenomenological analyses, the negativity, instability and groundlessness of human existence is brought to the fore. Politically, this negativity manifests itself in two phenomena, which, when taken together, constitute the very bedrock for politics: freedom and human coexistence. Human existence is neither stable nor self-sufficient. On the contrary, it is always already exposed to others, always already engaged in the self-transcending movement of its freedom. Freedom and coexistence are in this respect two interrelated expressions of the inherent negativity of human existence and two phenomena that, accordingly, occupy a privileged position in this study. The author seeks to show that it is by way of an in-depth analysis of freedom and coexistence that the question of politics can be addressed in the work of Patočka since they give testament to the trembling, unnerving, and disorienting nature of politics.
Heritage and Imaginary Childhood Landscapes - On the Impetus of Tourism Entrepreneurs in Stockholm ArchipelagoMer info
In: Reformer og ressourcer / Reforms and Resources: Rapporter til det 29. Nordiske Historikermøde / Proceedings of the 29th Congress of Nordic Historians. (1 udg.) Aalborg. (Studier i historie, arkiver og kulturarv, Vol. 7). Aalborg : .
European Journal of Psychological Assessment 2017, 33 (3): 207-217.
This article presents the cross-cultural validation of the Entitlement Attitudes Questionnaire, a tool designed to measure three facets of psychological entitlement: active, passive, and revenge entitlement. Active entitlement was defined as the tendency to protect individual rights based on self-worthiness. Passive entitlement was defined as the belief in obligations to and expectations toward other people and institutions for the fulfillment of the individual's needs. Revenge entitlement was defined as the tendency to protect one's individual rights when violated by others and the tendency to reciprocate insults. The 15-item EAQ was validated in a series of three studies: the first one on a general Polish sample (N = 1,900), the second one on a sample of Polish students (N = 199), and the third one on student samples from 28 countries (N = 5,979). A three-factor solution was confirmed across all samples. Examination of measurement equivalence indicated partial metric invariance of EAQ for all national samples. Discriminant and convergent validity of the EAQ was also confirmed.
Scando-Slavica 2017, 63 (1): 43-59.
The aim of this paper is to reconsider the doctrine of Socialist Realism against the backdrop of the tradition of modern realism as an aesthetic form of instructing the modern subject through sentimental political education. Socialist Realism is here considered as a school for instructing the reader to an understanding of historical and social reality that is based on an idea of a transference between reality and literature proper to modern realism. I look in particular at Fedor Gladkov’s rewritings of Cement to examine how reality and literature fuse in a narrative describing the genesis of an oeuvre. I argue that what is characteristic for Gladkov is that he as a writer was willing to learn how to write in the image of Gor′kij because he considered literature as a school of learning how to write and at the same time how to acquire the correct awareness and knowledge of historical reality. This was also what guided him in the editions. The reason for doing so was that he was set on reality, and not on the technique of writing.
Bordering Pomerania - Boundary-defining and demographic transgression in a geopolitically contested regionMer info
The rise and fall of the Baltic Sea Region? - The economic and political underpinnings of a northern European macroregion, 1990-2015Mer info
In: . : .
It has been suggested that regionalism is defined “as an economic process whereby economic flows grow more rapidly among a given group of states [in the same region] than between these states and those located elsewhere”. In this paper we approach the economic underpinnings for the Baltic Sea Region by analysing the developments with regard to trade and investment in the quarter of a century that has passed since the fall of the communist regimes that divided the European continent At the same time we look into the political developments that brought the 2009 adoption of the European Union’s first macroregional strategy, the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region. The strategy was a symbolic second milestone with regard to the political endeavours to reintegrate the continent; the first being the 2004 enlargement. Having transformed the Baltic Sea from a ‘Mare Dividum’ to a European ‘Mare Nostrum’ was indeed also a sign of the success of such integrative political processes.However, it may also be argued that the perceived need for a specific strategy in order to further and deepen the integration and reduce the economic gaps within the European Union gives an indication that there was more to be wished for with regard to this region. Further, more recent political developments in Europe as such as well as the constituent countries of this macroregion has cast some doubts on the future. In this paper we ask ourselves whether developments with regard to investments and trade are in congruence with the notion of the building of one integrated region; does it make economic sense to talk about a Baltic Sea Region or is the eastwest divide still present? For example, to what extent have the developments with regard to foreign direct investments proved sustainable? What sectors are leading the way and which are lagging? What divisions remain to be tackled? These are some of the questions that this paper attempts to address based upon a thorough analysis of the existing sources with regard to foreign direct investment and trade flows. In addition, in a concluding section, we open up an analysis on whether recent political development risk nullifying the progress made on the economic arena – or whether Brexit and connected developments are actually reinforcing the European macroregional agenda?
Substance Use & Misuse 2017, 52 (12): 1616-1623.
BACKGROUND: Inhalant use by children and adolescents has been linked to an increased risk of multiple drug use, mental health problems and antisocial behavior.OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the frequency of inhalant use and psychiatric diagnoses among incarcerated delinquent youths in Russia.METHODS: A total of 370 incarcerated delinquents from a juvenile correction center in Northern Russia were assessed by means of a semi-structured psychiatric interview and by self-reports.RESULTS: Compared to non-users (N = 266), inhalant users (N = 104) reported higher rates of PTSD, early onset conduct disorder, ADHD, alcohol abuse and dependence, as well as higher levels of antisocial behavior, impulsiveness and more psychopathic traits. Frequent inhalant users also reported the highest rates of co-occurring psychopathology.CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that inhalant use in delinquents is frequent and may require additional clinical measures to address the issue of psychiatric comorbidity.
Mapping policies for surface water protection zones on forest land in the Nordic-Baltic region - Large differences in prescriptiveness and zone width.Mer info
Ambio 2017, 46 (8): 878-893.
The forest landscape across the Nordic and Baltic regions hosts numerous lakes and watercourses, which must be included in forest management. In this study, national policy designs regarding protection zones for surface waters on forest land were reviewed and compared for the Nordic countries, Estonia and Latvia. The focus was how each country regulates protection zones, whether they are voluntary or mandatory, and the rationale behind adopting a low or high degree of prescriptiveness. Iceland and Denmark had a low degree of policy prescriptiveness, whereas Norway, Estonia and Latvia had a high degree of prescriptiveness. Sweden and Finland relied to a large extent on voluntary commitments. The prescribed zone widths within the region ranged from 1 m to 5 km. The results indicated that land-use distribution, forest ownership structure and historical and political legacies have influenced the varying degrees of prescriptiveness in the region.
European Journal of Cultural Studies 2017, 20 (3): 285-306.
The proliferation and recycling of Soviet popular culture and history is a central ingredient of post-Soviet film and television production, leading to accusations that the Russian media is nurturing nostalgia. Nostalgia can hardly account for the manifold uses of the Soviet past in contemporary Russian television programming. Nevertheless, in the aftermath of the Crimean annexation, it became evident that nostalgia for a strong empire with a strong ruling hand' was part of Putin's symbolic politics for several years. Keeping these considerations in mind, this article investigates how nostalgia extends into the domain of television and becomes an element of symbolic politics, employing a case study of two documentaries produced during Putin's presidency to focus the analysis. This study also examines how contemporary Russian television uses footage and film clips from the socialist period and witness testimonies to dismantle' popular myths.
What should a Russian father be like? - Exploring fatherhood norms and identifying norm patterns among inhabitants of Saint PetersburgMer info
International Political Science Review 2017, : -.
Based on data from a survey conducted in Saint Petersburg in 2013, this article sheds new light on attitudes towards fatherhood in contemporary Russia. We explore what norms are held concerning fatherhood, how these attitudes are related to age, sex, education and income as well as to ideal?typical models established in previous research on fatherhood from Western Europe and the US. Thus, the article also discusses what explanatory value established theoretical models have for the Russian context. Norms of the role of the father in the family are related to general norms of masculinity and, hence, are an important part of the study of politics and the political climate in a society. The results show that there are several fatherhood ideals present in contemporary Northwestern Russia: a traditional breadwinner model, an active fatherhood model as well as what we refer to as a marginalized fatherhood model. The latter has not been substantially identified in previous research, and may tentatively be identified as a legacy of the Soviet era.
What Is Cultural News Good For? - Finnish, Norwegian, and Swedish cultural journalism in public service organisationsMer info
In: Cultural Journalisn in the Nordic Countries. Göteborg : Nordicom, 2017. 111-133.
This chapter compares how Nordic public service media institutions (Finland: YLE; Norway: NRK; Sweden: SVT/SR) de ne and interpret their remits regarding cultural news. Relying on policy documents, interviews with managing cultural news editors and a sample week’s broadcast and online cultural news output, the results show distinctive national di erences in the ways cultural news is conceived, the resources and organisation of the cultural news desks, and di erences in news content during the week studied. e countries are most similar in their broad popular culture o ering, and by that fact that all the companies provide broader cultural news coverage on their websites than in their broadcast versions. However, the distinctions between the online and o ine platforms are less clear than those between the three countries. So, despite the commonalities of the Nordic media model, the values and practices of cultural journalism show enough di erences to warrant further study.
Geopolitics 2017, 2 (3): 665-692.
The essays collected in this forum discuss the geopolitical legacy of the Russian Revolution of 1917, one of the most momentous political events of the twentieth century. From a range of different academic disciplines and perspectives, the authors consider how the profound transformations in society and politics were refracted through space and geography, and how enduring these refractions proved to be. The authors focus on three themes that have been dominant in Russian affairs over the past century: 1)the problem of center-periphery relations, 2)the civilizational dynamics of Russia’s self-identification in relation to Europe and to Asia, and 3)the geopolitics of national identity.
Europe as identity and ideal - Reading Barroso’s ‘New Narrative’ heretically alongside Hegel, Husserl and PatočkaMer info
Narratives at war - Representations of Europe in news media of Ukraine, Russia and Poland during EuromaidanMer info
Negotiating Imperial Rule - Colonists and Marriage in the Nineteenth-century Black Sea SteppeMer info
År 1804 formulerade tsar Alexander I:s regering nya riktlinjer för rysk migrationspolitik. Invandrare från de krigshärjade tyska länderna skulle värvas till kolonisering av stäppen norr om Svarta havet i en omfattande kampanj orkestrerad av den ryska staten. Dessa nykomlingar, som av myndigheterna kategoriserades som “tyska kolonister,” etablerade kolonier i hela regionen inom ett par årtionden. Boken presenterar den första studien av hur äktenskap och hushållsformering användes som instrument i den ryska koloniseringspolitiken i området, och hur dessa faktorer primärt styrdes av koloniseringens socioekonomiska rationalitet. Stabila hushåll och jordbruk som genererade avkastning eftersträvades in i det längsta. Ibland ledde detta till konflikter mellan den sekulära och den andliga makten om tolkningsföreträde rörande äktenskapets upplösning och ingående. Genom analys av både normer och praxis blottläggs samspelet mellan kolonisering som politik, och kolonisering som en imperiesituation, där äktenskapet och hushållet omförhandlades i skärningspunkten mellan myndigheter, kyrkosamfund, lokalsamhälle och enskilda. Studien visar att den ryska centralmakten och dess regionala representanter saknade verktyg för att utöva den effektiva kontroll som eftersträvades över kolonistäktenskap och hushållsformering på lokal nivå. Denna slutsats stöds genom att ett antal strategier och handlingsmönster som utmanade och bidrog till att omförhandla äktenskapsregimen i regionen identifieras och diskuteras.
Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors in the environment - Effects of citalopram on fish behaviourMer info
Det serotonerga systemet är i stort sett identiskt hos människor och övriga vertebrater. Serotonin är inblandat i ett stort antal kroppsliga funktioner, bland annat stressreaktioner, reglering av födobeteende och aggression. Vidare är serotonin med och reglerar nervsystemets tillväxt under embryonalutvecklingen. Selektiva serotoninåterupptagshämmare (SSRI) är en grupp antidepressiva och lugnande läkemedel vars användning har ökat snabbt på senare år då de är effektiva och har få allvarliga bieffekter. SSRI verkar på det serotonerga systemet, genom att blockera återupptaget av serotonin i den presynaptiska nervänden. SSRI har tilldragit sig en viss uppmärksamhet som potentiella miljöhot då de visats kunna påverka ekologiskt relevanta beteenden hos fisk och andra akvatiska organismer vid relativt låga koncentrationer i miljön samtidigt som de bryts ned dåligt i avloppsreningsverk. Avhandlingen fokuserar på ekologiskt relevanta beteendeeffekter av SSRI på fisk, med storspigg (Gasterosteus aculeatus) och zebrafisk (Danio rerio) som modellorganismer. Citalopram har använts som försökssubstans då det anses vara den SSRI som har minst antal sidoeffekter på till exempel det dopaminerga systemet. Citalopram förekommer i utloppsvatten från reningsverk i alla industrialiserade länder och har även hittats i abborre i Östersjön.Effekter av exponering för SSRI har påvisats med hjälp av olika beteendetest. Skototaxi-test och novel tank diving test mäter stressresponsen genom att kvantifiera preferensen för närhet till botten och mörka omgivningar. Ätbeteende har mätts som antal utfall mot en matbit under en given tidsperiod och aggression har mätts genom att räkna antal bett mot en spegel. Anxiolytiska effekter undersöktes vid koncentrationer på 0,1 µg/l, 15 µg/l och 1,5 µg/l. Effekter på ätbeteende undersöktes vid 0,15 µg/l och 1,5 µg/l. Eftersom serotonin är inblandat i embryonalutvecklingen testades de beteendemässiga effekterna av exponering för 1,5 µg/l under utvecklingen. Då citalopram sällan förekommer ensamt i miljön testades ett cocktailscenario där zebrafisk samtidigt exponerades för citalopram och den anxiogena substansen 17α-etinylestradiol (EE2).Citalopram befanns ha anxiolytisk verkan på storspigg samt undertrycka ätbeteendet. Effekter på ätbeteendet uppstod inom en vecka efter exponering och vid den minsta testade dosen vilken var 0,15 µg/l. Storspigg som exponerats under embryonalutvecklingen var mer aggressiva, hade lägre lokomotoraktivitetoch gjorde fler utfall mot mat då de testades 100 dagar efter att exponeringen avslutats. Samtidigt exponering för citalopram och den anxiogena substansen 17α-etinylestradiol (EE2) gav tvetydiga resultat. Citalopram ensamt hade ingen signifikant påverkan på beteendet i detta försök. I skototaxitestet motverkade citalopram den anxiogena effekten av EE2 medan det förstärkte den anxiogena effekten i novel tank. Sammanfattningsvis har citalopram effekter på ekologiskt relevanta beteenden hos fisk i koncentrationer som förekommer i ytvatten. Det har också permanenta effekter på beteende om exponeringen sker under embryonalutvecklingen. Dessa resultat gör det sannolikt att citalopram och andra SSRI har ekologiska effekter i påverkade vattendrag.
Ethnic variation in self-rated health–mortality association - Results from a 17-year follow-up study in EstoniaMer info
Medicina (Kaunas) 2017, 53 (2): 114-121.
Previous research has highlighted the role of self-rated health (SRH) as an important predictor of mortality. With substantial ethnic differences in SRH and mortality reported in Estonia, this study aims to examine the ethnic variation in SRH–mortality association in this setting. Materials and methods The baseline data come from nationally representative 1996 Estonian Health Interview Survey. Individual records of 3983 respondents in the 25–79 age group were linked with mortality data with 17 years follow-up time. The association between SRH and all-cause mortality was analysed using the Cox regression for two ethnic groups and separately for men and women. Results Among ethnic Estonians, both men and women with bad or very bad SRH had about 60% higher mortality compared to those with good or very good SRH even after adjustment for age, socioeconomic and health-related variables. In contrast, SRH did not predict mortality among non-Estonian men and women. A strong and universal inverse association with mortality was found for personal income. Education (among men) and occupation (among women) predicted mortality only among non-Estonians, whereas ever smoking was associated with mortality in Estonian men and women. Overweight women had lower mortality risk compared to women in normal weight category. Conclusions We found considerable ethnic variation in SRH–mortality association and in socioeconomic predictors of mortality. Further research, preferably focusing on cause-specific mortality and reporting heterogeneity of SRH could potentially shed further light on ethnic differences in SRH–mortality association in Estonia and more generally on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in Eastern Europe.
Bristol : Intellect Ltd., 2017.
Europe Faces Europe examines Eastern European perspectives on European identity. The contributors to this volume map narratives of Europe rooted in Eastern Europe, examining their relationship to philosophy, journalism, social movements, literary texts, visual art, and popular music. Moving the debate and research on European identity beyond the geographical power center, the essays explore how Europeanness is conceived of in the dynamic region of Eastern Europe. Offering a fresh take on European identity, Europe Faces Europe comes at an important time, when Eastern Europe and European identity are in an important and vibrant phase of transition.
In: Biological Oceanography of the Baltic Sea. : Springer Netherlands, 2017. 23-84.
"Why is the Baltic Sea so special to live in", is the main question the authors here give several arguments or answers for. Geographical position, geological development, hydrographical features, climate and physical drivers together create the Baltic Sea environment. The Baltic Sea water is brackish and characterized by pronounced salinity gradients, both in horizontal and vertical directions, because of the large volume of freshwater runoff from over 100 rivers, which mixes with the saline water from the Kattegat that enters the Baltic Sea via narrow shallow straits. Being a semi-enclosed continental sea with a large drainage area compared to its water volume , the Baltic Sea ecosystem is heavily impacted by the surrounding landmasses. The water residence time in the Baltic Sea is long (30–40 years), and therefore discharged nutrients and toxic compounds circulate within the sea for a long time, which contributes to its vulnerability to eutrophication and chemical contamination by hazardous substances. The Baltic Sea Area is geologically young and the Baltic Sea ecosystem is extremely young in an evolutionary perspective. Only few macroscopic species are fully adapted to its low-salinity environment. In an ecosystem-wide perspective, the large-scale Baltic Sea gradient is the principal ecological characteristic of the Baltic Sea.
Persistent Effects of Developmental Exposure to 17α-Ethinylestradiol on the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Brain Transc... Mer info
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 2017, 11 : -.
The synthetic estrogen 17Î±-ethinylestradiol (EE2) is an endocrine disrupting compound of concern due to its persistence and widespread presence in the aquatic environment. Effects of developmental exposure to low concentrations of EE2 in fish on reproduction and behavior not only persisted to adulthood, but have also been observed to be transmitted to several generations of unexposed progeny. To investigate the possible biological mechanisms of the persistent anxiogenic phenotype, we exposed zebrafish embryos for 80 days post fertilization to 0, 3 and 10 ng/L EE2 (measured concentrations 2.14 and 7.34 ng/L). After discontinued exposure, the animals were allowed to recover for 120 days in clean water. Adult males and females were later tested for changes in stress response and shoal cohesion, and whole-brain gene expression was analyzed with RNA sequencing. The results show increased anxiety in the novel tank and scototaxis tests, and increased shoal cohesion in fish exposed during development to EE2. RNA sequencing revealed 34 coding genes differentially expressed in male brains and 62 in female brains as a result of EE2 exposure. Several differences were observed between males and females in differential gene expression, with only one gene, sv2b, coding for a synaptic vesicle protein, that was affected by EE2 in both sexes. Functional analyses showed that in female brains, EE2 had significant effects on pathways connected to the circadian rhythm, cytoskeleton and motor proteins and synaptic proteins. A large number of non-coding sequences including 19 novel miRNAs were also differentially expressed in the female brain. The largest treatment effect in male brains was observed in pathways related to cholesterol biosynthesis and synaptic proteins. Circadian rhythm and cholesterol biosynthesis, previously implicated in anxiety behavior, might represent possible candidate pathways connecting the transcriptome changes to the alterations to behavior. Further the observed alteration in expression of genes involved in synaptogenesis and synaptic function may be important for the developmental modulations resulting in an anxiety phenotype. This study represents an initial survey of the fish brain transcriptome by RNA sequencing after long-term recovery from developmental exposure to an estrogenic compound.
Vara - Framträdande - Värld - Fenomenets negativitet hos Martin Heidegger, Jan Patočka och Eugen Fink.Mer info
Denna avhandling belyser fenomenologins fenomenbegrepp genom en tolkning av dess i förhållande till framträdelsen negativa innebörd i Martin Heideggers, Jan Patočkas och Eugen Finks filosofiska författarskap. Fenomenets negativitet tematiseras i termer av ett berövande och en förlust av fenomenet. Förståelsen av detta fördjupas stegvis, och leder fram till en beskrivning av fenomenets framträdande som en sublim tilldragelse. Denna tilldragelse exponerar existensen inför en frånvaro av mening. En formulering av frånvaron ifråga som en dynamisk rörelse av existensen öppnar för ett nytt perspektiv på vad det innebär att bedriva fenomenologi: fenomenologiskt tänkande börjar inte med framträdelsens omedelbara givenhet, utan genom erfarenheten av en förlust av fenomenet som skakar om den givna meningen.
