Kvalificerade och kreativa forskningsmiljöer som spänner över många discipliner och områden.
Vår forskning eftersträvar en hög samhälls- och samtidsrelevans i förening med ett aktivt och kritiskt förhållningssätt till det förflutna. Forskningen vid högskolan vänder sig i allmänhet ut mot världen även inom ämnen som av hävd studerar den egna nationella kulturen och historien. Ett viktigt ledord är mångvetenskap.
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Socio-Economic Review 2018, : -.
In this article, we analyse the striking resilience of for-profit care and service provisionin what has often been seen as the archetypical social democratic welfare state:Sweden. We focus on the strategic discursive activities of private companies andtheir business organizations as they try to influence perceptions, organize actorsand facilitate communication to defend profit-making in the welfare sector in theface of increasing conflict and opposition. We argue that taking such organized actioninto account changes dominant perceptions about the characteristics of theSwedish political economy, and carries important lessons for analyses of changesin the organization of the welfare state in general.
Chronic Physical Conditions, Multimorbidity, and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Low- and Middle-Income Countries Mer info
Journal of The American Geriatrics Society 2018, : -.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between chronic physical conditions and multimorbidity and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).DESIGN: Nationally representative, cross-sectional, community-based study.SETTING: Six countries that participated in the World Health Organization Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health.PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 50 and older (N=32,715; mean age 62.1 ± 15.6; 51.7% female).MEASUREMENTS: The definition of MCI was based on the recommendations of the National Institute on Ageing and Alzheimer's Association. Ten chronic conditions were assessed (angina pectoris, arthritis, asthma, cataract, chronic lung disease, diabetes mellitus, edentulism, hearing problems, hypertension, stroke). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the association between chronic physical conditions, multimorbidity (≥2 chronic conditions), and MCI.RESULTS: The prevalence of multimorbidity was 49.8% (95% confidence interval (CI)=48.1-51.5%) and of MCI was 15.3% (95% CI=14.4-16.3%). After adjustment for potential confounders, edentulism (odds ratio (OR)=1.24), arthritis (OR=1.24), chronic lung disease (OR=1.29), cataract (OR=1.33), stroke (OR=1.94), hearing problems (OR=2.27), and multimorbidity (OR=1.40) were significantly associated with MCI. There was a gradual increase in the likelihood of MCI (1 condition: OR=1.21, 95% CI=1.03-1.42; ≥4 conditions: OR=2.07, 95% CI=1.70-2.52).CONCLUSION: These results highlight the need to investigate the underlying mechanisms linking chronic conditions and MCI and whether prevention or treatment of chronic conditions or multimorbidity can reduce the onset of cognitive decline and subsequent dementia, especially in LMICs.
Associations Between Functional Biological Age and Cognition Among Older Adults in Rural Bangladesh - Comparisons With Chronological AgeMer info
Journal of Aging and Health 2018, : -.
OBJECTIVES: We constructed a functional biological age (fBioAge) indicator by using four functional variables: grip strength, forced expiratory lung volume, visual acuity, and hearing. Our aim was to compare how chronological age (ChronAge) and fBioAge are related to cognitive abilities in older adults.METHOD: We used data from the Poverty and Health in Aging project, Bangladesh. Participants ( N = 400) were 60+ years of age and diagnosed as nondemented. Examined cognitive abilities were four episodic memory measures (including recall and recognition), two verbal fluency indicators, two semantic knowledge, and two processing speed tasks.RESULTS: fBioAge accounted for cognitive variance beyond that explained by ChronAge also after controlling for medical diagnoses and blood markers.DISCUSSION: Compared with ChronAge, fBioAge was a stronger predictor of cognition during a broad part of the old adult span. fBioAge seems, in that respect, to have the potential to become a useful age indicator in future aging studies.
Life Sciences, Society and Policy 2018, 14 (1): -.
