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Public defence with Fakhreddin Fakhrai Rad

Fakhreddin Fakhrai Rad defends his thesis “Transition Towards Supply Chain 4.0. Interweaving a Technological Perspective – Insights from Turkey and beyond”.

Doctoral thesis: “Transition Towards Supply Chain 4.0. Interweaving a Technological Perspective – Insights from Turkey and beyond”
Subject: Business Studies
Research area: Politics, Economy and the Organisation of Society
Research school: The Baltic and East European Graduate School (BEEGS)
External reviewer: David Sörhammar, Associate Professor, Stockholm Business School, Stockholm University,
Language: English


Supply Chain 4.0 represents a technological transformation in the way that supply chains work, extending the application of Industry 4.0 technologies from manufacturing and other advanced technologies into upstream and downstream processes. Despite the increasing global interest in this domain, the successful transition to Supply Chain 4.0 remains limited in practice, with existing literature highlighting its fragmented and under-conceptualized status.

Adopting a strategic management approach to supply chains, this thesis amalgamates dynamic capabilities theory with the business-technology alignment concept, drawing from the domains of Information Technology Management and Information Systems, complemented by the integration of the multi-level perspective derived from transition literature, to underpin the thesis framework. This framework is then enriched by identifying the trio of benefits, challenges, and critical factors associated with the transition to Supply Chain 4.0, thereby contributing to advancing the knowledge frontiers within the domain of Supply Chain 4.0.

This multi-method thesis uncovers the trio at two distinct levels: the technology level and the general Supply Chain 4.0 level. Twelve technologies closely associated with Supply Chain 4.0 are identified at the technology level, and the trio is analyzed in relation to each of these technologies. At the general level, the trio is examined in relation to Supply Chain 4.0 as a holistic concept. Insights derived from both these levels significantly enrich the thesis framework, offering valuable implications for the transition to Supply Chain 4.0.

At the technology level, the findings of this thesis unveil the trio of benefits, challenges, and critical factors in relation to the following twelve technologies: Internet of Things; artificial intelligence; cloud computing; blockchain; big data technologies; augmented reality; automation; robotics; additive manufacturing; simulation; Internet of People, and semantic technologies. At the general level, the trio of benefits, challenges and critical factors is identified as follows: benefits include supply chain transparency, enhanced decision-making, supply chain integration, and supply chain process optimization. Challenges encompass high costs, the scarcity of requisite skillsets, security and privacy concerns, infrastructure development complexities, intricacies of coordination in Supply Chain 4.0, and inherent complexities within the technologies themselves. Identification of critical factors at the general level is rooted in business-technology alignment, further divided into three alignment aspects: critical factors for Regime-to-Niche alignment, critical factors for Niche-to-Regime alignment, and critical factors for both Regime and Niche alignment. Critical factors related to Regime-to-Niche alignment involve supply chain process reengineering, data management, and management commitment. Critical factors concerning Niche-to-Regime alignment include an understanding of the Regime’s context by technological solution provider, customization of technological design and solutions, and technological maintenance. Critical factors pertinent to both Regime and Niche alignment encompass providing requisite skillsets and knowledge, financial planning and investment strategy, data privacy and security considerations, technological infrastructure development and interoperability, and supply chain collaboration. This thesis reveals that the Niche-Regime partnership is characterized by technological complementarity, symbiotic alignment, and finite establishments subject to change with the ever-evolving technological landscape. Ultimately, the trio is further expounded in relation to Turkey, where empirical investigations focus on Regime’s supply chains.

Tid och plats

20 september 2024, 10:00-12:00


MB505, hitta hit


Arrangeras av

The School of Social Sciences



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