Lära från Väst efter revolutionerna i Öst - Kunskapsöverföring som svenskt bistånd i Östersjöregionen mellan 1989 och 2004Mer info
Förvaltningen av nationalparkerna in vid gränsen mellan Polen och Slovakien i Karpaterna är framför allt inriktad mot att uppnå balans mellan bevarande av biologisk mångfald och social välfärd. Polen och Slovakien har under de senaste 25 åren genomgått en snabb förändring från socialistiska regimer till liberala demokratier, vilket har inneburit genomgripande politiska, sociala och ekonomiska förändringar. Medlemskapet i EU innebar ytterligare förändringar, som till exempel integrering av naturvårdsarbete och socioekonomisk utveckling, liksom främjande av inkluderande, transparent och deltagarinriktat beslutsfattande. Därmed bygger den moderna beslutsprocessen inte längre på den tidigare hierarkiska strukturen, utan har nu fått en aningen diffus karaktär, innefattande mängd olika aktörer som interagerar i såväl horisontella som vertikala beslutsprocesser.I denna avhandling utforskas nyckelutmaningar och möjligheter för beslutsfattande och implementering av naturvårdsarbete på lokal nivå, relaterade till de post-socialistiska arven och medlemskapet i EU. Multi-level governance (politiskt beslutsfattande på flera nivåer), Europeanization (europeisering) och post-socialistiska studier används som teoretiska verktyg för analysen av fyra gränsöverskridande nationalparker: Pieninsky, som innefattar såväl polska som slovakiska områden, Bieszczady (Polen) och Poloniny (Slovakien).Studien visar att det tidiga inrättandet av naturskydd i nationalparkerna hindrade exploatering och möjliggjorde bevarandet av värdefulla naturområden, vilka idag är högt värderade utifrån ett europeiskt perspektiv. Reglerna för detta naturskydd har dock skapat begränsningar för hur områdena kan användas för, till exempel, agrara verksamheter och turism.De mer övergripande landsbygdsutvecklingsmöjligheterna beror av lokala, nationella och globala faktorer som exempelvis den lokala ekonomins struktur, tillgång på arbetstillfällen, hur naturskydd prioriteras i nationellt beslutsfattande, intresse för investeringar i området och urbaniseringsprocesser. Medlemskapet i EU har medfört utökade möjligheter för finansiering av naturskydd och landsbygdsutveckling. Samtidigt har medlemskapet för dessa länder lett till ökade förväntningar på politiskt deltagande och nya utmaningar vad gäller transparens i beslutsfattande och inkluderande beslutsprocesser. Vidare har informella beslutsvägar i lokalt beslutsfattande och lågt förtroende för statliga myndigheter lett till ytterligare utmaningar i deltagandeprocesser. Möjligheter för lokala aktörer att kunna kommunicera och påverka beslut på högre nivåer har förblivit begränsade och är ännu inte tydligt institutionaliserade, samtidigt som det moderna, interaktiva beslutsfattandet på flera nivåer indirekt formar lokala processer genom att definiera legala och politiska ramverk inom vilka förvaltningsbeslut fattas.
In: Environmental Challenges in the Baltic Region. London : Palgrave Macmillan, 2017. 201-220.
This chapter compares public attitudes to environmental protection in Estonia with those in neighbouring Baltic states. Data from the Estonian Environmental Survey (The Chair of Environmental Economics. Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, 2010) and ISSP Environment III are compared and analysed using an ordered logit. Support for environmental protection is measured in the form of willingness of individuals to make financial sacrifices through higher prices and higher taxes or accepting a cut in their standard of living, in order to protect the environment. Results show that the demand for the protection of the environment tends to increase with income. There are some differences between public attitudes in terms of willingness to accept cuts in the standard of living and willingness to pay higher taxes and prices. Higher education is another determinant of support for environmental protection, particularly in Estonia.
The undatables - Quantifying uncertainty in a highly expanded Late Glacial-Holocene sediment sequence recovered from the deepest Baltic Sea basin—IODP Site M0063Mer info
Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 2017, 18 (3): 858-871.
Laminated, organic-rich silts and clays with high dissolved gas content characterize sediments at IODP Site M0063 in the Landsort Deep, which at 459 m is the deepest basin in the Baltic Sea. Cores recovered from Hole M0063A experienced significant expansion as gas was released during the recovery process, resulting in high sediment loss. Therefore, during operations at subsequent holes, penetration was reduced to 2 m per 3.3 m core, permitting expansion into 1.3 m of initially empty liner. Fully filled liners were recovered from Holes B through E, indicating that the length of recovered intervals exceeded the penetrated distance by a factor of >1.5. A typical down-core logarithmic trend in gamma density profiles, with anomalously low-density values within the upper ∼1 m of each core, suggests that expansion primarily occurred in this upper interval. Thus, we suggest that a simple linear correction is inappropriate. This interpretation is supported by anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data that indicate vertical stretching in the upper ∼1.5 m of expanded cores. Based on the mean gamma density profiles of cores from Holes M0063C and D, we obtain an expansion function that is used to adjust the depth of each core to conform to its known penetration. The variance in these profiles allows for quantification of uncertainty in the adjusted depth scale. Using a number of bulk 14C dates, we explore how the presence of multiple carbon source pathways leads to poorly constrained radiocarbon reservoir age variability that significantly affects age and sedimentation rate calculations.
Palaeoenvironmental History of the Baltic Sea - One of the Largest Brackish-Water Ecosystems in the WorldMer info
In: Applications of Paleoenvironmental Techniques in Estuarine Studies. : Springer Netherlands, 2017. 615-662.
The past of the Baltic Sea has been intensively investigated using a wealth of techniques. By far the largest number of studies has focused on sea level and salinity changes, driven by global climate and isostatic crustal rebound after the Baltic Sea emerged underneath the Weichselian Ice Sheet ca. 15,000 cal. years BP. The post-glacial history of the Baltic has included both freshwater and brackish water stages depending on the connection of the Baltic Sea with the world’s oceans. As the Baltic is one of the most polluted sea areas in the world, many studies have also focused on both the long-term trends in nutrients and productivity and the relatively recent anthropogenic eutrophication. The long-term changes in the trophic state of the Baltic Sea have been found to be linked to changes in climate, which controls freshwater discharge from the catchment and weathering rates, as well as marine water inflow from the North Sea. The productivity of the Baltic Sea has followed major climate patterns: it was high during warm periods and lower during phases of deteriorating climate. Recent eutrophication of the Baltic Sea can mainly be explained by a marked increase in discharge of nutrients caused by a growing population and changes in the agricultural practice, although long-term climate variability also plays a part. Signs of recovery have recently been detected, however, the Baltic Sea is still far from its pre-industrial trophic state.
Saving and fearing Muslim women in ‘post-communist’ Poland - troubling Catholic and secular IslamophobiaMer info
Gender, Place and Culture 2017, 24 (2): 288-299.
Sexual politics play a key role in anti-Muslim narratives. This has been observed by scholarship problematising liberal feminist approaches towards ‘non-Western’ subjects focusing on countries such as France, the USA and the Netherlands. Yet interrogations into how these debates play out in European national contexts that are located outside of the European ‘West’ have attracted significantly less scholarly attention. Drawing on qualitative data collected in Poland this article aims to begin to fill this gap by analysing the centrality of feminist discourses within Islamophobic agendas in Poland. The article asks how discourses around women’s rights are mobilised simultaneously, and paradoxically, by both secular and Catholic groups in ‘post-communist’ Poland. By showcasing how feminist sentiments are employed by ideologically opposing groups, we sketch out some of the complexities in the ways Islamophobia operates in a Central and Eastern European context.
The Promises of the Free World - Postsocialist Experience in Argentina and the Making of Migrants, Race, and ColonialityMer info
Esta tesis investiga las experiencias narradas por una serie de individuos que emigraron a Argentina desde Rusia y Ucrania a raíz de la caída de la Unión Soviética. Su objetivo general es estudiar el modo en que estos inmigrantes transitaron la realidad social argentina en lo que se refiere a las posiciones físicas, materiales y socioeconómicas disponibles, así como también a su auto-comprensión y a las identidades construidas desde sus narraciones. La autora examina cuestiones de migración, movilidad, raza, clase y género en los procesos de restablecimiento de la vida de estos sujetos a través del marco de la teoría política del discurso, los estudios críticos de la raza, la auto-etnografía y teorías sobre la colonialidad. Los datos empíricos consisten en entrevistas etnográficas en profundidad y observación participante realizadas en Buenos Aires entre los años 2011 y 2014. Los entrevistados no sólo se vieron directamente afectados por el colapso de la URSS en el sentido de que éste cambió drásticamente su terreno de futuros posibles y la comprensión retroactiva de su pasado, sino que también comenzaron sus vidas en Argentina durante las turbulencias de la crisis económica que estalló en el año 2001. En esta tesis, es central la indagación sobre cómo estos eventos dislocatorios impactaron en las posibilidades y limitaciones de los entrevistados para vivir la vida que esperaban y cómo las estructuras discursivas afectan las posiciones y las identificaciones de los sujetos, creando condiciones específicas para diferentes trayectorias de reubicación. Al enfocarse en cómo estos individuos narran sus razones para la migración y su integración en los mercados laborales y de la vivienda en Argentina, la autora demuestra el papel que tienen en las auto-comprensiones, posiciones de sujeto, identidades y movilidad, tanto la historia argentina y de Europa del Este, así como también la reestructuración neoliberal de la región postsocialista y de la Argentina en los años 90. Diversas intersecciones de poder, y particularmente la raza y la blancura son importantes para la manera en que los entrevistados negociaron posiciones subjetivas e identificaciones. La autora aborda cómo el afecto y la esperanza desempeñaron un papel en estos procesos y cómo la movilidad descendente se articuló y se hizo significativa. También examina cómo las ideas de los participantes acerca de una "buena vida" se relacionan con la comprensión del pasado, las cuestiones de raza, desigualdad social y una lógica colonial.
In Their Majesties’ Service - The Career of Francesco De Gratta (1613-1676) as a Royal Servant and Trader in GdańskMer info
Denna studie analyserar Francesco De Grattas (1613-1676) ekonomiska och administrativa karriär som kunglig postmästare, kunglig sekreterare och köpman i det polsk-litauiska samväldet. Denna undersökning är främst inriktad på nätverks- och karriärsanalys och bygger på olika arkivkällor från en rad europeiska arkiv och bibliotek, främst från Italien, Polen och Tyskland.Studien presenterar familjen De Gratta och de familjära sociala strategier som Francesco använde för att förankra sin familj i det polsk-litauiska samväldets adelskultur. Därefter visar analysen att De Grattas karriär kan förstås mot bakgrund av upprättandet av det tidigmoderna kungliga postsystemet i Gdańsk (Gdańsk hade en viktig överbryggande roll inom Polen-Litauen), liksom hans nära kontakter med olika polska kungar och drottningar.Hans karriär följde olika distinkta steg som möjliggjorde för honom att närma sig kronan, adeln och köpmännen i Gdańsk. År 1654 blev han huvudpostmästare i Gdańsk och 1661 fick han ämbetet som huvudpostmästare för Kungliga Preussen, Kurland, Semgallen och Livland. Senare utvecklade Francesco De Gratta sin kreditverksamhet parallellt med utbyggnaden av sitt kontaktnätverk med kungliga preussiska städer, kungliga myndigheter och inte minst olika polska myntmästare. Han blev också involverad i handel med pottaska (kaliumkarbonat) tillsammans med sin svärson Jan Wawrzyniec Wodzicki, först som hans agent och senare som delägare i Wodzickis företag. Slutligen spårar studien Francesco De Grattas sociala och ekonomiska framåtskridande genom en analys av hans arv och dess betydelse för hans arvingars sociala status.Sammanfattningsvis jämförs Francesco De Grattas karriär med andra postmästare och myntmästare av italienskt ursprung i Polen-Litauen.
Seasonal hypoxia was a natural feature of the coastal zone in the Little Belt, Denmark, during the past 8 ka Mer info
Marine Geology 2017, 387 : 45-57.
The extent of the hypoxic area in the Baltic Sea has rapidly expanded over the past century. Two previous phases of widespread hypoxia, coinciding with the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM; 8–4 ka before present; BP) and the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 2–0.8 ka BP), have been identified. Relatively little is known about bottom water redox conditions in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea during the Holocene, however. Here we studied the geochemical composition of a sediment sequence from a currently seasonally hypoxic site in the Danish coastal zone, the Little Belt, retrieved during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 347 (Site M0059). The base of the studied sediment sequence consists of clays low in organic carbon (Corg), molybdenum (Mo) and iron sulfides (Fe-sulfides), and rich in iron oxides (Fe-oxides), indicative of a well-oxygenated, oligotrophic (glacial) meltwater lake. An erosional unconformity separates the glacial lake sediments from sediments that are rich in Corg. The absence of Mo, in combination with high Corg/S values, indicates that these sediments were deposited in a highly productive, well-oxygenated freshwater lake. The transition to modern brackish/marine conditions was very rapid, and subsequent continuous sequestration of Mo in the sediment and high ratios of reactive iron (FeHR) over total Fe (FeTOT) suggest (seasonal) hypoxia occurred over the last ~ 8 ka. Maxima in sediment Corg, Mo and FeHR/FeTOT ratios during the HTM and MCA suggest that the hypoxia intensified. Our results demonstrate that the Little Belt is naturally susceptible to the development of seasonal hypoxia. While periods of climatic warming led to increased deoxygenation of bottom waters, high nutrient availability in combination with density stratification were likely the main drivers of hypoxia in this part of the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea during the Holocene.
Putting the pieces together - 40 years of fertility trends across 19 post-socialist countriesMer info
Post-Soviet Affairs 2017, 33 (5): 389-410.
Demographic change has been a key consequence of transition, but few studies trace fertility trends across countries over time. We describe fertility trends immediately before and after the fall of state socialism across 19 Central and Eastern European and Central Asian countries. We found a few common patterns that may reflect economic and political developments. The countries that experienced the most successful transitions and integration into the EU experienced marked postponement of parenthood and a moderate decline in second and third births. Little economic change in the poorest transition countries was accompanied by less dramatic changes in childbearing behavior. In western post-Soviet contexts, and somewhat in Bulgaria and Romania, women became more likely to only have one child but parenthood was not substantially postponed. This unique demographic pattern seems to reflect an unwavering commitment to parenthood but economic conditions and opportunities that did not support having more than one child. In addition, we identify countries that would provide fruitful case studies because they do not fit general patterns.
BMC Public Health 2017, 17 (1): -.
BACKGROUND: Russian suicide mortality rates changed rapidly over the second half of the twentieth century. This study attempts to differentiate between underlying period and cohort effects in relation to the changes in suicide mortality in Russia between 1956 and 2005.METHODS: Sex- and age-specific suicide mortality data were analyzed using an age-period-cohort (APC) approach. Descriptive analyses and APC modeling with log-linear Poisson regression were performed.RESULTS: Strong period effects were observed for the years during and after Gorbachev's political reforms (including the anti-alcohol campaign) and for those following the break-up of the Soviet Union. After mutual adjustment, the cohort- and period-specific relative risk estimates for suicide revealed differing underlying processes. While the estimated period effects had an overall positive trend, cohort-specific developments indicated a positive trend for the male cohorts born between 1891 and 1931 and for the female cohorts born between 1891 and 1911, but a negative trend for subsequent cohorts.CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the specific life experiences of cohorts may be important for variations in suicide mortality across time, in addition to more immediate effects of changes in the social environment.
The Exhibitionary Complex - Exhibition, Apparatus, and Media from Kulturhuset to the Centre Pompidou, 1963–1977Mer info
This dissertation traces the history of a diagram. The diagram shows four circles of gradually diminishing sizes, lodged one inside the other, like the layers of a circular or spherical body. For a group of artists, curators, architects, and activists centered around Moderna Museet in Stockholm between the mid-1960s and the mid-1970s, the diagram represented a new type of museum: a museological Information Center modeled on the computer, operating as a site for radically democratic social experiments. The four layers stood for different functions: information capture, processing, interface, storage; or, put differently: social spaces and media resources, workshop floors, exhibition facilities, collection.Through close readings of a series of exhibitions and institutional projects in Sweden, the US, and France, this dissertation follows the development of this diagram: its prehistory and formulation, its different implementations, and its direct and indirect effects. It studies Moderna Museet’s original, unrealized project for Kulturhuset in Stockholm, according to which the museum should project its dynamic energies across the city center, serving as a “catalyst for the active forces in society”. It discusses the museum’s confrontation with digital technologies in the late 1960s, through pioneering museological organizations such as the Museum Computer Network in New York. It analyzes the exhibition formats developed in correspondence with the notion of the museum as a “vast experimental laboratory” and a “broadcasting station”: the exhibition as critical information pattern, as tele-commune. And it studies the diagram’s afterlife as one of the models informing the Centre Pompidou in Paris, during that project’s early phases.The Exhibitionary Complex reads these endeavors and visions as attempts to devise a critical understanding of the exhibitionary apparatus in relation to new information environments and media systems. It sheds light on a largely forgotten aspect of the exhibitionary, museological, and cultural history of the late twentieth century, in Sweden and internationally. But it also seeks to establish new models for grasping the exhibition’s singularity and potentials as a cultural and media technological form, in relation to the emergence of new information networks, as they exert increasing control over social, cultural, and political existence.
Focusing on the memories of Estonian refugees moving to Sweden in the wake of World War II, I analyze the concepts of “memory space” and history within the framework of the Escape as a master narrative. Following the research participants to the sites of their memories in Estonia and Sweden today, raised the questions what constitutes a lived memory space, and how is history defined within it?Through a combination of a phenomenological analysis of memory’s lived experience, using Walter Benjamin’s concept of montage as radical remembering and its dialectical relation to history, I show how embodied memories shape their own space, a space not always framed by historical master narratives and identity positions, but rather a searching space that is always changing. Dealing with the politics of place and representations, these memories are constantly loaded and unloaded with meaning. Yet the space of lived memory is not always a creation of meaning. Walking around, searching for traces, a memory space confronts the place and maps its own geography. It turns to a spatial and temporal flow, which intertwines place and experience, and erases the past and future as homogeneous categories. It is a living space of memory, rather than a memorial space of representations.The analysis focuses further on the tensions between remembering as a dialogue with history and memory’s ongoing acts of embodied experience. The position of in-betweenness appears in these stories of escape, not as a state of in-between home and away, past and present, but rather as an ongoing space-making process between different modes and layers of memory. This is a process aware of the constant changes in the understandings of both history and personal experiences, intertwining these new interpretations with embodied memory and thereby constantly adding new layers of experience to it. Memory’s tracing illuminates a memory poetics of the meanwhile and the in-between, which refuses historical closure.
London & New York : Routledge, 2017.
This study is about seven women’s organizations in Belgrade, Serbia and their relations to domestic and international donors during the period 2003-2006. My main research questions focus on their choices of either domestic or international cooperation partners. How and why did the women organize themselves? What factors were essential when selecting donors? In what ways were the organizations influenced by donors?Through interviews, with organization representatives’ concepts such as gift and reciprocity, power and dependency, trust and mistrust and collective identity emerged. These concepts were used as points of departure for developing deeper understanding of women organizations’ choice of cooperation partners.The women organizations’ basically had two alternatives for cooperation: cooperation with foreign donors which offered funds, organizational development and social networks. Alternately, cooperation with local donors, which offered the equivalent except for the organizational development. Cooperation with the foreign donor has resulted in more professional attitudes to the work that have been desired by other international donors. A result is that they can compete with other women’s organizations’ for international funding. Cooperation with local donors has led to fewer resources but more independent working practices. For these women organizations’ independence was important so they choose partners who, they felt more respected this allowing them to write articles or discuss gender in the media with little external influence. Regardless of the chosen donor the reciprocity is embedded in the relation between the donor and the receiver of aid, which in various ways is beneficial for both parties.