This paper argues that phenomenological insights regarding selfhood are relevant to the informed consent process in the treatment of depression using electro-convulsive therapy (ECT). One of the most significant side-effects associated with ECT is retrograde amnesia. Unfortunately, the current informed consent model does not adequately appreciate the full extent in which memory loss disturbs lived-experience. Through the philosophy of Merleau-Ponty, it is possible to appreciate the way in which memory loss affects a person's self-experience, with emphasis given to one's pre-reflective and embodied, relationship with things in the world. This paper aims to demonstrate that proper informed consent should acknowledge the extent to which repeated ECT treatments affect a patient's sense self.
Utbildningsvetenskap - Vittnesseminarium om ett vetenskapsområdes uppkomst, utveckling och samtida utmaningarMer info
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2018.
Inom Vetenskapsrådet bildades 2001 Utbildningsvetenskapliga kommittén (UVK) med uppdrag att stödja högkvalitativ forskning med relevans för skolans och förskolans utveckling. I det svenska forskarsamhället är utbildningsvetenskap idag ett etablerat vetenskapsområde. Även om dess institutionella historia är påfallande kort är denna bakgrund viktig för att förstå dagens diskussioner om pedagogik och utbildningsvetenskap.Hösten 2017 anordnade Samtidshistoriska institutet tillsammans med ämnet idéhistoria ett vittnesseminarium om utbildningsvetenskap i allmänhet och UVK i synnerhet för att möjliggöra kunskapsbildning om områdets uppkomst och utveckling. Ambitionen var att rama in och belysa utbildningsvetenskapens framväxt, utveckling och nuvarande ställning, med en öppning mot vad detta vetenskapliga fält kan komma att vidareutvecklas till och bli i framtiden. Denna skrift utgörs av en transkriberad och lätt reviderad version av seminariet, där panelen bestod av Petter Aasen, Berit Askling, Elisabet Nihlfors och Tjia Torpe.
Kompetens i konkurrens - Värderingar av olika kompetensformer inom den konkurrensutsatta hemtjänstenMer info
Life 2018, 14 (1): -.
In this article we explore how diagnostic and therapeutic technologies shape the lived experiences of illness for patients. By analysing a wide range of examples, we identify six ways that technology can (trans)form the experience of illness (and health). First, technology may create awareness of disease by revealing asymptomatic signs or markers (imaging techniques, blood tests). Second, the technology can reveal risk factors for developing diseases (e.g., high blood pressure or genetic tests that reveal risks of falling ill in the future). Third, the technology can affect and change an already present illness experience (e.g., the way blood sugar measurement affects the perceived symptoms of diabetes). Fourth, therapeutic technologies may redefine our experiences of a certain condition as diseased rather than unfortunate (e.g. assisted reproductive technologies or symptom based diagnoses in psychiatry). Fifth, technology influences illness experiences through altering social-cultural norms and values regarding various diagnoses. Sixth, technology influences and changes our experiences of being healthy in contrast and relation to being diseased and ill. This typology of how technology forms illness and related conditions calls for reflection regarding the phenomenology of technology and health. How are medical technologies and their outcomes perceived and understood by patients? The phenomenological way of approaching illness as a lived, bodily being-in-the-world is an important approach for better understanding and evaluating the effects that medical technologies may have on our health, not only in defining, diagnosing, or treating diseases, but also in making us feel more vulnerable and less healthy in different regards.
Studying Emerging Data Practices - Creating a Cultural Biography of Objects Through Using the Web as an Ethnographic ResourceMer info
This case presents and discusses ethnography-inspired methods for studying emerging phenomena related to big data such as the practice of data center waste heat recycling. It suggests a twofold methodology that is based on treating the contemporary Web as a multi-modal resource for creating cultural, ethnographic-like accounts of emerging data-related practices, as well as on tracing online the cultural biographies of objects. The case suggests some ways in which the Web can be used as a resource to understand data-related practices as they develop and extend in the offline world, rather than as they unfold and modify online spheres of social and cultural activity. The present methodology can be regarded as appropriate to produce knowledge for the initial stages of a potentially larger research project.