Anti-nuclear Movements in Discursive and Political Contexts - Between Expert Voices and Local ProtestsMer info
Energipolitik som upprätthåller och utökar användandet av kärnkraft motarbetas ofta av antikärnkraftsrörelser. Exempel på sådan energipolitik är de ambitiösa planerna på att utveckla kärnkraft i Ryssland, att bygga ett första kärnkraftverk i Polen, och att häva förbudet mot kärnkraft samt möjliggöra utbyte av gamla reaktorer i Sverige. I motsats till de massiva antikärnkraftsrörelserna under 1970-1990, är de nya rörelserna inte organiserade som nationella protestkampanjer. Denna avhandling undersöker vilka olika handlingssätt antikärnkraftsrörelserna i den påstådda "Nuclear Renaissance"-perioden använder.Antikärnkraftsrörelsernas olika sätt att agera analyseras ur diskursiva och politiska möjligheter. Diskurser av antikärnkraftsrörelser är komplexa, när officiella diskurser om kärnkraft möter argument om lönsamhet, energisäkerhet och miljösäkerhet i samband med kärnkraft utveckling, anknyter den mer till en bredare socio-politiska utveckling. Diskurser etableras på ett sådant sätt att expertretorik blir en standardiserad metod för att diskutera kärnkraft, medan hänvisningar till känslor och subjektiva frågor är oacceptabla.Det politiska sammanhanget ger möjligheter till miljöorganisationer, en typ av aktör inom antikärnkraftsrörelsen, att bedriva nonconfrontational strategier och engagera sig via institutionella kanaler, där de kan bidra med sin sakkunskap. Samtidigt som en annan aktör, lokal antikärnkraftsgrupper, å ena sidan dela argument med miljöorganisationer, men å andra sidan försök att mobilisera lokalbefolkningen och anordna lokala protester. Eftersom lokala protester inte visas i nationella medier får de begränsade möjligheter till medial uppmärksamhet, något som är avgörande för nationella protestaktioner. Skillnaderna i sätt att agera mellan dessa två typer av aktörer och frånvaro av aktörer som väljer massengagemang ger insikt i de olika handlingssätt som används av antikärnkraftsrörelser som helhet.
Украинские медиаорганизации и журналисты о вызовах информационной войны [Ukrainian media organizations and journ... Mer info
In: Творчество, профессия, индустрия [Creativity, profession, industry]. Moscow : Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University, MediaMir.
Понятие «информационная война» используется сегодня все чаще как в медийных, так и в академических дискурсах. Под информационной войной понимают конфликт, в котором информация становится одним из основных видов оружия (напр., Pantti 2016, Hoskins and O’Loughlin 2010), а т.н. информационный менеджмент – техники распространения дезинформации и попытки влияния на медиа – является одним из основных измерений конфликта (Tumber & Webster 2006). Украинский кризис – события, происходящие в стране с 2013 года: протесты в Киеве («Евромайдан»), смена правительства, присоединение Крыма к Российской Федерации, продолжающееся военное противостояние на востоке страны, - сегодня все чаще становится объектом международных исследований, рассматривающих происходящее как один из ярких примеров «войны нарративов» (Khaldarova and Pantti 2016). Трудности с верификацией информации, пристрастность информационных источников, вовлеченность в конфликт сторонних интересов поставили журналистов, освещающих события на Украине (как украинских, так и представителей других стран), перед вызовом (Pantti 2016).Проблема, которую отмечают при этом некоторые исследователи, - фиксация международного академического сообщества на российских медиа как источнике информационного менеджмента или даже пропаганды (см. Pantti 2016). Лишь немногие исследования предлагают анализ информационного менеджмента внутри Украины (Bolin, Jordan & Ståhlberg 2016). Между тем, даже предварительный взгляд на это медиа-пространство выявляет его неоднородность. Украинское медиа-сообщество оказалось расколото: приверженцы глобальных и «вечных» журналистских идеалов не находят понимания у сторонников «патриотической журналистики». Первые обвиняют вторых в само-цензуре и следовании интересам институтов власти, а вторые первых – в сотрудничестве с «вражескими агентами».Данный исследовательский проект на различных примерах (запрет на определенные российские медиа-продукты; радикальная инициатива по поиску «пособников террористов» среди журналистов – «Миротворец» и др.) рассматривает проблему, с которой столкнулось украинское медиа-сообщество, как частный случай общей тенденции. Эта тенденция может быть обозначена как идеологизация СМИ, что с одной стороны, является результатом, а с другой стороны, благодатной почвой для информационной войны. Этой тенденции противостоят различные инициативы, направленные на сохранение приверженности журналистского сообщества профессиональным принципам и стандартам: например, проект ОБСЕ «Две страны – одна профессия», где Союз журналистов России и Национальный союз журналистов Украины обсуждают противодействие языку вражды, или критикуемое внутри страны сотрудничество между украинскими и зарубежными корреспондентами при освещении событий в зоне АТО на востоке Украины.
Knowledge for environmental governance: probing science–policy theory in the cases of eutrophication and fisheri... Mer info
Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 2017, 19 (6): 769-782.
How science and policy interact has been a major research focus in the International Relations (IR) tradition, using the epistemic community (EC) concept, as well as in the alternative perspective of Science and Technology Studies (STS). Should science be autonomous and as apolitical as possible in order to ‘speak truth to power’, as suggested by EC or should the inevitable entanglement of science and politics be accepted and embraced so as to make advice more conducive to negotiating the explicit travails of political decision-making as suggested by STS? With this point of departure, we compare similarities and differences between science–policy interactions in the issue areas of eutrophication and fisheries management of the Baltic Sea. To examine how knowledge is mobilised, the concepts of ‘uncertainty’ and ‘coherence’ are developed, drawing on both EC and STS thinking. We then reflect on the explanatory value of these approaches in both cases and discuss how a separation of science and policy-making in the pursuit of achieving scientific consensus leads to ineffectual policies. Drawing on STS thinking, we urge for a re-conceptualisation of coherence in order to accommodate a more reflexive practice of science–policy interactions.
Världens hav är i kris. Med ett stort internationellt tryck för att skydda dem har den svenska regeringen satt ambitiösa mål för etablering av marina reservat. Beslutsfattare och forskare har höga förväntningar på att lokalt deltagande underlättar etableringen. Men utan verkliga möjligheter för lokalt deltagande att påverka besluten så verkar förväntningarna orealistiska, med allvarliga konsekvenser för legitimitet av miljöskydd.Avhandlingen undersöker relationen mellan deltagande och legitimitet i svensk östersjöförvaltning genom att studera samrådsprocesserna för Gräsö marina naturreservat och St Anna-Missjö marina skyddsområde. Studien visar på både positiva och negativa samband mellan deltagande och legitimitet, beroende på kvalitén av deltagande.Olika lokala aktörer är djupt engagerade i resursfrågor och vill ha möjlighet att diskutera dessa med staten. Lokala aktörer uttrycker besvikelse och frustration om samråden har en begränsad inverkan på faktiska beslut. Besvikelsen kan underminera stödet för naturskydd och försämra relationen mellan stat och lokala aktörer i längden.I ett av de undersökta fallen var de lokala aktörerna engagerade i att formulera en gemensam vision för området tillsammans med myndigheterna, något som annars är ovanligt. Det visade sig ha en mycket positiv effekt på samrådsprocessen och legitimiteten av naturskyddet.
Large variation in predictors of mortality by levels of self-rated health - Results from an 18-year follow-up studyMer info
Public Health 2017, 145 : 59-66.
Objectives: To analyze the variation in factors associated with mortality risk at different levels of self-rated health (SRH).Study design: Retrospective cohort study.Methods: Cox regression analysis was used to examine the association between mortality and demographic, socioeconomic and health-related predictors for respondents with good, average, and poor SRH in a longitudinal data set from Estonia with up to 18 years of follow-up time.Results: In respondents with good SRH, male sex, older age, lower income, manual occupation, ever smoking, and heavy alcohol consumption predicted higher mortality. These covariates, together with marital status, illness-related limitations, and underweight predicted mortality in respondents with average SRH. For poor SRH, only being never married and having illness-related limitations predicted mortality risk in addition to older age and male sex.Conclusions: The predictors of all-cause mortality are not universal but depend on the level of SRH. The higher mortality of respondents with poor SRH could to a large extent be attributed to health problems, whereas in the case of average or good SRH, factors other than the presence of illness explained outcome mortality.
Journal of Baltic Studies 2017, 48 (1): 13-22.
Tara Zahra maintains in her article 'Imagined Noncommunities: National Indifferenceas a Category of Analysis' that many people in the early twentieth century were indifferent to the call of the national movements or oscillated between different national belongings. While finding Zahra's perspective relevant, this article criticizesthe choice of her central analytic concept,'national indifference,'and also questionsthe absence of an integrated gender perspective. Finally, the article queries the general applicability of her theoretical approach. While useful in the analysis of demotic national movements, it is considerably less so when studying elite minoritygroups. This becomes evident when Zahra's theoretical perspective is applied to the Baltic Germans.
Developing Environmental NGO Power for Domestic Battles in a Multilevel Context - Lessons from a Slovenian caseMer info
Scandinavian and Finnish settlements on the Kola Peninsula - history and the sites of memoryMer info
In: Conference proceeding Murman and Russian Arctic: history, present and future. Murmansk : Murmansk Artic State University.
The paper summarizes the results of the study of Scandinavian and Finnish settlements on the Kola Peninsula supported by the Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies and Södertörn University as a part of the research project “Soviet Nordic Minorities and Ethnic Cleansing on the Kola Peninsula” led by Associate Professor Andrej Kotljarchuk. The focus of this article is on the representation of Kola-Nordic history as well as on the Nordic sites of memory in today’s Russia
Deep sequencing analysis of tick-borne encephalitis virus from questing ticks at natural foci reveals similariti... Mer info
Journal of General Virology 2017, 98 (3): 413-421.
Every year, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes severe central nervous system infection in 10 000 to 15 000 people in Europe and Asia. TBEV is maintained in the environment by an enzootic cycle that requires a tick vector and a vertebrate host, and the adaptation of TBEV to vertebrate and invertebrate environments is essential for TBEV persistence in nature. This adaptation is facilitated by the error-prone nature of the virus's RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which generates genetically distinct virus variants called quasispecies. TBEV shows a focal geographical distribution pattern where each focus represents a TBEV hotspot. Here, we sequenced and characterized two TBEV genomes, JP-296 and JP-554, from questing Ixodes ricinus ticks at a TBEV focus in central Sweden. Phylogenetic analysis showed geographical clustering among the newly sequenced strains and three previously sequenced Scandinavian strains, Toro-2003, Saringe-2009 and Mandal-2009, which originated from the same ancestor. Among these five Scandinavian TBEV strains, only Mandal-2009 showed a large deletion within the 3' non-coding region (NCR), similar to the highly virulent TBEV strain Hypr. Deep sequencing of JP-296, JP-554 and Mandal-2009 revealed significantly high quasispecies diversity for JP-296 and JP-554, with intact 3' NCRs, compared to the low diversity in Mandal-2009, with a truncated 3' NCR. Single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis showed that 40% of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms were common between quasispecies populations of JP-296 and JP-554, indicating a putative mechanism for how TBEV persists and is maintained within its natural foci.
Crossing disciplinary boundaries in environmental research - Interdisciplinary engagement across the Slovene research communityMer info
Science of the Total Environment 2017, 574 : 1492-1501.
Contemporary approaches to environmental research are calling for a type of scientific inquiry that is able to bring together the natural and social sciences. This with the aim to advance our understanding of environmental issues and produce synthetic and actionable knowledge meant to address these. Yet, interdisciplinarity research of this type is a demanding and challenging pursuit; many have shown that in certain thematic areas and geographic regions practice falls behind discourse. We bring together ideas about interdisciplinary research collaborations (after Patricia L. Rosenfield) and interdisciplinary epistemic synthesis (after Julie T. Klein) that are used to analyse a sample of research projects funded (from 2006 to 2013) by the Slovene Research Agency. We triangulated interview data (with principal investigators) with document analysis and integrated these with other secondary data. Our results suggest for the sample of environmental projects to be interdisciplinary in a narrow sense, this prevalently within natural and life sciences with little input from the humanities and social sciences. Also, the results obtained suggest that environmental research with unambiguous problem solving objectives is preferred over research with a high degree of abstraction, as involved in theoretical and conceptual work.
Journal of ethnic and migration studies 2017, 43 (3): 441-457.
Although significant scholarly attention has been devoted to the study of mosque conflicts in Europe, up until now most of it has focussed on Western European countries. This has left a significant gap to be filled in the study of mosque tensions in Central and Eastern Europe, where scholarship is scant yet where tensions over constructions of mosques are not less intensive than in the West. Drawing on two recent case studies of mosque constructions in Poland, we argue that a significant shift has taken place in the ways that mosques are perceived, unveiling unprecedented opposition towards their construction. From being largely unproblematic before the Second World War and during the Communist era, mosques have become subjects of fierce public debate. We draw parallels to how anti-mosque arguments raised in Poland fit into a larger European meta-narrative on mosques and Muslims, yet our aim is to situate the paper historically to argue that Polish mosque conflicts must be contextualised within Poland’s unique historical encounter with Islam in order to more accurately make sense of its creeping Islamophobia.
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 2017, : 98-109.
Connectivity plays an important role in shaping the genetic structure and in evolution of local adaptation. In the marine environment barriers to gene flow are in most cases caused by gradients in environmental factors, ocean circulation and/or larval behavior. Despite the long pelagic larval stages, with high potential for dispersal many marine organisms have been shown to have a fine scale genetic structuring. In this study, by using a combination of high-resolution genetic markers, species hybridization data and biophysical modeling we can present a comprehensive picture of the evolutionary landscape for a keystone species in the Baltic Sea, the blue mussel. We identified distinct genetic differentiation between the West Coast, Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea regions, with lower gene diversity in the Bothnian Sea. Oceanographic connectivity together with salinity and to some extent species identity provides explanations for the genetic differentiation between the West Coast and the Baltic Sea (Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea). The genetic differentiation between the Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea cannot be directly explained by oceanographic connectivity, species identity or salinity, while the lower connectivity to the Bothnian Sea may explain the lower gene diversity. © 2016.
Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television 2017, 37 (2): 315-332.
The sharing of expertise and know-how was an important practice in the early days of television production; delegations from national broadcasters visited each other to negotiate agreements concerning co-production and programme exchange. On one such occasion, in spring 1956, the BBC visited Soviet Central Television and their production facilities in Moscow, Leningrad and Kiev. Using that visit as vantage point, this article examines production values and professional ideologies in relation to the material spaces of television production. The article argues that the British delegation’s encounter with (un)familiar spaces of television production forced them to articulate their own production values in relation to material spaces. The final discussion suggests that the tensions provoked by the discrepancy between production values at Soviet Central Television and at the BBC may inform the main currents of television studies and television history.
Public Private Partnerships for the Governance and Management of Ecosystem Services - Exploring Current Challenges and Potentials of Common-Pool ResourceMer info
Ljubljana : , 2016. ( ; )
Как рассказать о принудительной мобилизации в немецкую армию? (How to narrate the experience of forced conscript... - Насильно мобилизованные жители Эльзаса Мозеля на восточном фронте. Этнологический подход. (The force enlistment of the Alsatian-Mosellan men on the Eastern front. An ethnological perspective)Mer info
Independence: Different Understandings and Meanings in Steering Documents in Higher Education in Sweden and Russia Mer info
In: ECER 2016 Leading Education. : .
Since the Bologna Declaration in 1999, independence is a concept that has gained much importance in higher education. Within the Bologna cooperation, an overall European framework has been developed with general learning outcomes and competences for different examination levels. In this framework, independence is a central concept to describe progression. Concerning independence, the independent project on the undergraduate level, also called bachelor essay or degree project, has a special role in ensuring and maintaining the relevant learning outcomes (e.g. Prop. 2004/05, Prosser & Webb 1994), partly due to its pre-dominance as a means of assessing student performance (cf. Lillis 1999, Scott 1999, Turner 1999), and is therefore of special relevance here.Consequently, independence has become increasingly important in higher education in Europe, in steering documents as well as assessment criteria. Due to different epistemologies in, as well as between, countries (e.g. Fox 1994, Cadman 1997), the different understandings of independence are both varying and complex and needs to be further examined. The complexities and variations also stem from a general problem of implicitness rather than explicitness in higher education (e.g. Lillis 1999, Scott 1999, Turner 1999), for instance regarding independence.Independence is however a concept which could be understood in different ways in different contexts. Since independence appears to be a central concept in many steering documents on different levels it is reasonable that the higher education practice is influenced by how independence, as a concept, is understood and used. Ambiguities in how independence is understood and used in practice can lead to uncertainty and may even be a barrier to student exchange and hamper international comparability in accordance with the intentions of the Bologna Declaration. The aim of this paper is therefore to explore how the concept of independence is used in steering documents in different countries, Sweden and Russia more specifically, and by that capture different perspectives and meanings of the concept of independence.In this study, a substudy of a three-year research project, we focus on steering documents since the national and local steering documents form the legal basis for the practice of producing independent projects. The steering documents consist of learning outcomes, assessment criteria, instructions and descriptions concerning the independent project. All national and local steering documents relating to the independent project are collected in a corpus, and then analyzed and compared.The framework for our study is based on a socio-cultural and dialogical perspective (Bachtin 1981; Vygotskij 2001, Lea & Stierer 2000; Lillis 1997; 2003, Linell 2011), which proposes that learning and understanding develop in context, and that the role of language is important when it comes to constructing epistemologies and academic knowledge.Bachtin, M. (1981). The dialogic imagination: four essays. Austin: Univ. of Texas P.Cadman, K. (1997). Thesis writing for international students: A question of identity?. English for Specific Purposes, 16(1), 3-14.Fox, H. (1994). Listening to the World: Cultural Issues in Academic Writing. National Council of Teachers of English: Urbana, IL.Lea, M. R., & Stierer, B. (2000). Student writing in higher education: New contexts. Open University Press/Society for Research into Higher Education.Lillis, T. (1997). New Voices in Academia? The Regulative Nature of Academic Writing Conventions. Language and Education, 11(3), 192-207.Lillis, T. (1999). Whose common sense. I C. Jones, J. Turner. & BV Street (Eds.), Students writing in the university: Cultural and epistemological issues, 127-47.Lillis, T. (2003). Student Writing as 'Academic Literacies': Drawing on Bakhtin to Move from Critique to Design. Language and Education, 17(3), 182–199. Lillis, T. (1999). Whose common sense. I C. Jones, J. Turner. & BV Street (Eds.), Students writing in the university: Cultural and epistemological issues, 127-47. Linell, P. (2011). Samtalskulturer: Kommunikativa verksamhetstyper i samhället. Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Linköpings universitet.Prosser, M., & Webb, C. (1994). Relating the process of undergraduate essay writing to the finished product. Studies in Higher Education, 19(2), 125-138.Regeringens proposition 2004/05:162 (2005). Ny värld – ny högskola. Prop. 2004/05:162.Scott, M. (1999). Agency and subjectivity in student writing. In: Jones, Carys, Turner, Joan & Street, (Eds.). Students writing in the university: Cultural and epistemological issues (Vol. 8). John Benjamins Publishing.Turner, J. (1999). Academic literacy and the discourse of transparency. Students writing in the university: Cultural and epistemological issues. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 149-160.Vygotskij, L. S. (2001). Tänkande och språk. Göteborg: Daidalos.
Hur självständiga är studenter när de genomför sina självständiga arbeten? - En jämförelse mellan journalist- och lärarutbildning i Ryssland och SverigeMer info
In: NU2016 Högskolan i samhället - samhället i högskolan. Malmö : .
Syftet med denna konferenspresentation är att redovisa erfarenheter från ett pågående forskningsprojekt som undersöker hur begreppet självständighet förstås och användas på olika nivåer, i olika utbildningsprogram i högre utbildning. Undersökningen är fokuserad till två utbildningsprogram: journalist- och lärarutbildning, i två olika länder: Ryssland och Sverige. Sedan Bolognadeklarationen 1999 har begreppet självständighet fått stor betydelse inom den högre utbildningen. Detta inte minst när det gäller det självständiga arbete som alla studenter på kandidat- och masterutbildningar måste genomföra för att kunna ta ut in examen. Självständighet är dock ett begrepp som kan tolkas på olika sätt i olika sammanhang. Eftersom självständighet är ett centralt begrepp i många styrdokument på olika nivåer är det rimligt att utbildningens praxis, alltså hur undervisningen genomförs, påverkas av hur självständighet som begrepp förstås och används. Tveksamheter i hur självständighet kan förstås och används i praktiken kan leda till osäkerhet och kan till och med vara ett hinder för studentutbyte och även försvåra internationell jämförbarhet i enlighet med intentionerna i Bolognadeklarationen. I projekts studeras hur studenters självständighet kommer till uttryck när de genomför sina självständiga arbeten. Projektet genomförs i tre delstudier: för det första genom att studera lokala styrdokument, för det andra genom att undersöka interaktionen mellan lärare och studenter i samband med handledning och för det tredje genom att undersöka tillsynsmyndigheters och studenter åsikter och uppfattningar om självständighet. Den teoretiska ramen för studien är sociokulturell, där sammanhanget för att skriva ett självständigt arbete är av särskild betydelse. Projektet studerar både makroperspektiv genom analys av styrdokument, och mikroperspektiv genom analys av interaktionen vid faktisk handledning. Dessutom har projektet en jämförande ansats, med fokus på skillnader i ideologiska eller värdebaserade perspektiv mellan de två länderna. En uttalad målsättning är att projektet ska bidra till att fylla kunskapsluckor och utveckla teoretiska ramar om just studenters självständighet i samband med handledning av självständiga arbeten. En annan målsättning är att projektet också ska bidra till att ge verksamma lärare i högre utbildning en teoretisk grund och ett meta-språk för att diskutera och lyfta iakttagelser från sin egen praxis i samband med handledning av självständiga arbeten, vilket i sin tur bör leda till pedagogisk utveckling. Ytterligare en målsättning är att projektet ska bidra med ny kunskap till forskningsområdet högre utbildning och internationalisering. Projektet är beräknat att pågå fram till 2018.
S:t Katarina svenska församling i S:t Petersburg - Kyrkan som minnespolitisk arena, andlig gemenskap och transkulturellt rumMer info
Zoon Politikon 2016, 7 : 91-113.
This article examines successful mass mobilization against the proposed total ban on abortion, focusing on the Black Protest initiated online in September 2016 and the All-Poland’s Women Strikes which took place on the 3rd and 24th of October 2016. The aim is to explain how the resistance towards the proposed bill emerged and developed over time, and to shed light on the factors behind its success. It is argued that the emergence of and mass participation in the protests resulted from a range of factors including the heightened political climate in Poland and normalization of street protests as a reaction to the closing of regular communication channels between citizens and authorities, as well as an emotional dynamic of mobilization and wide use of social media for sharing information, communication and networking. The success – the government’s decision to reject the project – can be explained as stemming from the mass scale of mobilization but also from favorable political opportunity structure and the lack of popular support for the proposed law. The analysis shows that the protests followed the logic of connective action based on the use of flexible, easily personalized action frames, which were well-embedded in cultural narratives referencing the history of resistance against an oppressive state.
Neoliberalism and feminist organizing - from “NGO-ization of resistance” to resistance against neoliberalismMer info
In: Solidarity in Struggle. Budapest : Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, 2016. 32-41.
This article engages with feminists critiques of neoliberalism, specifically with the influential narrative about the NGO-ization of women’s movement and co-optation of feminism by neo-liberalism (Charkiewicz 2009, Fraser 2011, McRobbie 2009). It argues that while the vision of the feminist actors as “the handmaidens” of neoliberalism accurately captures some aspects of contemporary feminist organizing, it obfuscates others, especially new and original forms of resistance taking place beyond the perimeters of what is usually included in the “Western” context (Aslan and Gambetti 2011, Funk 2012). I discuss some examples of the struggles against neoliberal logic and practices in the Polish context, arguing that while there has been a strong trend towards professionalization and de-politicization of civic activism in the country, during the last decade we can observe a growing resistance against this tendency. The paper concludes with discussing various forms of anti-neoliberal women’s organizing highlighting the opportunities and risks involved in employing them in the context of the local and transnational struggles.
European journal of education and applied psychology 2016, 1 : 10-13.
Understanding a large spectrum of gender features will help bachelor students to get deeper analysis of nowadays global economy. The results of the research show even that there are some principal differences between students in educational process depending on their own gender background.
Ludwik Fleck as a theorist of thought as res gestae — or, Does a pair of dots in Swedish matter? Mer info
Between Change and Stagnation: Social Estates and Autocracy in Imperial Russia - Review on a book: Alison K. Smith. For the Common Good and Their Own Well-Being: Social Estates in Imperial Russia (Oxford University Press, 2014)Mer info
In: Przebudzona rewolucja. Warsaw : Fundacja im. Izabeli Jarugi-Nowackiej, 2016. 31-42.
Masowe protesty przeciwko projektowi całkowitego zakazu aborcji w 2016 okazały się sukcesem. Udało się nie tylko zmobilizować do działania setki tysięcy kobiet, ale też wymusić na rządzących zmianę decyzji. Projekt Ordo Iuris został odrzucony po pierwszym czytaniu w Sejmie i choć nie była to z pewnością ostatnia próba zaostrzenia prawa aborcyjnego w Polsce, udało się wygrać przynajmniej tę bitwę. Skala i zasięg protestów pokazują ogromny potencjał zaangażowania kobiet, które nie mieszkają w wielkich miastach i które nie uczestniczyły do tej pory w życiu politycznym, a przynajmniej nie tak aktywnie jak przy okazji Czarnych Protestów. Okazało się, że polskie społeczeństwo obywatelskie nie jest bynajmniej uśpione i apatyczne, ale aktywne i gotowe do wyjścia na ulice, gdy sytuacja tego wymaga. Ten rozdział stara się odpowiedzieć na pytania: dlaczego kobiety zmobilizowały się właśnie w tym momencie i jak to się stało, że w 2016 roku doszło do masowego buntu Polek.
Reproductive BioMedicine and Society Online 2016, 3 : 126-133.
This article examines the public debate on reproductive technologies in contemporary Poland, focusing on the rhetoricalstrategies used by the main opponents of IVF: conservative politicians representing the leading parties in the Polish parliament andthe representatives of the Catholic Church. The analysis highlights the exclusionary logic inscribed in the construction of the maincategories of political subjects in this debate, revealing important limitations of reproductive citizenship in the Polish context. Thestudy draws on a variety of texts published in print and electronic media between 2007 and 2015, including articles on infertility andreproductive technologies published in the main Polish daily and weekly print publications, online resources (web pages, forums andFacebook pages), documents issued by the representatives of the Church, politicians and experts, e.g. open letters, commentaries,information for the media and interviews.
Svenska Dagbladet 2016, 17/5 : 5-.
Mezinárodní vztahy 2016, 51 (1): 56-67.
The Hyperrealities of Putin and Trump - Why it is worth paying attention to the public personas of political leadersMer info
Prague : Metropolitan University Prague Press, 2016.
Invisible Victims - The Cold War and Representation of the Roma Genocide in Soviet Feature Films, Teleplays and Theater PerformancesMer info
Интерсекциональный подход в журналистике и научных исследованиях [Intersectional approach in journalism and rese... - Рефлексия о многообразии [Reflection on diversity]Mer info
In: Гендер и СМИ [Gender and Media]. Moscow : Faculty of Journalism Lomonosov Moscow State University, 2016. 197-222.
История татаро-мусульманской общины советского Петрограда–Ленинграда (1917– 1991 гг.) по материалам государствен... Mer info
Государство, религия, церковь в России и за рубежом 2016, 4 : 118-147.
This article looks into the history of Muslim community of Petrograd Leningrad during the Soviet time. The author pays special attention to its little-known and understudied aspects by referring to a wide range of sources from oral memoirs to diary extracts. Of particular importance are photographic materials from state and private photo archives. The picture helps to provide a broader view of the history of Muslim community, both from the standpoint of a photographer and through the eyes of believers themselves. Special focus is made on the life of the two imam-khatibs of the Leningrad Cathedral Mosque: Yakub Halekov and Hafiz Mahmutov. The author examines how official and unofficial leaders and institutions governing TatarMuslim community in Leningrad and a number of towns in the Leningrad region emerged and worked. Some photographs coming from private archives often serve as a starting point for a broader study of forms of Islam in the Soviet Union.
Lambda Nordica 2016, 1-2 : 46-79.
White femininity embodies a complex position. It manages to occupy the presumed empty, universal position, which is held to be racially unmarked, untouched, and clean, meanwhile whiteness is always already articulated from a somatechnical knowledge and practice. This article discusses how “natural” makeup acts as an (in)visible extension (and enabling) of white (un)clean Russian and Swedish femininity, and also as a way to establish boundaries between “natural” and “artificial” white bodies. Makeup, as an extension of the white femininity, sculptures temporal fantasies about the present and the past, as well as fantasies of modern and outmoded bodies. These kinds of separations allow for a structuring of asymmetric differences between white modern/“civilized” and non-modern/“non-civilized” femininities. The idea of natural/clean bodies (and their practice of modification) privileges some white femininities over others, through the way that artificial/“impure” expressions are associated with the part of whiteness that is “marked” by devalued class and race expressions. This infected forms of whiteness thus acts as the Other in relation to the clean subjectivity of whiteness and operates as a flexibility that keeps the radiance of whiteness intact and unchallenged. Based on this paradox the article wishes to show how white femininity should be understood in terms of a fantasm and construction, and it is as a fantasm the opportunity arises to reject various forms of femininities, meanwhile the fantasm have different components depending on where it is formulated.
Educating Journalists - The Who, When, How, and Why of Early Journalism Programmes in the Nordic CountriesMer info
In: Becoming a Journalist. Göteborg : Nordicom, 2016. 25-37.
This article compares systems of journalism education in the Nordic countries, focusing on how education programmes for journalists first emerged. The theoretical perspectiveof the sociology of journalism education used by sociologist Margaret Archer, who viewsnational educational systems as always being shaped through a struggle between interest groups. The questions are when education programmes for journalists were founded, who initiated them and how the process of founding schools and programmes progressed. In addition to these questions, the article discusses the emergence of journalism educationin relation to the party press system and to the process of professionalisation. Theres pective developments of journalism education in the Nordic countries emerged in similar patterns. The apprentice system was, at first, combined with short courses arranged by press organisations, and then step-by-step replaced by journalism schools. In this process, the press organisations lost control over journalism education, even if theytried to maintain control through independent schools or through cooperation with universities. The mix of subjects in the journalist training curriculum has been discussedin all countries, centred on the balance between theoretical and vocational subjects.
Baltic Worlds 2016, IX (4): 12-22.
This article examines the policies on drug control and regulation in Russia. We demonstrate that, although agencies involved in drug con-trol and regulation are important for the reproduction of differentiated practices of drug use, they formulate a rather homogeneous image of a drug user as an unhealthy deviant and criminal, and an unequivocal threat to society. At the same time, in the process of policy realization, the most vulnerable groups of users become the main target of public intervention. As a result, stigmatization and violence against these groups becomes institutionalized and legitimized. Moreover, drug control and regulation resonate with a broader range of public policies and spill over into parts of society not associated with illicit drug use.
Nordicom Review 2016, 37 (Special Issue): 41-55.
Cooperation and communication play an important role for environmental governance. This holds true for the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe, one of the most disturbed ecosystems in the world, where insufficient cooperation between different stakeholders is one reason for goal failure. This article addresses the linkages between (media) framing on the one hand, and cooperation on the other. The case in focus is a set of negotiations related to the Baltic Sea Action Plan, the most central governance strategy in the Baltic Sea region. Our results show that in order to influence political decision-making, key stakeholders compete over the power to define and interpret problems, causes and solutions to an extent impeding cooperation. We focus the analysis on eutrophication, which we show to be a complex and controversial topic, framed in incompatible ways by different stakeholders.
In: Becoming a journalist. Göteborg : Nordicom, 2016. 73-91.
What is the role of journalism education in the socialisation of future journalists into the profession? This question is discussed in a comparative analysis of two large surveys among journalism students and journalists in Sweden, Poland and Russia in 2011–2012. In the analysis, attitudes towards professional values and integrity are compared between students and professionals. The results show clear differences: Journalists show more professional detachment and less activist ideals than do students. Journalists are also more critical towards development in the quality of journalism and press freedom compared to students. One conclusion is that important parts of socialisation into the profession are still taking place in the newsrooms. There are also important differences between the three countries in terms of traits that are transferred to the students from journalistic cultures in the three countries. An example of this includes the borders of the profession in relation to PR and commercial pressure that are weaker in Poland and Russia compared to in Sweden. The ideals of watchdog journalism are weaker among both students and professionals in Russia compared with other countries.
In: Becoming a Journalist. Göteborg : Nordicom, 2016. 11-23.
There is a “Nordic model” of journalism education. This is partly due to great similarities in the Nordic countries and their history, which has led to similar political and media systems, systems of professional journalism and education. But it is also a result of the extensive dissemination of ideas across borders due to a tradition of close collaboration and close social ties among the Nordic journalism educators.
Individualisation of migration from the East? - Comparison of different socio-demographic groups and their migration intentionsMer info
Studies of Transition States and Societies 2016, 8 (3): 45-59.
Recent studies on Eastern European migration argue that moving for self-development reasons is becoming increasingly common among this group. Furthermore, it is suggested that migration from the East is becoming individualised and less dependent on social surroundings. Nevertheless, most such results rely on interviews conducted among certain social groups, such as the young and highly skilled. Hence, the comparison between different social groups and their motivations is rarely provided and, therefore, the claims about increased individualisation might be premature. This article uses the Estonian Household Module Survey, including responses from 620 Estonians intending to migrate, to evaluate if migration flows are indeed becoming more individualised and less dependent on social surroundings. Using cluster analysis, three different groups - self-development, economic and life quality migrants - are formed, which are then tested using regression analysis to check for the influence of socio-demographic variables. The article concludes that socio-demographic variables such as gender, age, ethnicity, family status and socio-economic status are still relevant for migration intentions. Indeed, a new group of Eastern European migrants, mainly oriented towards self-development, is emerging; however, it is small and consists mostly of young, Estonian-speaking females. The results complicate the notions of free mobility and liquid migration from Eastern Europe and illustrate that there is a need to pay attention to the increasing group differences in these societies.
Red Carnations on Victory Day and Military Marches on UPA Day? - Remembered History of WWII in UkraineMer info
Kyiv-Mohyla Humanities Journal 2016, 3 : 89-103.
Postcolonial theory has recently come under critique as an interpretative scheme applied to Eastern Europe and particularly Ukraine. However, a closer look suggests that the critique applies only to some aspects of the approach, such as a focus on power relations and representations, while the key question should be rephrased as whether the Ukrainian subject was constituted as a colonial subject. A range of empirical material from 1920s Ukrainian discourses, both Soviet and émigré, is analyzed to shed light on how Ukrainians constructed their subjectivity as “a site of disorder” (Dipesh Chakrabarty), splitting themselves into uncultured peasant masses to be modernized and erased as a voiceless subaltern subject, on the one hand, and modernizing elites, on the other. This split can be understood as an epitome of the colonial condition.
Perceptions of the EU in Eastern Europe and Sub-Saharan Africa - Looking in from the OutsideMer info
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2016.
Why Did It Not Happen Here? - The Gradual Radicalization of the Anarchist Movement in Sweden 1980–90Mer info
In: A European Youth Revolt. Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. 97-111.
This chapter examines the development and role of the anarchistmovement in Sweden during the 1980s. In relation to many otherparts of Northern Europe – which had seen an upsurge in radicalleft-libertarian activism, squatting and urban unrest at the turn ofthe 1980s – such social movements and confrontations remained amarginal phenomenon in Sweden, at least until the end of the decade.However, by the late 1980s a new generation of younger activists,often with roots in the anarchist milieu, formed the basis for a radicalsquatter and autonomist movement, which proved very similar to themovements that had developed throughout Europe almost a decadeearlier.
The architecture of a great 16th century warship - results from the initial surveys of Mars (1564)Mer info
In: Actas del V Congreso Internacional de Arqueología Subacuática (IKUWA V), Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Underwater Archaeology A heritage for mankind Cartagena, October 15th-18th, 2014. Cartagena : Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte.
During the 16th century the naval ships were developed with increased size and a larger quantity of guns. When the Swedish ship Mars exploded and sank during action in 1564, she was one of the largest ships in the world. In 2011 the wreck was relocated outside the island of Öland in the Baltic Sea. Thanks to the favorable conditions about two thirds of the hull are preserved which includes the stern with the large stern castle. The site thus offers a unique opportunity to study a state of the art warship from this period. The site has been surveyed during three seasons. This paper is based on these initial surveys and aims to present the kind of insights regarding 16th century naval architecture that Mars has revealed so far.
Skandinavy v Rossii - Imperiya Romanovykh, Stalinskii Sovetskii Soiuz i mesta pamiati [Scandinavians in Russia: The Romanov Empire, Stalin's Soviet Union and sites of memory]Mer info
REVIEW on: Alexey Golubev and Irina Takala, The Search for a Socialist El Dorado. Finnish Immigration to Sov... Mer info
The Memory of Roma Holocaust in Ukraine. Mass Graves, Memory Work and the Politics of Commemoration Mer info
In: Disputed Memories. Berlin-Boston : Walter de Gruyter, 2016. 149-176.
Thousands of Soviet Roma were killed in 1941–1944 by Nazi Einsatzgruppen andlocal collaborators. They were almost never deported to extermination camps,but instead their bodies were left at the scenes where these crimes were committed.In the protocols of the Soviet Extraordinary Commission for Investigation ofWar Crimes, the Roma were often counted as murdered civil citizens, withoutspecifying their ethnicity. Despite the existence of a small number of accountsidentifying the victims of these murders as Romani, the Roma part of the Holocausthistory is still little known in post-Soviet space.In 1976 an official memorial at Babi Yar was erected in Kyiv on the locationof the largest massacre during WWII of Eastern European Jews and Roma. However,the Soviet leadership discouraged placing any emphasis on ethnic aspectsof this tragedy. The Nazi policy of extermination of Roma was neglected; the warwas depicted as a tragedy for all Soviet peoples.The discussion of the Romani identity cannot be isolated from the memoryof the genocide during WWII, which makes the struggle over the past a reflexivelandmark that organizes the politics of commemoration.
The Gumilev Mystique - Biopolitics, Eurasianism and the Construction of Community in Modern RussiaMer info
Мусульманский Петербург - Исторический путеводитель. Жизнь мусульман в городе на Неве и в его окрестностяхMer info
Welcome to Panorama Theresienstadt - Cinematography and Destruction in the Town Called "As If" (Reading H. G. Adler)Mer info
Apparatus 2016, 2-3 : -.
In his Theresienstadt 1941/1945, Hans Günther Adler describes episodes of film making in Theresienstadt giving most attention to the history of the production of the 1944 film. He sums up the episode calling its purpose and organisation by the SS "the gruesome carnival". Interesting enough, while giving a whole chapter in the book to a description of Theresienstadt's cultural life, Adler never mentions the film among other examples of cultural expression but inserts its description into Theresienstadt's administrative chronicle. The film receives a place for itself within the context of the bureaucratic transformations of Theresienstadt from a closed camp into a "ghetto" and finally into a purely decorative "Jewish settlement". This latter transformation Adler describes as part of the cynical campaign of "Verschönerung" of Theresienstadt, an attempt of the SS and the administration to make it presentable to international observers. Adler describes the cruel film carneval as the campaign's piece de resistance and thus resolutely excludes the film from the domain of cultural phenomena as if rejecting any possibility for its redemption. Instead, he inscribes the project into the administrative logic of extermination, filmmaking becoming an additional – inventive in its cruelty and effective – technique of moral extermination in the world of "der verwaltete Mensch". In this article, I emphasize Adler's view of the moving image as a predominantly administrative means, and not a medium of cultural expression. This view becomes quite challenging and complex if Adler's witness account of the film project in Theresienstadt is read together with his reflection on mechanically reproducible, and especially moving, images in Adler's fiction. I will focus on Adler's treatment of the image and image technology in his novels Panorama and Eine Reise / The Journey, with a special attention to the way he considers the relation between the apparatus, memory, and witnessing.
Фэнни Татарстан 2016, 3 : 88-104.
В настоящей статье мы рассмотрели характер связей петербургского ахуна А. Баязитова в среде петербургских литераторов и ученых. Одной из фигур, с которой некоторые авторы вслед за поэтом и публицистом В.Л. Величко связывают имя Баязитова, был философ В.С. Соловьев. Мы попытались выяснить характер отношений между мусульманским богословом и христианским мыслителем.
Fishponds in teh Baltic States - Historical Cyprinid Culture in Estonia, Latvia and LithuaniaMer info
In: Historical Aquaculture in Northern Europe. Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2016. 139-156.
In: Historical Aquaculture in Northern Europe. Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2016. 89-119.
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2016.
How were fishponds introduced, farmed and spread in Scandinavia and the Baltic Region in early modern times? What was their economic, social and religious importance? Which fish species were significant and why?This book uncovers a long, now broken, tradition that barely left traces in the written record or physical environment. Its broad and multidisciplinary scope highlights the situation from medieval times until the late nineteenth century. Besides Scandinavia and the Baltic States, insights from England are also introduced.Several socio-cultural domains have been identified: late medieval monastic fishponds; late medieval aristocratic fishponds associated with castles and manors; seventeenth and eighteenth century ponds rectory ponds as well as urban ponds from the seventeenth century to the nineteenth century.
In: The Waffen-SS. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2016. -.
Book abstract: This is the first systematic pan-European study of the hundreds of thousands of non-Germans who fought ― either voluntarily or under different kinds of pressures ― for the Waffen-SS (or auxiliary police formations operating in the occupied East). Building on the findings of regional studies by other scholars ― many of them included in this volume ― The Waffen-SS aims to arrive at a fuller picture of those non-German citizens (from Eastern as well as Western Europe) who served under the SS flag. Where did the non-Germans in the SS come from (socially, geographically, and culturally)? What motivated them? What do we know about the practicalities of international collaboration in war and genocide, in terms of everyday life, language, and ideological training? Did a common transnational identity emerge as a result of shared ideological convictions or experiences of extreme violence? In order to address these questions (and others), The Waffen-SS adopts an approach that does justice to the complexity of the subject, adding a more nuanced, empirically sound understanding of collaboration in Europe during World War II, while also seeking to push the methodological boundaries of the historiographical genre of perpetrator studies by adopting a transnational approach.
Stockholm : BONUS, 2016. ( ; )
This report makes a case for examining the role of integration and its links to how sustainable development is variably expressed in different marine spatial planning (MSP) contexts. The aim of the report is to refine an analytical approach to examine integration in MSP in the Baltic Sea through consideration of preliminary empirical results from a broad range of case studies. MSP is conceptualised here as a governance platform for improving processes to enable political decision-making with the aim to achieve sustainable development of marine space. Integration is universally espoused as a means to address a variety of challenges closely related to MSP’s sustainable development ambitions, such as supporting inter-sectoral decision-making, stakeholder engagement and cross-border interaction, but its role, value and implementation in MSP has not been examined in any empirical detail. Although increased integration may well have positive effects on MSP processes and outcomes, in some instances, the contrary might also be the case. With these thoughts in mind, this report argues that we need to analyse integration as a multidimensional concept in MSP processes and outcomes. Based on understandings of integration derived from MSP experience and concepts in the broader social science literature, an analytical framework is developed to examine MSP practice in the Baltic Sea. Integration is conceptualised as including transboundary/cross-border, policy/sectoral, stakeholder and knowledge dimensions. Despite common requirements under the European Union MSP Directive and policies, national jurisdictions are likely to adopt MSP differently, which has implications for the role integration is likely to play in national and transnational MSP practice. Drawing on empirical data derived from national MSP studies, stakeholder dialogue forums and preliminary interviews with stakeholders the analytical framework is applied to examine how particular integration challenges play out in both national and transnational marine space across the Baltic Sea Region. The analytical framework is then used to structure an examination of several case studies from different parts of the Baltic Sea Region. Based on consideration of the empirical work and an analyses of previous experiences in science and practice we then propose some revisions to the initial analytical framework presented earlier. The revised analytical framework, while capturing the integration dimensions mentioned earlier, also includes consideration of the following aspects of integration: how ‘balance’ between sustainable development dimensions is exercised; the character of cross-boundary interactions; and temporal dynamics. Instead of a conclusion, short think-pieces are presented to capture the main insights of the report, which could be used to aid the examination of integration in MSP in other MSP contexts, beyond the Baltic Sea.
The Nordic Model on the Global Market of Ideas - The Welfare State as Scandinavia’s Best BrandMer info
Geopolitics 2016, 2 (3): 623-639.
This paper analyses the contemporary deployment of the Nordic welfare state model as a centrepiece of Nordic competitive identity and strategic communication on the global market of ideas. First, it looks at the interrelated phenomena of global competition, competitive identity and region branding. Second, it studies the interplay between Nordic transnational public diplomacy and national public diplomacy of individual Nordic countries, in particular Sweden, on the one hand and international media outlets’ reporting on the Nordic countries on the other. In analysing this cross-fertilizing genre, the paper identifies how the welfare state is being repackaged for export along with a set of “progressive values” which are coded as specifically “Nordic.” The paper discusses (1) the interaction between outer images and inner visions; (2) the place and significance of the Nordic model, progressive values and the welfare state in today’s Nordic branding; and (3) the possible function of outward competitive identity as a kind of “compensatory imagination” directed inward as well as outward.
The Rhythm of Ages - Analysing Mediatization through the Lens of Generations Across CulturesMer info
International Journal of Communication 2016, 10 : 5252-5269.
A criticism raised about mediatization research is that although the concept of mediatization presupposes a long-term temporal perspective, there are few projects that have studied the process methodologically over time. This article argues that a generational approach can serve as one suggested analytical solution to the problem of studying long-term social, cultural, and societal change. The article describes a recently finished project on media generations in Sweden and Estonia and discusses overcoming the problem of conducting research on mediatization as a long-term process. Through intergenerational and cross-cultural analysis, the article shows how media memories from childhood and the formative years of youth can reveal specific traits in the historical process and how the role of the media has changed over time in the minds of different generations. The article focuses on four generations that had their formative years during significant historical moments in the late 20th century; these formative moments were marked by specificities both in the respective national media landscapes and in the vast historical and geopolitical differences between the two countries.
From Nation Branding to Information Warfare - The Management of Information in the Ukraine–Russia ConflictMer info
In: Media and the Ukraine Crises. New York : Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2016. 3-18.
Scholarly attention regarding the conflict between Russia and Ukraine has mainly concentrated on so-called Russian propaganda, directed both towards Russian-speaking populations and the international public, but less attention has been paid to the management of information from Ukraine. In this chapter is proposed that the conflict between Ukraine and Russia has engaged an entirely new set of actors engaged in the management of information, most notably from PR and nation branding activities, as well as journalists, oligarchs and various individuals with an interest in Ukraine’s international image. These new actors bring with them competences, ideologies and practices from their field of origin which impact on the practice and expressive character of information warfare. In this chapter we analyse three domains of communication used by Ukraine to address external audiences; the Ukraine Crisis Media Centre (UCMC), the English language news channel Ukraine Today and the fact checking website StopFake. With a focus on both individuals as well as the institutions they represent, this chapter explores the way in which actors in Ukraine have attempted to shape the content of the messages communicated.
Sewage treatment plant associated genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea and Swedish wes... Mer info
PeerJ 2016, 4 : -.
Human-derived environmental pollutants and nutrients that reach the aquatic environment through sewage effluents, agricultural and industrial processes are constantly contributing to environmental changes that serve as drivers for adaptive responses and evolutionary changes in many taxa. In this study, we examined how two types of point sources of aquatic environmental pollution, harbors and sewage treatment plants, affect gene diversity and genetic differentiation in the blue mussel in the Baltic Sea area and off the Swedish west coast (Skagerrak). Reference sites (REF) were geographically paired with sites from sewage treatments plant (STP) and harbors (HAR) with a nested sampling scheme, and genetic differentiation was evaluated using a high-resolution marker amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). This study showed that genetic composition in the Baltic Sea blue mussel was associated with exposure to sewage treatment plant effluents. In addition, mussel populations from harbors were genetically divergent, in contrast to the sewage treatment plant populations, suggesting that there is an effect of pollution from harbors but that the direction is divergent and site specific, while the pollution effect from sewage treatment plants on the genetic composition of blue mussel populations acts in the same direction in the investigated sites.
Rozmrażanie Wschodu. Najnowszy duński dyskurs o Polsce. [Defrosting the East. The latest Danish discourse on Pol... Mer info
In: Polska jako peryferie. Warsaw : Wydawnictwo Naukowe SCHOLAR, 2016. 254-267.
The chapter analyses changes in the perception of Poland and Poles in the Danish press after 2009. The authors investigate three major discursive fields of narrative framing, such as freedom, progress and modernity and the field of image-building. In the conclusion a question is posed about the sustainability of the observed changes in the perception.
Neighbourhood reputation in the Soviet city and beyond - Disassembling the geography of prestige in Ust’-Kamenogorsk, KazakhstanMer info
European Urban and Regional Studies 2016, 23 (4): 697-715.
This paper revisits the geographical legacy of socialism in the urban areas of the former Soviet Union. Building on research on housing and socio-spatial differentiation under and after socialism, this will be achieved by examining an important component in the spatial differentiation of the city, namely neighbourhood reputation. The analysis is based on survey data (n = 1515) from the city of Ust’-Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan; a combination of descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression are deployed in order to shed light on the factors that are associated with the reputation of the neighbourhoods in which people reside. The results show that the Soviet system manufactured its own brand of socio-spatial distinction, which reflected the priority hierarchies built in the socialist planned economy. Education, age and, most importantly, area of employment appear to have been ‘rewarded’ with prestigiously located housing.
A Holocene History Of Dynamic Water Column Redox Conditions In The Landsort Deep, Baltic Sea Mer info
American Journal of Science 2016, 316 (8): 713-745.
The modern Baltic Sea is the world's largest anthropogenically forced anoxic basin. Using integrated geochemical records collected during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 347 from the deepest and one of the most reducing sub-basins in the Baltic Sea, Landsort Deep, we explore the degree and frequency of natural anoxia through the Baltic Holocene. A marked decrease in carbon-to-sulfur ratios (C/S) from the cores indicate the transition from the Baltic Ice Lake to the current brackish sea, which occurred about 8.5 kyrs B.P. Following this, laminations throughout sediments recording brackish deposition suggest sustained anoxia or extreme low oxygen, while high molybdenum (Mo) concentrations of >100 ppm and iron (Fe) geochemistry suggest water column sulfide accumulation, or euxinia, that persisted beyond seasonal timescales during deposition of two distinct sapropel units. Sedimentary Mo isotope values range from +1.11 to -0.50 permil, which are distinctly fractionated from modern Baltic seawater (+2.26 to -2.67 parts per thousand) and thus indicate that each of the sapropels experienced only weak and/or oscillatory euxinia-in contrast to the more stable euxinic conditions of more restricted basins. A shift in delta Mo-98 starting above the lower sapropel to a distinctly more negative range suggests particularly weak and oscillatory euxinia, with an enhanced contribution of manganese (Mn) redox cycling to Mo deposition relative to the lower portion of the profile. This conclusion is supported by extreme sedimentary Mn enrichments of up to 15 weight percent. We interpret the combined data to indicate episodic but major Baltic inflow events of saline and oxygenated North Sea water into the anoxic Landsort Deep that limited the concentrations and residence time of water column sulfide and caused episodic oxide deposition. Considering the temporal overlap between the most reducing conditions and periods of redox instability, we hypothesize that major Baltic inflows, as is observed today, lead to short-term instability while simultaneously supporting longer-term Baltic anoxia by strengthening the halocline. Ultimately, our results indicate that periods more reducing than the modern Baltic Sea have occurred naturally over the Holocene, but the characteristic dynamic saline inputs have historically prevented the relatively more widespread and stable anoxia observed in other classic restricted basins and will likely continue to do so.
Retelling the past, inspiring the future - Waffen-SS commemorations and the creation of a ‘European’ far-right counter-narrativeMer info
Patterns of Prejudice 2016, 50 (4-5): 420-444.
Heinrich Himmler created the Waffen-SS in part as a multinational force, willing to fight for a New Europe based on Germanic blood. After the war, many international Waffen-SS units formed veterans' associations (VAs). Like other VAs, these provided veterans with the chance to engage in ‘memory work’ and to keep alive a sense of comradeship and of valiant sacrifice, as well as an emotional commitment to the fallen. Waffen-SS veterans were, however, alone in celebrating their ‘sacrifices’. Others shunned them for their participation in atrocities. To defend themselves, they developed a counter-hegemonic Second World War narrative that presented the Waffen-SS as uniquely heroic ‘European’ volunteers' against Bolshevism. This counter-narrative, however, only gained resonance with the fall of the Berlin Wall. After 1989, in fact, veterans could seek out and establish sites of public commemoration, not in Western but in Eastern Europe. Hurd and Werther use veterans' journals and books to explore the redeployment of SS ideology in a revisionist version of history. They examine the resurrection of a mass Waffen-SS graveyard in East Ukraine as a telling case history, discussing, not least, the implications of a ‘reconciliation’ of the former German soldiers with both Ukrainian villagers and Red Army veterans. Finally, they explore the significance of the veterans' ‘European’ counter-history for a younger generation of neo-Nazis.
Miscellanea Anthropologica et Sociologica 2016, 17 (1): 53-69.
Radical social movements are more and more often the subject of academic inquiry, where their agenda, identity-building processes and repertoires of action are examined vis a vis the dominant discursive opportunity structures. The case study presented in this articleis the squatting movement in Poland. We interpret this movement, its actions and in particular alliance-building strategies, through the perspective of radical flanks of broader urban social movements environment.
Baltic Worlds 2016, IX (1-2): 68-79.
This paper explores the scope, causes, flourishing, and decline of squatting in Lithuanian society during the period of 1990-2002. Drawing on 16 in-depth interviews conducted with squatters in Vilnius, newspaper articles and legal documents, this paper shows that squatters made contributions to the city with their cultural capital, creating local subcultures and making the urban space more attractive. Squatters promoted an alternative way of life, contributed to the preservation of the city and fostered counter-cultural activities. They offered spaces for performances, exhibits, and concerts. These activities are still present up to this day in the Užupis neighborhood that hosted the most long-lived squat, which in turn was transformed into Art Incubator.
Baltic Worlds 2016, IX (1-2): 46-56.
Two Polish cities, Warsaw and Poznań, are studied in the article to examine how external structures are handled and used by squatters in these two settings. The aim is to analyze opportunity structures that condition the emergence and development of squatting and how squatters respond to and utilize these opportunities. Our ambition is to understand why squatting has developed differently in the two cities by emphasizing the duration and cohesion of the squatting scene as pivotal for the different trajectories of squatting. It is argued in the article that the durability of the squatting environment abates tendencies to open the squatting scene to external coalitions and establish more institutionalized forms of political struggle.
Baltic Worlds 2016, IX (3): 37-48.
This paper deals with the dilemmas scholars can run into when they encounter the conflict between political activists and what can be proven by evidence. The disputewith historians revolves around what the anthropologist Michel-Rolph Trouillot terms “Silencing the past”. This is certainly true in the case of the Roma and genocide.What complicates the case is that a long-standing memory is part of a still ongoing political activist campaign to build a recognized memory for all of Europe’s Roma.
Baltic Worlds 2016, IX (3): 55-67.
This article engages with political region building by examining the diverging conceptions of the Baltic Sea region since the 1970s. Itmaps the fuzzy geography arising from the enmeshment of territory with a multitude of frameworks for regional action. After 1989, the region became the object of interregional and neighborhood policies established by the European Union, with shifting territorial delimitations according to various internal and geopolitical needs of the day. Drawing on functional, relational, and administrative perspectives, it is shown how spatial definitions surrounding the Baltic Sea region have varied over the past fifty years, revealing those transnational connections that have been valued as worthwhile political investments.
Microbial Ecosystem Functions Along the Steep Oxygen Gradient of the Landsort Deep, Baltic Sea Mer info
Mikroorganismer är essentiella för fungerande ekosystemfunktioner i akvatiska miljöer och därmed en förutsättning för övrigt växt- och djurliv på vår planet. Trots deras ekologiska nyckelroll är kunskapen om mikroorganismernas funktion och komplexitet samt hur dessa är relaterade till miljön begränsad. På grund av eutrofiering och klimatförändringar har marina områden som lider av syrebrist ökat och en ytterligare utbredning av marina och bräckta områden med syrebrist är predicerad i framtiden. Stora områden av Östersjön kännetecknas av vertikala syregradienter med syresatt ytvatten och anoxiskt bottenvatten. I denna avhandling undersöktes därför med metagenomik hur mikrobiella ekosystems funktioner var utbredda längs den vertikala syregradienten i Östersjöns djupaste del, Landsortsdjupet. Dessutom jämfördes de mikrobiella samhällena från Landsortsdjupet med mikrobiella samhällen från andra marina miljöer för att utröna om den karakteristiska miljön i Landsortsdjupet återspeglade de mikrobiella samhällen som lever där. För att undersöka vilka mikroorganismer samt vilka mikrobiella ekosystemfunktioner som var aktiva i det anoxiska sedimentet i Landsortsdjupet användes metatranskriptomik. Resultaten visade en stark korrelation mellan miljöparametrarna syrehalt, salinitet och temperatur och fördelningen av mikrobiell taxa och i synnerhet mikrobiell funktion längs Landsortsdjupets transekt. De mikrobiella samhällena uppvisade en funktionell kapacitet förenlig med en livsstrategi beroende av organiskt material som sjunker genom vattenkolonnen som en konsekvens av eutrofiering. Eutrofa förhållanden med hög halt av organiskt material var även återspeglad i metatranskriptomet från det anoxiska sedimentet, som indikerade aktiv mineralisering av organiskt kol genom anaerob heterotrof-autotrof synergism. Nya möjliga kopplingar mellan kväve- och svavelmetabolism identifierades i det anoxiska vattnet. Vidare visade resultat från metatranskriptom-analys att livsdugliga cyanobakterier var abundanta i det mörka och anoxiska sedimentet, vilket även detta kan vara en konsekvens av sjunkande organiskt material. Hög abundans och hög transkribering av integrongener kunde identifieras som ett karakteristiskt kännetecken hos de mikrobiella samhällena i Landsortsdjupet vilket skulle kunna förse dem med en mekanism för anpassning till miljöförändringar. Sammanfattningsvis dokumenterar denna avhandling tydligt vilken påverkan eutrofiering och syrebrist har på mikrobiella funktioner. Dessutom för den specifikt kunskapen om mikrobiella processer i anoxiska djupvattensediment framåt på både genom- och transkriptionsnivå. Mot bakgrund av en predicerad ökning av syrebristen i marina miljöer, bidrar denna avhandling med information som är viktig för att kunna förutse vilka effekter anoxiska förhållanden kan komma att få på ekosystemfunktioner i marina miljöer och i brackvattenmiljöer i synnerhet.
A dark, anoxic mausoleum for DNA - perceived and actual community structure in the Landsort Deep sediment, the Baltic SeaMer info
PeerJ 2016, : -.
Numerous investigations of bacterial communities using sequence analysis of environmental DNA have revealed extensive diversity of microbial taxa in an array of different environmental habitats. Community analysis based solely on DNA, however, does not reveal whether the detected community members are actively contributing to community functioning, or whether they are dormant or remnants of dead cells. This dilemma is of particular concern when analyzing microbial community structure of sites with a high degree of deposited matter, such as marine sediments. For example, the Baltic Sea’s deepest point, the Landsort Deep, consists of anoxic sediments with a large deposition of allochthonous organic matter from the highly stratified 460 m water column above. Our previous metagenomics results indicated the presence of potential obligately aerobic and phototrophic microorganisms. To further elucidate which taxa may contribute to ecosystem function at this site, we here present three different datasets – rDNA amplicons, rDNA reads from a shotgun metagenome and expressed rRNA from a shotgun metatranscriptome. By comparing the three datasets and the ratios between rRNA and rDNA we seek to estimate the protein synthesis potential of the community members in order to provide an indication of what taxa may have cellular activity and metabolic potential. The variation in protein synthesis potential was large, both within and between taxa, in the sediment community. Many typically anaerobic taxa, e.g. from Deltaproteobacteria and Euryarchaeota, showed a high protein synthesis potential, while typical aerobes like Flavobacteria showed a low protein synthesis potential. More surprisingly, some common Baltic Sea surface water bacteria also displayed a high protein synthesis potential, suggesting they have an active role in the anoxic sediment ecosystem at 460 m depth. Both filamentous and unicellular Cyanobacteria exhibited very high protein synthesis potential, which implies a more complex role of these bacteria in carbon cycling in the Baltic Sea than previously suggested. Moreover, Mycobacteria, that were abundant in Landsort Deep sediment metagenome compared with other marine sediment metagenomes, showed protein synthesis potentials consistent with a functional role in the sediment community. Our results provide a new window of insight into the complexities of the microbial community of Landsort Deep with implications for the understanding of other anoxic accumulation sediments.
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2016.
Här tecknar studenter på den erfarenhetsbaserade förskollärarutbildningen, och forskare som undervisar på samma utbildning, en bild av förskolepedagogens praktiska kunskap. Texterna rör sig mellan ett förtroget inifrånperspektiv och ett teoretiskt utifrånperspektiv. Boken kombinerar på så vis en djupgående undersökning av dagsaktuella frågor som relationen mellan omsorg och lärande, det ökade antalet diagnostiserade barn, resursbrist, lek och utbildningens betydelse, samtidigt som den sätter dessa frågor i relation till vilken förskola, och vilket samhälle, vi vill ha.
The present investigation develops the notion of sociality based on Emmanuel Levinas’s thought, and proposes an understanding of sociality that resists becoming a common foundation: an un-common sociality which interrupts the reciprocal shared common, and thereby, paradoxically, makes it possible. By engaging in the larger debate on community, this work gives voice to Levinas on the question of community without a common ground, a topic and a debate where he has previously been underestimated. In this way, the aim is to reveal new directions opened up by Levinas’s philosophy in order to think an un-common sociality.
Te-aftnar i nationens tjänst - Den tyskbaltiska kvinnorörelsen och det tyskbaltiska nationella projektet 1905-1919Mer info
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2016.
This book examines how a geopolitical grammar works in Nordic and Russian academic feminism and how understandings of a joint feminist “we”, of “Nordicness” and ideas of an “East/West-Divide” shape the formation of gender research fields. In three distinct chapters, each with a different approach to theories, methods and source materials, the book explores the implications of language, translation, and situated knowledges in the development of gender research as a geopolitical area and particular academic space during the mid-1970s until 2005, and considers feminist knowledge production as a field of power relations.
In: . : .
The presentation discusses how different models of learning religion promote respect for the right to freedom of religion or belief. Three different models of learning about religion are offered in Estonian schools: there are schools with no Religious Education, others have inclusive Religious Education, and there are also religiously-oriented schools with a confessional approach to teaching religion. The article draws on data of the research done in the framework of REDCo project (the main project 2006-2009, replicative study in 2012) and also CARDIPS project (2014). The research projects studied students' views about how they see religion in education. The samples consist of students from different Estonian regions and different experience of learning about religions. Their attitudes to two questions are studied. First, how do students differ in their own attitudes about the need to respect a person who is of a different religion? Second, what do young people think about religious freedoms in the school context? The results of the study call out for discussion of practicing religious freedom in school and practices what may best contribute to a tolerant society.
In: . : .
Research project "Cultural and religious diversity in primary school" investigates the pupil’s experience of cultural and religious diversity in selected schools from Sweden and Estonia, structural factors on that experience and the effect of variation in age and family tradition. The countries represent different experiences of cultural and religious diversity.The research applies mixed methods approach. Surveys are carried out with both quantitative and qualitative components. Questionnaire data from pupils (special questionnaires for 3rd, 6th and 9th grade, it is 9-10, 12-13 and 15-16 year old pupils) is supplemented with interviews of a small number of the pupils, their teachers and parents.The paper analyses 3rd graders drawings about what makes them happy. The dawings were part of the questionnaire about cultural and religious diversity in their everyday experience and at school. The paper answers the question, what values can be found in drawings of boys and girls aged 9-10 from different religious and ethnic backgrounds in two different countries.
In: Media and the Ukraine Crisis. New York : Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2016. 107-122.
This chapter explores how the Russian global news broadcaster RT constructed the ongoing crisis in Ukraine during the summer of 2014 in light of theories of new public diplomacy and soft power. The summer of 2014 involved a number of dramatic events relating to the conflict, including the downing of the Malaysian MH17 passenger plane and a series of violent clashes between the Ukrainian army and pro-Russian separatists. During the same period, the US and EU sanctions against Russia were also intensified. This makes the period particularly interesting to examine, as it can give insights into how news from a Russian perspective is articulated during periods marked by political as well as military crises in which Russia plays a central role. Given that convergence and digitalisation have enabled new ways of producing, distributing and consuming news - as well as new ways of implementing politiical communication campaigns and public diplomacy - the analytical focus of this study is on RT’s online news service.
The formation of parliamentarism in the nordic countries from the napoleonic wars to the first world war Mer info
Citizenship Studies 2016, 20 (6-7): 914-931.
The present article concerns Estonian e-government, that is, the digitalization of government and public administration, and the way e-government produces a moral citizen. Although several case studies on e-government exist, they have seldom been sensitive to the local conditions shaping the functions and social meaning of digitalization. E-government involves producing knowledge, and the present article draws on a theoretical perspective that stresses the tight relationship between knowledge and power. In Estonia, the power–knowledge regime is characterized by centralization. Centralization is the condition for a firm national e-government policy, and within this policy, an image of the unique Estonian citizenry is produced. The Estonian moral citizen who emerges out of e-government is de-politicized and detached from a social context, on the one hand, and strongly politicized and attached to a specific ethno-national community, on the other.
In: . : .
Free Software Beyond Radical Politics: Negotiations of Creative and Craft Autonomy in Digital Visual Media Produ... Mer info
Media and Communication 2016, 4 (4): 43-52.
Free software development and the technological practices of hackers have been broadly recognised as fundamental for the formation of political cultures that foster democracy in the digital mediascape. This article explores the role of free software in the practices of digital artists, animators and technicians who work in various roles for the contempo-rary digital visual media industries. Rather than discussing it as a model of organising work, the study conceives free software as a production tool and shows how it becomes a locus of politics about finding material security in flexible capitalism. This politics is ultimately contradictory in that it extends creative and craft autonomy of digital artists but does not mobilise a critical project. Instead, it nurtures further precarious labour. Empirically, the article draws on eth-nographically collected material from the media practices of digital artists and programmers who engage with two popular free software production tools, Blender and Synfig.
Psychological variables underlying political orientations in an old and a new democracy - A comparative study between Sweden and LatviaMer info
Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 2016, 57 (5): 437-445.
This study examines in detail the psychological variables underlying ideological political orientation, and structure and contents of this orientation, in Sweden and Latvia. Individual political orientation is conceptualized on two dimensions: acceptance vs. rejection of social change and acceptance vs. rejection of inequality. Swedish (N = 320) and Latvian (N = 264) participants completed measures of political orientation, Social Dominance Orientation (SDO), Right Wing Authoritarianism (RWA), self vs. other orientation, tolerance for ambiguity, humanism and normativism, core political values, system justification, as well as moral foundations questionnaire and portrait values questionnaire. The results showed that the relation among the measured variables was similar in both samples. Swedish participants showed stronger endorsement of egalitarian attitudes and social values, whereas we found more self-enhancing and socially conservative values and attitudes among the Latvian participants.
Social capital - a mixed blessing for women? A cross-sectional study of different forms of social relations and ... Mer info
BMC Psychology 2016, 4 (1): -.
BACKGROUND: Depression is a major health problem worldwide, especially among women. The condition has been related to a number of factors, such as alcohol consumption, economic situation and, more recently, to social capital. However, there have been relatively few studies about the social capital-depression relationship in Eastern Europe. This paper aims to fill this gap by examining the association between different forms of social capital and self-rated depression in Moscow. Differences between men and women will also be examined, with a special focus on women.METHODS: Data was obtained from the Moscow Health Survey, which was conducted in 2004 with 1190 Muscovites aged 18 years or above. For depression, a single-item self-reported measure was used. Social capital was operationalised through five questions about different forms of social relations. Logistic regression analysis was undertaken to estimate the association between social capital and self-rated depression, separately for men and women.RESULTS: More women (48 %) than men (36 %) reported that they had felt depressed during the last year. An association was found between social capital and reported depression only among women. Women who were divorced or widowed or who had little contact with relatives had higher odds of reporting depression than those with more family contact. Women who regularly engaged with people from different age groups outside of their families were also more likely to report depression than those with less regular contact.CONCLUSIONS: Social capital can be a mixed blessing for women. Different forms of social relations can lead to different health outcomes, both positive and negative. Although the family is important for women's mental health in Moscow, extra-familial relations across age groups can be mentally distressing. This suggests that even though social capital can be a valuable resource for mental health, some of its forms can be mentally deleterious to maintain, especially for women. More research is needed on both sides to social capital. A special focus should be placed on bridging social relations among women in order to better understand the complex association between social capital and depression in Russia and elsewhere.
Feeding stimulants in an omnivorous species, crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758) Mer info
Aquaculture Reports 2016, 4 : 66-73.
Many fish are during feeding dependent on both an olfactory and gustatory sense. Olfaction that acts as the distance sense induces arousal, food search behaviour and attraction to the source, followed by examination of food items by the gustatory sense. During buccal handling the fish decide if the feed will be rejected or swallowed. Amino acids are often stimulatory to the gustatory sense and can act as feeding stimulants. There are, however, inter-species differences concerning what kinds of amino acids act as feeding stimulants or deterrents. The species differences are probably dependent on the natural food choice. As feeding stimulating molecules increase feeding and growth, but deterrents have the reverse effect, it is important to know what kind of molecules have either effect. In the present study we record mouth handling time in the omnivorous crucian carp, Carassius carassius, of agar pellets containing water extracts of meal consisting of ordinary food pellets, blue mussels or a commercial carp attractant. These tests were followed by testing with agar pellets with synthetic amino acids, based on the content of the water extracts of the food pellets that was the only feeding stimulant. Neither extracts of mussel meal or of commercial carp attractants had a stimulating effect, i.e. no significant difference in handling time compared to agar pellets with only water. A mixture of five of the major amino acids in the food pellet extract (40 mM alanine, 20 mM glycine, 20 mM arginine, 8 mM serine, 8 mM leucin) gave a significant longer handling time compared to agar pellets with only water. The handling time was also longer for the three amino acids that had the highest concentrations (40 mM Ala, 20 mM Gly, 20 mM Arg) and finally with only alanine (128 mM). Agar pellets with only Ala gave, however, a significant shorter handling time compared to agar pellets with food pellet extract. The mussel meal extract had the same content of free amino acids and their ranking order was the same as in extracts of food pellets, but at much higher concentrations. Based on the free amino acid content, the mussel extract should have stimulated feeding. This indicates that the mussel extract contained compounds that acted as feeding deterrents in omnivorous crucian carp that do not feed on blue mussels in their natural environment. Previous studies have shown that blue mussel extracts act as feeding stimulants in several bottom feeding carnivorous fish. We finally tested betaine (100 mM) but the molecule had no significant stimulating effect that has been observed in some other fish species. © 2016 The Authors
Intersexuality in the Blue Mussel Mytilus edulis Complex (Mytilidae) from the Baltic Sea and the Danish Strait Mer info
American Malacological Bulletin 2016, 34 (1): 28-39.
Populations of Mytilus edulis complex were studied from 13 stations located at three areas of the Baltic Sea (the Gulf of Gdańsk, Poland; Tvärminne area, Finland; Trosa Archipelago, Sweden) and the Skagerrak sound (Kristineberg, Sweden). The main purpose of the study was to document the occurrence of intersexuality along longitudinal salinity change using squash and histology for comparative reasons. Intersex was identified in all four geographical areas at an average frequency of 1.8%. Squash technique revealed the highest intersex frequency in the Gulf of Gdańsk (up to 6.25%) whereas histology examination did so in the Kristineberg area (up to 10%). In the Tvärminne area and in the Trosa Archipelago the average frequency of intersex did not exceed 2% regardless of the technique used; this suggests a natural induction of the phenomenon. Statistically significant spatial differences in intersex frequency were confirmed for mussels inhabiting polluted hotspots in the Gulf of Gdańsk and at the west coast of Sweden (Kristineberg). Therefore, for these localities artificial induction of intersexuality as a consequence of adverse environmental threats (pollution, parasite outbreaks) is further suggested. Furthermore, squash technique - being less sensitive in identifying intersex when compared to histology - is not recommended for mussels with severe reproductive impairments making a proper analysis of gonads impossible. Intersexual individuals were also characterized by less developed gonads and lower gonado-somatic index (GSI) than males and females. Significantly lower GSI revealed less energy allocation towards reproduction in populations from the Trosa Archipelago and Tvärminne area in comparison to those from the Gulf of Gdańsk and from Kristineberg.
Negotiating creative autonomy: Experiences of technology in computer-based visual media production Mer info
In: Politics, Civil Society and Participation. Bremen : edition lumière, 2016. 185-195.
Media production is today heavily computerised, and as a consequence of this, profoundly reliant on software. At the same time software does not represent a neutral artefact - it imposes certain affordances, logics, structures and hierarchies of knowledge onto the media making processes. This chapter explores the ways in which visual media creators negotiate the choices between multiple technological alternatives, and the ways in which these negotiations relate to the degree of creative autonomy experienced by cultural producers in their media practice. Combining perspectives from media studies of work in the cultural industries, and science and technology studies (STS), the paper suggests that choices of technology lead media producers to experience creative autonomy differently, by making them labour either within post-industrial technological frameworks that they do not have ownership or control over, or conversely, allow them greater ownership on technology and possibilities to mould their tools, bringing their practice closer to forms of pre-industrial craft production. Creative autonomy, I suggest, can therefore be negotiated by artists and media creators not only in relation to institutions of employment, or nation state politics, but also through deliberate choices of tools, the digital technical toolset that they select and embed in their practice; an approach largely inspired and practiced by some forms of hacker culture.
In: Edulearn16 proceedings. Valencia : IATED Academy.
In: Ukraina och informationskriget. : Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap (MSB), 2016. 193-221.
I det här kapitlet diskuteras hur kriget i Ukraina och dess politiska konfliktlinjer har gestaltats i nyhetskanalen Russia Today (RT). Till skillnad från övriga medier som ingår i rapporten riktar sig inte RT primärt till en lokal eller nationell publik, och dess spridnings- område är därmed heller inte begränsat till ett givet geografiskt territorium. Istället ingår RT i den allt större grupp av tv-kanaler som riktar sig till en internationell publik och den kan därmed ses som ett uttryck för den pågående globaliseringen av såväl medielandskapet som politiken, kulturen och samhället i stort. Analysen visar bl.a. att RTs digitala nyhetsflöde i liten utsträckning inriktar sig på att klargöra skeenden genom faktiska egna observationer eller genom interaktion med primärkällor ute påfältet. Istället ägnas en mycket stor del åt att referera, förstärka, debattera och kritisera olika typer av externa mediekällor. En viktig slutsats som kan dras utifrån det analyserade materialet är att RT inte primärt inriktar sig på att forma en positiv bild av Ryssland. Störst utrymme ägnas istället åt att identifiera och kritisera brister i västvärldens politiska och mediala kulturer för att på så vis skapa grogrund för kritiska attityder.
Discovering the Past? Memory, Postmemory, and Affect in Autobiographies by Emilia Degenius and Lisa Appignanesi Mer info
In: . : .
The concept of postmemory has been advanced to account for some of the ways that the strong cultural and individual memories of trauma survivors impact on members of the next generation: their children. According to Marianne Hirsch (1997, 2012), post-memory generations have a special tie to history, which they “remember” through emotional and imaginative investment in the memories of others, whose stories, photographs, and day-to-day actions impart a strong sense of the life-changing, often life-threatening, circumstances they have lived through.In this paper, I explore the relevance and possible limitations of the concept of postmemory for two auto/biographical works written by women of the Polish diaspora: Losing the Dead (2006) by Lisa Appignanesi and Åka Skridskor I Warszawa (Ice-skating in Warsaw) (2014) by Emilia Degenius. Born about 10 years apart (1946 and 1955), the two writers have some similarities, including Jewish backgrounds, parental and personal experiences of anti-Semitism, and emigration from post-war Poland with subsequent fraught relations to the Polish language. Appignanesi, writing in English, has become a cultural commentator and author with an interest in memory and psychoanalysis. Degenius immigrated alone to Sweden in 1972, where she joined her sister, and she has become a practicing psychoanalyst and author of two autobiographical works in Swedish.The narratives of these women writers of the Polish diaspora straddle genres of autobiography, biography, family history, fiction, and memoir. In each account, the relationship to parental figures is of central importance. They each have double narrative strands, one that reconstructs the childhood past through the excavation of memory, and one that figures the adult narrator’s attempts to understand the past through return journeys to Poland, documentation, and interaction. I examine the texts’ formal and thematic characteristics in relation to postmemory.
Reproducing Politics - The politicisation of patients' identities and assisted reproduction in Poland and SwedenMer info
Sociology of Health and Illness 2016, 38 (7): 1074-1091.
This article examines how discourses on assisted reproductive technologies are locally appropriated, translated or contested in the specific cultural and political contexts of Poland and Sweden. The aim is to investigate how two national patients' organisations, namely the Polish association Nasz Bocian and the Swedish organisation Barnlängtan, articulate rights claims in the context of reproductive technologies. To this end, we investigate how these organisations utilise specific context-dependent and affectively laden political vocabularies in order to mobilise politically, and discuss how each of these two groups gives rise to a different set of politicised reproductive identities. In order to trace which political vocabularies the respective organisations utilise to mobilise their respective rights claims, we draw primarily on political discourse theory and concepts of political grammars and empty signifiers. Lastly, we discuss which political reproductive identities emerge as a result of these different versions of political mobilisation around assisted reproductive technologies.
Begärets politiska potential - Feministiska motståndsstrategier i Elin Wägners Pennskaftet, Gabriele Reuters Aus guter Familie, Hilma Angered-Strandbergs Lydia Vik och Grete Meisel-Hess Die IntellektuellenMer info
This dissertation investigates the way that feminist resistance is expressed in two Swedish and two German so-called New Woman novels from the turn of the twentieth century: Elin Wägner’s Pennskaftet (1910, Penwoman), Gabriele Reuter’s Aus guter Familie (1895, From a Good Family), Hilma Angered-Strandberg’s Lydia Vik (1904), and Grete Meisel-Hess’s Die Intellektuellen (1911).The theoretical apparatus is comprised by the work of Michel Foucault, Judith Butler, Jacques Lacan, and Jessica Benjamin. By introducing a psychoanalytic and feminist perspective, this dissertation seeks to develop the possibilities for agency and resistance within the framework of Foucault’s theories. It investigates four textual and contextually grounded strategies of resistance that are prominent in these novels: individuality, openness, desire, and eugenics.This study demonstrates how Gabriele Reuter, Grete Meisel-Hess, and Hilma Angered-Strandberg, inspired by the ideas of Friedrich Nietzsche and Ellen Key, depict feminine individuality in relation to a scientific and philosophical discourse that specifically denied women individuality. The authors anchor individuality in a corporality that was similarly denied to women by a bourgeois and dogmatic Christian discourse.Openness and wit function as resistance strategies in Elin Wägner’s Pennskaftet. Humorous rejoinders and narrative comments can disarm a conservative. An open attitude towards the emancipation project could also help to resolve the conflicts between different feminist positions and between different women.Desire functions as an important resistance strategy in each of the novels examined. It is variously represented as a vital instinct, a desire for knowledge, and a sexual desire, as in Gabriele Reuter’s Aus guter Familie – or as a desire for suffrage, as in Pennskaftet, or for maternity legislation, as in Grete Meisel-Hess’s Die Intellektuellen. By formulating a notion of feminine desire, turn-of-the-century feminists were able both to seize control of sexuality from the church and to wrest morality from the grasp of the bourgeoisie. These resistance strategies could also have a biopolitical character: in Grete Meisel-Hess’s Die Intellektuellen, woman is placed at the service of humanity on eugenicist grounds, and her good qualities are seen as capable of promoting humanity’s progress.This dissertation shows that in these novels desire at the individual level serves to reinforce feminine subjectivity. Love is seen as associated with an intensified sense of life and as a precondition of creativity. At the social level, desire also functions as the basis for a feeling of solidarity among women that instils in them courage and an urge to persevere in the suffrage struggle, this latter a highly protracted process. In this way desire acquires political potential.A framing chapter on context provides the intellectual and philosophical backgrounds of the various strategies of resistance. It is followed by four analytical chapters, each of which addresses one novel.
The broad aim of this thesis is twofold: firstly, I contextualise the Maausk movement and its practitioners’ understandings in relation to history and the surrounding society; secondly, I analyse the affective and embodied experiences of being a Maausk practitioner from a phenomenological perspective.The thesis focuses on the formation and practice of Maausk, which is perceived to be deeply tied to the society and history where it exists. Relatedly, this study examines how Maausk identity formation and practices have been influenced by the Soviet legacy, romantic nationalism and Estonia’s current economic and political situation.In order to analyse the Maausk experiences and narratives, this study draws from various phenomenologically oriented theories of affect, embodiment and emotion, as well as cultural theories of place, identity, tradition and authenticity. I have used economic anthropology and globalisation theories as well as historical studies of Estonia’s Soviet past to contextualise the Maausk movement. Further, to place Maausk in the European religious landscape, this study refers to native faith and Neo-pagan studies.Through sensory ethnography, this study draws on the affective and emotional aspects of the research material to analyse how the complexity of emotional experiences of being a Maausk practitioner produces Maausk meanings and values. The study also examines the role and function of the body and emotions during the process of embodying the Maausk practices, both techniques and meanings of the practices.
One in a thousand - An ordinary extraordinary woman : [a review of] Helmut Müssener, Wolfgang Wilhelmus. Stettin, Lublin, Stockholm - Elsa Meyring: Aus dem Leben einer deutschen Nicharierin im zwanzigsten JahrhundertMer info
Utopian studies 2016, 27 (1): 53-76.
This essay examines the Etnogenez series of science fiction and fantasy novels. Launched in 2009 by the media producer, "political technologist," and Kremlin insider Konstantin Rykov, Etnogenez has enjoyed truly phenomenal success, developing into one of the most ambitious publishing projects of the post-Soviet period. At present it numbers more than fifty works, which circulate in millions of copies and additionally are broadly disseminated on the Internet and as e-books, audiobooks, and podcasts. There are Etnogenez fan clubs, computer games, and dozens of Internet discussion groups. Although the novels in the series differ widely in their plots and subjects, and are written in a variety of different science fiction genres, all of them are loosely inspired by the work of the historian and geographer Lev Nikolaevich Gumilev, in particular his theories of ethnogenesis (from which the project takes its name), passionarnost', and Eurasianism. The essay explores the powerful resonances between the Etnogenez project, the Gumilevian legacy, and the leading political and social narratives of Putin's Russia.
The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2016, 20 (5): 574-581.
SETTING: Previous studies in many countries have shown that mortality due to tuberculosis (TB) is higher among people of lower socio-economic status.OBJECTIVE: To assess the magnitude and direction of trends in educational inequalities in TB mortality in 11 European countries.DESIGN: Data on TB mortality between 1980 and 2011 were collected among persons aged 35-79 years. Age-standardised mortality rates by educational level were calculated. Inequalities were estimated using the relative and slope indices of inequality.RESULTS: In the first decade of the twenty-first century, educational inequalities in TB mortality occurred in all countries in this study. The largest absolute inequalities were observed in Lithuania, and the smallest in Denmark. In most countries, relative inequalities have remained stable since the 1980s or 1990s, while absolute inequalities remained stable or went down. In Lithuania and Estonia, however, absolute inequalities increased substantially.CONCLUSION: The reduction in absolute inequalities in TB mortality, as seen in many European countries, is a major achievement; however, inequalities persist and are still a major cause for concern in the twenty-first century. Interventions aimed at preventing TB disease and reducing TB case fatality in lower socio-economic groups should be intensified, especially in the Baltic countries.
Writing History in a Propaganda Institute - Political Power and Network Dynamics in Communist RomaniaMer info
In 1990, the Institute for Historical and Socio-Political Studies of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party was closed, since the Party was dissolved by the Romanian Revolution. Similar institutions had existed in all countries belonging to the Soviet bloc. This Institute was founded in 1951 under the name of the Party History Institute, and modelled on the Marx-Lenin-Engels Institute in Moscow. Since then, it served the Communist Party in producing thousands of books and journals on the history of the Party and of Romania, following Party orders. Previous research has portrayed the Institute as a loyal executioner of the Party’s will, negating the agency of its history-writers in influencing the duties of the Institute. However, the recent opening of the Institute’s archive has shown that a number of internal and previously obscured dynamics impacted on its activities. This book is dedicated to the study of the Party History Institute, of the history-writers employed there, and of the narratives they produced. By studying the history-writers and their host institution, this study re-contextualizes the historiography produced under Communist rule by analysing the actual conditions under which it was written: the interrelation between dynamics of control and the struggle for resources, power and positions play a fundamental role in this history. This is the first scholarly inquiry about a highly controversial institute that struggled in order to follow the constantly shifting Party narrative canon, while competing formaterial resources with rival Party and academic institutions. The main actors in this study are the history-writers: Party veterans, young propagandists and educated historians, in conflicting networks and groups, struggled in order to gain access to the limited resources and positions provided by the Party, and in order to survive the political changes imposed by the leadership. By doing so they succeed, on many occasions, to influence the activities of the Institute.
International Journal of Business and Management 2016, 11 (5): 44-56.
AbstractThe objective of this paper is to describe and explain company strategies under uncertainty. The study attempts to examine closer interaction between research on strategic management and internationalization theory. Recent escalation of conflict between Russia and the EU/USA in combination with economic recession increased the level of uncertainty. The article explores how this deterioration is reflected in a strategy of Swedish companies operating in Russia. This study builds on the empirical data from a survey conducted in 2015 among 73 Swedish firms. The findings of the study contribute to knowledge regarding diversity in commitments shown by different companies at one particular point of time under the same circumstances. The study reveals a domination of expansion strategy chosen by Swedish firms during the current escalation of uncertainty in Russia. A growing strategy under uncertainty has seldom been reported and analyzed by scholars. The study demonstrated that uncertainty is not only a threat to companies operating on the market, but can lead to expanding strategies attempting to exploit the opportunities that uncertainty might offer. Appraising the risk concept, the study provides implications for companies’ managers on the importance of a commitment decision to face the deterioration caused by the uncertainty. Empirical data from this study also suggest that uncertainty is handled by companies better than one might expect. The article questions whether companies and managers are really risk-averse in their behaviour.
ARKIV. Tidskrift för samhällsanalys 2016, 5 : 15-37.
Termen ”extremism” har blivit vanligare inom både svensk offentlig debatt och myndighetsprosa. I sådana sammanhang är det dock sällan klart exakt vad som avses med denna term. Inte heller inom samhällsvetenskapen är begreppet extre mism oomstritt och inom olika forskningsfält används begreppet på olika sätt. Syftet med Adrienne Sörbom och Magnus Wennerhags artikel är att belysa extremismbegrep pets uppkomst och förändrade betydelse under moderniteten, samt att diskutera några av de problem som begreppet är behäftat med. Med hjälp av bland annat vetenskaps sociologen Thomas F. Gieryns begrepp ”gränsdragningsarbete” (boundary-work) visar Sörbom och Wennerhag hur begreppet extremism används i fältet mellan vetenskap, politik och samhällsdebatt. Författarnas huvudsakliga poäng är att begreppets utgångs punkt i en tydligt normativ föreställning om politiska avvikelser gör det mindre använd bart i vetenskapliga sammanhang, eftersom det enbart tar dessa avvikelser för givna och inte erbjuder några förklaringar om varför de uppkommer eller vilken roll de spelar i moderna samhällen.
Journal of Business Case Studies (JBCS) 2016, 12 (2): 83-98.
FDI (foreign direct investment) of Swedbank in Ukraine is an example of unsuccessful investment in transition economies. The Case Study is presented in relation with Swedbank’s internationalization strategy and rapidly changing investment environment in transition economies and globally. Learning objectives include helping students to develop analytical skills in order to understand how political, economic, financial and social factors effect internalization strategy through FDI. The Case Study should help students to understand the importance of an appropriate long-term strategy of a firm entering transition economies, understand the investment environment of a foreign country and choose the best course of action for a distressed firm considering alternative scenarios. Lessons learned from the Case Study can be beneficial for students studying international business, but also for future decision-makers that would be acting in complex environments under rapidly changing situations. The author developed the Case from secondary sources: Swedbank’s annual reports and press-releases, information published by multilateral organizations and government agencies, research from investment banking houses and reputable news agencies. This Case is written solely for educational purposes and is not intended to analyze successful or unsuccessful internalization strategy through FDI in transition economies.
The Ecosystem Approach to Management in Baltic Sea Governance - Towards Increased Reflexivity?Mer info
In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea. : Springer, 2016. 149-172.
This chapter analyses the governance structures linked to the marine environment of the Baltic Sea. The purpose is to assess whether current developments of the governance structures have a potential to take into account requirements of an Ecosystem Approach to Management (EAM). We use the concept of reflexive governance to understand key components and weaknesses in contemporary governance modes, as well as to elaborate on possible pathways towards a governance mode more aligned with EAM. The reflexive governance framework highlights three elements: (1) acknowledgement of uncertainty and ambiguity; (2) a holistic approach in terms of scales, sectors and actors; and (3) acknowledgement of path dependency and incremental policy-making. Our analysis is based on a comparative case study approach, including analysis of the governance in five environmental risk areas: chemical pollution, overfishing, eutrophication, invasive alien species and pollution from shipping. The chapter highlights an existing governance mode that is ill-equipped to deal with the complexity of environmental problems in a holistic manner, with systematic attention to uncertainty, plurality of values, ambiguity and limited knowledge, while also pointing at important recent cognitive and institutional developments that can favour pathways towards reflexive governance and consequently EAM.
Risk Communication and the Role of the Public: Towards Inclusive Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea? Mer info
In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea. : Springer, 2016. 205-227.
This chapter focuses on forms of and challenges for risk communication within regional environmental governance, based on an analysis of five environmental risks in the Baltic Sea – marine oil transportation, chemicals, overfishing, eutrophication and alien species. We address questions about how risks are framed and communicated and also analyse the role of communication in the governance process. Our main focus is on risk communication with the public (e.g. existing institutional arrangements and procedures of risk communication), but we also relate this analysis to discussions on communication with a broad range of actors and issues of stakeholder participation and communication. In the study we have identified some examples of relatively well-working risk communication with parts of the organised public in the Baltic Sea region (BSR), such as in fisheries or eutrophication, but also a number of different barriers and obstacles. Our key result from this study is that BSR consists of many national institutions for risk communication, but that there are hardly any centralised institutions for risk communication activities relating to environmental governance in the region. Another key conclusion is that public risk communication in this array of cross-national environmental risks is restricted mainly to (one-way) information. Against this backdrop and from our empirical and theoretical knowledge of risk communication and the role of the public, we finally suggest some ways for improvement.
In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea. : Springer, 2016. 229-246.
Governing marine environments is a highly complex and challenging enterprise. This applies particularly to the heavily exploited Baltic Sea for which despite extensive governance arrangements and a substantial scientific knowledge base, it is unlikely that the policy objective of ‘good environmental status’ is reached. Based on a review of governance arrangements linked to five large-scale environmental issues (eutrophication, overfishing, invasive alien species, chemical pollution and oil spills from shipping), this chapter aims to identify pathways and concrete ideas for institutional reform that may improve goal fulfilment. The results show that governance challenges differ substantially between environmental issues, implying a need for case-specific management reforms. For example, coping with extreme uncertainty is a key challenge in the chemical pollution case, whereas it seems more pertinent in the eutrophication case to address the complexity of nutrient pollution sources by adapting objectives and measures amongst sectoral policies to be in line with environmental ones. Furthermore, cross-case comparisons reveal a set of common vital functions (i.e. coordination, integration, interdisciplinarity, precaution, deliberation, communication and adaptability) that are needed in order to facilitate effective and efficient environmental governance in the long term. To promote these functions in Baltic Sea environmental governance, the chapter suggests pathways and institutional reforms aimed at improving multilevel and multisectoral integration, science-policy interactions and stakeholder participation. To further develop these ideas, it is proposed amongst other things that priority is given to setting up an international ‘Baltic Sea Policy Review Mechanism’, formed by cross-body and cross-stakeholder participation.
Governance of Chemicals in the Baltic Sea Region - A Study of Three Generations of Hazardous SubstancesMer info
In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea. : Springer, 2016. 97-123.
This study zooms in on public governance in the Baltic Sea region of three generations of notorious hazardous substances, namely, PCBs, PBDEs and PFOS/PFOA. Following regulation, PCB concentrations in the Baltic Sea have decreased substantially although they are still above pre-industrial levels. PBDE levels have also decreased in some places, but they too are well above targeted levels, whereas the situation for PFOS and in particular for PFOA has hardly improved at all. In the case of PCBs, while comprehensive measures took long to implement, initial preventive measures were taken early based on the precautionary principle. This contrasts with the cases of PBDEs, PFOS and PFOA, where the burden of proof on policy-makers has been high and hence caused severe delays in policymaking. There has, however, generally been a positive interplay in all three cases between the EU, which has legislated, and HELCOM, which has taken the role of concept and agenda setting. While environment-oriented policies, such as the Ecosystem Approach to Management under MSFD and BSAP, have grown in importance over time, polluter-oriented chemical legislation has been more important when it comes to final decision-making. Nevertheless, the general response has been reactive rather than proactive, and there is no indication that society responds faster today than in the past, at least not given the fact that awareness, experience and knowledge are greater today than a few decades back. Based on that insight, the article discusses various options for improving governance.
Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea - Identifying Key Challenges, Research Topics and Analytical ApproachesMer info
In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea. : Springer, 2016. 1-17.
The Baltic Sea ecosystem is subject to a wide array of societal pressures and associated environmental risks (e.g. eutrophication, oil discharges, chemical pollution, overfishing and invasive alien species). Despite several years of substantial efforts by state and non-state actors, it is still highly unlikely that the regionally agreed environmental objectives of reaching “good environmental status” by 2021 in the HELCOM BSAP (Baltic Sea Action Plan) and by 2020 in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) will be met. This chapter identifies key research topics, as well as presents analytical perspectives for analysing the gap between knowledge and action in Baltic Sea environmental governance. It does so by outlining important trends and key challenges associated with Baltic Sea environmental governance, as well as by summarising the scope and results of individual chapters of this interdisciplinary volume. The analysis reveals the development of increasingly complex governance arrangements and the ongoing implementation of the holistic Ecosystem Approach to Management, as two general trends that together contribute to three key challenges associated with (1) regional and cross - sectoral coordination and collaboration, (2) coping with complexity and uncertainty in science-policy interactions and (3) developing communication and knowledge sharing among stakeholder groups. Furthermore, to facilitate analysis of environmental governance opportunities and obstacles both within and across specific environmental issues, this chapter reviews the scientific literature to pinpoint key research issues and questions linked to the identified governance challenges.
Eutrophication and the Ecosystem Approach to Management - A Case Study of Baltic Sea Environmental GovernanceMer info
In: Environmental Governance of the Baltic Sea. : Springer, 2016. 21-44.
This study investigates if and how present institutional structures and interactions between scientific assessment and environmental management are sufficient for implementing the ecosystem approach to management (EAM) in the case of Baltic Sea eutrophication. Concerning governance structures, a number of institutions and policies focus on issues relating to eutrophication. In many cases, the policies are mutually supportive rather than contradictory, as seen, for example, in the case of the mutually supportive BSAP and MSFD. The opposite is true, however, when it comes to the linkages with some other policy areas, in particular regarding agricultural policy, where the EU CAP subsidises intensive agriculture with at best minor consideration of environmental objectives, thereby undermining EAM. Enhanced policy coherence and stricter policies on concrete measures to combat eutrophication seem well needed in order to reach stated environmental objectives. When it comes to assessment-management interactions, the science- policy interface has worked well in periods, but the more specific that policies have become, for example, in the BSAP case, the more question marks have been raised about science by affected stakeholders. At present, outright controversies exist, and EAM is far from realised in eutrophication policy in the Baltic Sea region. Besides coping with remaining uncertainties by improving the knowledge on problems and solutions– not least in terms of the socio-economic impacts of eutrophication – it may therefore be valuable to develop venues for improved stakeholder participation.
Baltic Worlds In-house edition 2016, : 5-9.
[Recension av] The Barents Region. A Transnational History of Subarctic Northern Europe, huvudredaktör Lars Elen... Mer info
Movement Ecology 2016, 4 : -.
BACKGROUND: We still have limited knowledge about the underlying genetic mechanisms that enable migrating species of birds to navigate the globe. Here we make an attempt to get insight into the genetic architecture controlling this complex innate behaviour. We contrast the gene expression profiles of two closely related songbird subspecies with divergent migratory phenotypes. In addition to comparing differences in migratory strategy we include a temporal component and contrast patterns between breeding adults and autumn migrating juvenile birds of both subspecies. The two willow warbler subspecies, Phylloscopus trochilus trochilus and P. t. acredula, are remarkably similar both in phenotype and genotype and have a narrow contact zone in central Scandinavia. Here we used a microarray gene chip representing 23,136 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata to identify mRNA level differences in willow warbler brain tissue in relation to subspecies and season.RESULTS: Out of the 22,109 EST probe sets that remained after filtering poorly binding probes, we found 11,898 (51.8 %) probe sets that could be reliably and uniquely matched to a total of 6,758 orthologous zebra finch genes. The two subspecies showed very similar levels of gene expression with less than 0.1 % of the probe sets being significantly differentially expressed. In contrast, 3,045 (13.8 %) probe sets were found to be differently regulated between samples collected from breeding adults and autumn migrating juvenile birds. The genes found to be differentially expressed between seasons appeared to be enriched for functional roles in neuronal firing and neuronal synapse formation.CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that only few genes are differentially expressed between the subspecies. This suggests that the different migration strategies of the subspecies might be governed by few genes, or that the expression patterns of those genes are time-structured or tissue-specific in ways, which our approach fails to uncover. Our findings will be useful in the planning of new experiments designed to unravel the genes involved in the migratory program of birds.
Reconstructing ecosystem functions of the active microbial community of the Baltic Sea oxygen depleted sediments Mer info
PeerJ 2016, 4 : -.
Baltic Sea deep water and sediments hold one of the largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic areas in the world. High nutrient input and low water exchange result in eutrophication and oxygen depletion below the halocline. As a consequence at Landsort Deep, the deepest point of the Baltic Sea, anoxia in the sediments has been a persistent condition over the past decades. Given that microbial communities are drivers of essential ecosystem functions we investigated the microbial community metabolisms and functions of oxygen depleted Landsort Deep sediments by metatranscriptomics. Results show substantial expression of genes involved in protein metabolism demonstrating that the Landsort Deep sediment microbial community is active. Identified expressed gene suites of metabolic pathways with importance for carbon transformation including fermentation, dissimilatory sulphate reduction and methanogenesis were identified. The presence of transcripts for these metabolic processes suggests a potential for heterotrophic-autotrophic community synergism and indicates active mineralisation of the organic matter deposited at the sediment as a consequence of the eutrophication process. Furthermore, cyanobacteria, probably deposited from the water column, are transcriptionally active in the anoxic sediment at this depth. Results also reveal high abundance of transcripts encoding integron integrases. These results provide insight into the activity of the microbial community of the anoxic sediment at the deepest point of the Baltic Sea and its possible role in ecosystem functioning.
Waterborne citalopram has anxiolytic effects and increases locomotor activity in the three-spine stickleback (Ga... Mer info
Aquatic Toxicology 2016, 173 : 19-28.
Citalopram is an antidepressant drug, which acts by inhibiting the re-uptake of serotonin from the synaptic cleft into the pre-synaptic nerve ending. It is one of the most common drugs used in treatment of depression, it is highly lipophilic and frequently found in sewage treatment plant effluents and surface waters around the world. Citalopram and other selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors have, at concentrations that occur in nature, been shown to have behavioural as well as physiological effects on fish and other animals. This study is the result of several different experiments, intended to analyse different aspects of behavioural effects of chronic citalopram exposure in fish. Our model species the three-spine stickleback is common in the entire northern hemisphere and is considered to be a good environmental sentinel species. Female three-spine sticklebacks were exposed to 0, 1.5 and 15μg/l nominal concentrations of citalopram for 21 days and subjected to the novel tank (NT) diving test. In the NT test, the fish exposed to 1.5μg/l, but not the 15μg/l fish made a significantly higher number of transitions to the upper half and stayed there for significantly longer time than the fish exposed to 0μg/l. The 15μg/l group, however, displayed a significantly lower number of freeze bouts and a shorter total freezing time. The test for locomotor activity included in the NT test showed that fish treated with 1.5 and 15μg/l displayed a significantly higher swimming activity than control fish both 5-7 and 15-17min after the start of the experiment. In the next experiment we compared fish exposed to 1.5μg/l and 0.15μg/l to pure water controls with regard to shoaling intensity and found no effect of treatment. In the final experiment the propensity of fish treated with 1.5μg/l to approach an unknown object and aggressive behaviour was investigated using the Novel Object test and a mirror test, respectively. The exposed fish ventured close to the unknown object significantly more often and stayed there for significantly longer time than unexposed fish. The aggression test yielded no statistically significant effects. It is concluded that citalopram changes the behaviour of the three-spine stickleback in a way that is likely to have ecological consequences and that it must not be considered an environmentally safe pharmaceutical.
Discourse Studies 2016, 18 (1): 87-105.
Based on calls to an outsourced call centre in Moldova, where the agents have received training in Swedish, this article deals with some cases when agents are attributed categorical belonging associated with the issue of outsourcing. The aim of the study is to examine how these challenges are handled within interaction. The analysis is implemented by a combination of conversation analysis and membership categorization analysis, primarily through the notion of omnirelevance, used to demonstrate the participants’ orientation to social contexts. A main result is the subtle forms of resistance that agents exhibit when they respond to various category-based compliments, oriented to the location and language skills of the agent. One form of resistance is giving minimal responses and another is to return to the transactional procedure. The calls are part of a corpus of 800 calls. A comparative analysis also includes a call to a centre in Sweden.
Regulation competition of Swedish Insurance Business - The Role of the Insurance Cartel RegistryMer info
In: Regulating Competition. Abingdon & New York : Routledge, 2016. 248-267.
Trophic transfer of naturally produced brominated aromatic compounds in a Baltic Sea food chain Mer info
Chemosphere 2016, 144 : 1597-1604.
Brominated aromatic compounds (BACs) are widely distributed in the marine environment. Some of these compounds are highly toxic, such as certain hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs). In addition to anthropogenic emissions through use of BACs as e.g. flame retardants, BACs are natural products formed by marine organisms such as algae, sponges, and cyanobacteria. Little is known of the transfer of BACs from natural producers and further up in the trophic food chain. In this study it was observed that total sum of methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and OH-PBDEs increased in concentration from the filamentous red alga Ceramium tenuicorne, via Gammarus sp. and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to perch (Perca fluviatilis). The MeO-PBDEs, which were expected to bioaccumulate, increased in concentration accordingly up to perch, where the levels suddenly dropped dramatically. The opposite pattern was observed for OH-PBDEs, where the concentration exhibited a general trend of decline up the food web, but increased in perch, indicating metabolic demethylation of MeO-PBDEs. Debromination was also indicated to occur when progressing through the food chain resulting in high levels of tetra-brominated MeO-PBDE and OH-PBDE congeners in fish, while some penta- and hexa-brominated congeners were observed to be the dominant products in the alga. As it has been shown that OH-PBDEs are potent disruptors of oxidative phosphorylation and that mixtures of different congener may act synergistically in terms of this toxic mode of action, the high levels of OH-PBDEs detected in perch in this study warrants further investigation into potential effects of these compounds on Baltic wildlife, and monitoring of their levels.
Children's and Mothers' Contribution to Joint Reminiscing in Different Sociocultural Contexts - Who Speaks and What is SaidMer info
Infant and Child Development 2016, 25 (1): 43-63.
The study compares mothers' conversation with their 4-year-old children about two past events in two autonomy-oriented (35 German and 42 Swedish families), one relatedness-oriented (22 Cameroonian Nso families) and one autonomy-relatedness oriented (38 Estonian families) contexts. German mothers were rather similar to Swedish mothers in talking a lot, providing a lot of information and engaging children into conversation, but they differed from Swedish mothers by talking more about social content. Swedish children were more independent conversational partners to their mothers than other children, including German children. Estonian mothers' contribution to conversation was similar to Cameroonian Nso mothers, except that they asked a lot of open-ended questions to engage children in conversations. Estonian children did not differ from Swedish and German children in their contribution to conversations. Compared to Swedish mothers, past event talk of Estonian mothers was characterized by a bigger proportion of talk devoted to social content, but also to the child, mental states and non-social content. It was characteristic of Cameroonian Nso mothers that they focused more on other people and actions, and their conversational dominance was larger. Differences in reminiscing were consistent with different cultural models of self and the type of autonomy – psychological or action – promoted.
Factors affecting farmers' willingness to participate in eutrophication mitigation - a case study of preferences for wetland creation in SwedenMer info
Ecological Economics 2016, 130 : 8-15.
Local stakeholder participation in water management is emphasized in the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). Wetland creation to mitigate nutrient leakage from agriculture is one example where participation of local farmers is needed. In this case study of the Himmerfjärden coastal catchment area, south of Stockholm, Sweden, we assessed both the importance of several demo-graphic factors, and of the main subsidy factors in the present Agri-Environmental Scheme (AES) for their effects on farmers’ willingness to create wetlands on their farms. The farm and farmer characteristics analyzed were age, gender, knowledge of the WFD, education, farm size, land ownership, current measures to reduce nutrient leakage and trust for other actors. The main factors from the AES were defined as five attributes in a discrete choice experiment approach related to the current agri-environmental policy instrument for wetland creation applied in the area. The results showed that approximately 30 % of the farmers were interested in wetland creation at their farms. The most common reason for not wanting to create a wetland was economic cost. Males were significantly more willing than females to create wetlands. Younger farmers were significantly more willing than older. Prior knowledge of the WFD increased willingness almost threefold, and land owners were significantly more willing than leaseholders. The choice experiment showed that higher cost ceiling for subsidies, higher compensation percentage and higher annual subsidies can significantly increase the willingness to create wetlands. However to attract also the remaining 70% of all farmers to join the AES we must look at other options than only using action based AES.
In: Studia z dziejów anarchizmu (2). Szczecin : Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego.
In: A European Youth Revolt?. Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. -.
The 1989 pro-democratic transition in Poland was partly influenced by the rapidly growing youth subcultures. Punk rock was one of the most visible of them, providing numerous young people with networking possibilities, fresh ideas and different (than of the dissidents) understanding of freedom. Punk was not only challenging aesthetically, but also contested communist authorities from a different perspective, looking into environmental protection or turning against compulsory military service. The punk ‘no future’ slogan was also very appealing for young people in crisis-driven Poland of 1980s and the flagship punk event in Poland – the Jarocin music festival – became a safe place for many young people. The aim of this chapter is to show how punk rock helped to overthrow communism in Poland through these processes.
The International Journal of Cultural Policy 2016, 22 (4): 594-610.
This article examines the transfer of creative industries as a policy idea to Lithuania. Tracing the stages of the transfer and analysing its consequences in the local cultural policy field, this paper argues for the importance of studying cultural policy process. The findings reveal that the process of the international transfer of creative industries mattered, because it generated wider transformations in cultural policy field by having ambiguous effects on local power relations. The policy idea of creative industries opened the cultural policy field to new actors. As a result, competition for scarce state funding increased, but cultural organisations gained access to the European Union structural funds. In all, creative industries as a policy idea significantly transformed Lithuanian state cultural policy, in that it led to a reassessment of both the practices and identities of cultural organisations.
International journal of cultural studies 2016, 19 (2): 177-192.
With the internet and digital media technology increasingly central to practices around music, this shift is often seen as contributing to a networked music use characterized by individualism. Drawing on a focus group study with young adults in Stockholm and Moscow, this article argues, however, that digital music use today is shaped by discourses of difference, with gender a significant factor both in constructions of the ideal music and technology user, and in terms of musical influence and guidance. Taking into account contemporary research on new media technology, as well as feminist studies of technology and music, the article questions ideas of a neutral user of new music technologies, showing how the gendering of music and media technology can be seen as simultaneously context-bound and cutting across geographies.
Financial equilibrium, myth or reality? - Factors in the stability of Russia's banking systemMer info
THE GENESIS OF GENIUS 2015, 5 : 121-124.
Banking system stabilityunderpins the functioning of an economy. A number of micro and macro level factors determine the stability of the system. The Russian banking system is on the edge of financial equilibrium due to poor transparency of financial information, lack of liquidity and declining competition.
Review of the book: Andrew Wilson “Ukraine Crisis: What it Means for the West”, New Haven: Yale University Press... Mer info
Copenhagen : WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2015. ( ; )
This case study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of trends and inequalities in mortality of noncommunicable diseases in Estonia over the first decade of the 2000s. Decomposition of life expectancy by causes and age groups, and calculation of age-standardized rates for total and cause-specific mortality were used to assess differences over time and across social groups. The findings of the analysis showed significant overall reduction in mortality and increasing life expectancy in Estonia during the 2000s. The considerable improvement in mortality was observed in all groups distinguished by gender, ethnicity, educational level or by place of residence resulting in narrowing absolute inequalities, although the relative inequalities by educational level and by place of residence slightly increased. Despite progress, mortality rates remained higher among non-Estonians, the lower educated and residents of Ida-Viru county. Circulatory diseases and external causes of death contributed the most to the overall life expectancy at birth improvement and to the larger mortality decline among non-Estonians, the lower educated and in Ida-Viru county, with the opposite effect seen for infectious diseases.
New tools for old practices? - The journalistic profession in the context of interactive participationMer info
En kritik av det kosmopolitiska förnuftet? - Om relevansen av Kants kosmopolitism på 2000-taletMer info
Studier i Pædagogisk Filosofi 2015, 4 (2): 81-93.
Cosmopolitanism is a value-loaded concept that seems to become popular in intervals. The latest cosmopolitan period started after the end of the Cold War and the breakdown of the Soviet Union and concentrated mostly on aspects such as “a new world order”, and often with reference to Kant. It might be questioned if the cosmopolitan period still exists. Here it is suggested that a historical understanding of cosmopolitanism together with experience from later social and political experiences might give a new perspective on the difficulties of creating a better world in a Kantian sense, including cosmopolitan education. Considering its history and taking concern of experience Kant’s cosmopolitanism still is relevant, not least in its broader sense.
[A review of] Liliana Corobca, Controlul cărţii. Censura literaturii în regimul comunist din România Mer info
[A review of] Melinda Mitu, Sorin Mitu, Ungurii despre români. Naşterea unei imagini etnice Mer info
In: Journalism in change. Frankfurt am Main : Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2015. 259-278.
To be a journalist in Poland, Russia and Sweden means - in many ways - to be a part of the same community: the most important ideals are the same, the daily work is performed with similar tools, formats and expressions are similar. On the surface there are many similarities, but still there are important differences when it comes to the conditions for professionals. The frames in the daily work describing the boundaries for each journalist are different – commercial and political limitations for what is possible in journalistic practice. There are commercial pressures from owners and advertisers and political influence on media companies and newsrooms on journalists to adapt in their daily work. Additionally, what is more important, these limitations differ between the three countries and among different types of media.These are some of the results presented in previous chapters in this anthology. The point of departure for the project has been the rapid changes in media technology, society (changes in users’ behaviour) in combination with crisis for business models and increasing market influence in the media sector. The question is how these changes influence professional journalistic cultures in different media systems. Poland, Russia and Sweden represent different traditions in journalism, and the position of media in relation to political power and society differs as well. We knew from the beginning that there were differences – but is it also possible to identify similarities between journalistic cultures in the era of globalization of professional cultures (Waisbord, 2013)?The project has researched the changes in journalism from the perspective of representatives of this profession. With a survey to a representative sample of 500 journalists in each country, opinions and experiences were studied. In 20 in-depth interviews in each country journalists were asked to give more detailed answers going beyond the questions in the survey. All the empirical work was accomplished by national teams in 2012, and the results were analyzed and presented at international and national conferences in 2013-2014 (see Chapter 2).The results of the project have been presented in thematic chapters. In this final conclusion we summarize and present answers for the following research questions: - How is technological and economic development influencing professional journalistic cultures in the three countries?- Do the changing practices influence journalists’ perception of routines and values?- What are the consequences for professional autonomy – in daily work and in relation to other social fields such as politics and the economy?- Is media development making journalism more similar in spite of differences in traditions and media systems? Is there a homogenization of journalism or is it more correct to label it hybridization?- Is the status of journalism as a social field changing; is there a de-professionalization as a result of media development?
In: Journalism in change. Frankfurt am Main : Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2015. 119-152.
Freedom in daily work is important for nearly all journalists in the three countries. It is the second most important factor in choosing the place of work, according to the survey. A degree of autonomy is also an important part of self-perception of journalists in their professional roles and closely related to job satisfaction (Weaver and Willnat, 2012:534).But there are also clear differences between journalists in how big this perceived autonomy is in daily work. There are different kinds of pressure from outside and inside the media company – pressure from lack of time and formats of the media, constraints within the organization, political and commercial pressure. There is also a media development challenging the professional identity of journalists; journalistic work is undergoing fundamental changes – transitioning from a monologue to more of dialogue with the audience, with new tools and media formats introducing new kinds of expressions. Increasing commercialization and fragmentation of the media landscape are changing the foundations on which journalism rests (Deuze, 2007; Mitchelstein and Boczkowski, 2009; Singer et al., 2011).One may assume that all these changes influence the degree of professional autonomy for journalists. But the direction is not obvious; some changes, like strong commercialization might put pressure on the degree of autonomy, but others might work in another direction; for example it is possible that technological development can both increase perceived autonomy, giving journalists more tools and a stronger position, but also limit the autonomy in an increasing demand to produce more and faster.The purpose of this chapter is to study how perceived autonomy in daily work is related to factors on a different level, from the individual level of journalist, the position of the journalist within the media organization and to the level of media system. This analysis is also related to media development, both technological and commercial factors. From this, perceived professional autonomy is related to different kinds of media systems with various degrees of political and commercial pressure on journalism.This allows one to raise three research questions: RQ1: What are the differences and similarities between the three countries and media systems when it comes to professional autonomy?RQ2: What are the most important factors explaining differences in perceived autonomy on three different levels – the individual, organizational and societal level?RQ3: How are these factors influenced by media development? What is giving stronger or weaker perceived autonomy?
In: Journalism in change. Frankfurt am Main : Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2015. 19-40.
The concept of ongoing professionalization has been a key area in journalism studies for many years (Zelizer, 2004; Schudson, 2003; Waisbord, 2013). Journalism has been described as gaining influence within the media system, mainly in relation to political power and state. With common standards and professional institutions, journalism has grown stronger in modern society. But is this still the case in an emerging interactive network society? Is the development the same in different media systems – is it possible to still have a process of professionalization in some parts of the world, and the reverse process in other parts of the world; a de-professionalization? Is professionalization the same in different media systems?This theoretical introduction gives some background to these questions covered in the project “Journalism in Change”. It gives different perspectives from research in four areas:- Professions and professional logic, based on sociological research on professions.- Ideals and standards as described in comparative journalism research.- Professional autonomy and pressure from the political and economic spheres.- Professionalization and media development, professional control and open participation. In the title, the object of study is labelled as “professional journalistic cultures” in Poland, Russia and Sweden. We know from cultural studies that cultures are not fixed, but remain in a constant flux and develop under influences from outside – from other cultures and areas. In journalism this becomes clear in the study of the history of journalism; for example in Sweden journalism has developed since the 18th century under French, German, British and American influence (Gustafsson and Rydén, 2010). The question is not if but how journalistic cultures are changing; if globalization brings a more homogeneous journalistic culture, or if the development rather can be labelled as a hybridization where some element of global values and standards in journalism are adapted to national journalistic cultures (Hallin and Mancini, 2012:286).“Culture” is one of the key notions in this project, and the other is “professional”. To be a professional demands some kind of control over your own work, to have some kind of autonomy to follow the standards and values of the profession. Research in professions emphasize this autonomy as a question of power, about creating institutions making it possible for the members of the profession “to make a living while controlling their own work” (Freidson, 2001:17). Research has described a professionalization of journalism during the 20th century, but the question is how this is influenced by media development. Digital technology and commercialization are global trends, but how does this influence nationally rooted professional cultures? Are the consequences for professional autonomy the same in different kinds of media systems?For example: in Western countries, some researchers describe a de-professionalization of journalism: more unclear borders around the profession, harder economic conditions for traditional media and professional control questioned by an interactive network society (Nygren, 2008b:168, Örnebring, 2010b:568, Waisbord, 2013:60). But at the same time, journalists and media in many developing countries struggle for more professional control in relation to authoritarian regimes and also use new kinds of media platforms to achieve this. In countries with authoritarian regimes, professionalization can still be a strategy towards a greater degree of press freedom (Harro-Loit et al., 2012:153).In the project “Journalism in Change” we use theories on professionalization and comparative journalism research to analyze how professional cultures are influenced by media development. Our basic assumption is that the changes are not the same in countries as different as Poland, Russia and Sweden. But it is also likely to find similarities – and these might bring journalistic cultures closer to each other.In the end there is also the underlying question about media content; how are standards and practices among journalists influencing journalistic content, which is so important for all citizens to construct their picture of the world? This project does not include analyses of media content, but the basic assumption is that journalists´ belief about standards and values and their professional practice also influence the results in newspapers, broadcasts on TV and radio and in online news sites.That is why professional journalistic cultures are not only a question for journalists, but for society as a whole.
In: Journalism in change. Frankfurt am Main : Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2015. 41-62.
The object of this study is professional cultures among journalists in three countries. The first question in the process is to decide who is a journalist – and the answer is not evident. Deuze (2007:141) describes contemporary journalism as only one kind of work in the broad media sector – an industry with unclear borders between different parts and media workers going in and out of different professional roles. He calls them “portfolio workers” going between assignment and professional roles, which become liquid. Other research describes journalism as a profession passing through on the way to other better paid jobs (Nygren, 2011:219; Pasti et al., 2012:280).In this study, journalists are defined as people professionally producing content based on facts (not fiction or entertainment) for what we traditionally label as “mass media”, in contemporary debate also called “legacy media”: newspapers and magazines, TV and radio channels, online and digital formats connected to the traditional media industry. Also the growing number of “content producers” outside media companies is included; freelancers and those employed in production companies. This classic definition of a journalist has problems, for example the borders towards public relations, content marketing and towards entertainment in feature journalism. It also means that independent bloggers and people producing all kind of content produced for social media platforms are not included in the definition, even if this content has journalistic qualities and sometimes also can generate incomes making it professional in some sense.It is likely that the definition of “journalists” is going to change, professional borders are not fixed forever and media development changes the industry quickly (Anderson et al., 2013). But still this old definition has relevance in relation to the content for daily media consumption. This old definition also makes it possible to connect to earlier research on journalists and their professional cultures in the coming analysis.In this chapter we give the reasons behind the choice of Poland, Russia and Sweden, and some background on professional journalism in these three countries. We also describe the design of the project and the research questions to be answered. The methods in accomplishing the survey and interviews are described in detail.
Introduction: Journalism, professionalization and juournalistic culture as a matter of research Mer info
In: Journalism in change. Frankfurt am Main : Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2015. 9-18.
Frankfurt am Main : Peter Lang Edition, 2015.
A transnational research project: “Journalism in Change: Professional journalistic culture in Poland, Russia, and Sweden” The purpose of the project “Journalism in Change” is to identify common parts of a transnational journalistic culture and common changes in journalism in general in different media systems, as well as the differences among the three selected countries. It is also possible to relate the results to national differences in history and culture, to analyze the relationship between globalization and national differences.The research design can be described as a “most-different” selection of cases. The project includes three countries representing different media systems, of different historical and political backgrounds and different sizes – Sweden, Russia and Poland, situated on the Baltic Sea. All of them have had relationships in the past. They were intense between Poland and Sweden in the times of the 16th and 18th centuries, and between Sweden and Russia from the 12th to 19th century, and Poland and Russia have had a very deep relationship from medieval times until today. The communist period (1945-1989) was significant for Polish and Russian journalism and professional cultures. Despite a common geographical location and history, the three states are different in many aspects: journalistic culture being influenced by different external factors, such as a democratic tradition (or lack of this experience), religion, education systems, economic development, and access to new technologies of communication. In fact, “Journalism in Change” is the first comparative project covering journalistic culture in these three countries.We were aware of these differences from the beginning, , but we also wanted to look at whether there are any similarities. With the study design it has become possible to analyze what changes in journalism in different types of society have in common, and what kind of differences come from the characteristics of each society. Who takes part in the project and why? Journalism has experienced deep changes in recent decades. For this reason, it seemed interesting to verify this general opinion in the case of only a few countries using empirical research. The points of departure for this book are based on two variables – technical and economic; it was our goal to observe how these two types of changes are influencing different media systems. The research project “Journalism in Change – professional journalistic cultures in Poland, Russia and Sweden” was conducted in the period 2011-2014. The project assumes a multidisciplinary approach, with researchers in journalism, media sociology, and political science. Researchers from Södertörn University (Sweden), Moscow State University (Russia) and University of Wrocław (Poland) worked together in the project to produce this final monograph. Two ad