: , 2018. (MOVIUM and SLU Urban Futures Workshop Report ; )
On the 25th January, 25 researchers, social entrepreneurs and policy makers attended a MOVIUM and SLU Urban Futures funded workshop on “Rethinking urban nature to promote human well-being and livelihoods”. The objectives of the workshop were to identify and discuss integrated digital, social and nature solutions for the use, management and governance of urban nature in the City of Malmö; and to provide a platform for knowledge sharing and networking between researchers and practitioners.Multiple enlightening presentations on how to plan, design and manage urban nature were provided by the cities of Malmö and Copenhagen, social entrepreneurs and academics. Each presentation guided a creative workshop activity that involved four groups creating an integrated solution using Lego and other materials to address the concerns of citizens presented in different scenarios relevant to the use and management of urban nature in Malmö. Each group was asked to present their presentation to the wider group, what inspired them the most from the workshop activity and how their understanding of integrated solutions in urban nature changed over the day. This report presents a summary of each group’s creations and findings.
PLoS ONE 2018, 13 (1): -.
Multimorbidity has been linked to a variety of negative outcomes although as yet, there has been little research on its association with loneliness. This study examined the association between physical multimorbidity (≥ 2 physical diseases) and loneliness in the general population and its potential mediators. Data came from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (N = 7403, aged ≥16 years). Information was obtained on 20 doctor diagnosed physical conditions that were present in the previous year. An item from the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ) was used to obtain information on loneliness. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. An increasing number of physical diseases was associated with higher odds for loneliness. Compared to no physical diseases, the odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval: CI) for loneliness increased from 1.34 (1.13-1.59) to 2.82 (2.11-3.78) between one and ≥5 physical diseases. This association was particularly strong in the youngest age group (i.e. 16-44 years). The loneliness-physical multimorbidity association was significantly mediated by stressful life events (% mediated 11.1%-30.5%), anxiety (30.2%), and depression (15.4%). Physical multimorbidity is associated with increased odds for loneliness. Prospective research is now needed to further elucidate this association and the factors that underlie it.
Somatic symptoms and internalizing problems in urban youth - a cross-cultural comparison of Czech and Russian adolescents.Mer info
European Journal of Public Health 2018, : -.
Background: Although the association between somatic complaints and internalizing problems (anxiety, somatic anxiety and depression) is well established, it remains unclear whether the pattern of this relationship differs by gender and in different cultures. The aim of this study was to examine cross-cultural and gender-specific differences in the association between somatic complaints and internalizing problems in youth from the Czech Republic and Russia.Methods: The Social and Health Assessment, a self-report survey, was completed by representative community samples of adolescents, age 12-17 years, from the Czech Republic (N = 4770) and Russia (N = 2728).Results: A strong association was observed between somatic complaints and internalizing psychopathology. Although the levels of internalizing problems differed by country and gender, they increased together with and largely in a similar way to somatic complaints for boys and girls in both countries.Conclusion: The association between somatic symptoms and internalizing problems seems to be similar for boys and girls across cultures.
Community gardening in Stockholm - participation, driving forces and the role of the municipalityMer info
Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 2018, : 1-13.
The paper reports on a study of community gardening in Stockholm. We contribute to the body of knowledge about the sustainability of community gardens and this new form of citizen-led initiatives in Stockholm, with the ambition of creating a debate about the best way to sustain and develop these initiatives in Sweden. We argue that although community gardening may provide leverage for means of developing a sustainable city, it is a marginal phenomenon and contributes little to sustainable development its present form. Through interviews we have investigated how the citizens and municipality officers of Stockholm try to adapt to the renewed interest in community gardening by looking at the policy makers’, municipality officers’ and grassroots movements’ incentives to start community gardens. We specifically focus on how the community gardeners articulate their reasons for participating in collaborative initiatives in the city and how these expectations evolve when they are faced with the reality of gardening and the problems relating to producing food in the city. We have found that there are a growing number of citizens and local authorities advocating community gardening, but the sustainability and endurance of gardens are hampered by vague responsibilities, lack of leadership and unclear expectations of the outcome. Community gardening cases in Stockholm contribute to the debate by exemplifying how formal (e.g. policy making) and informal advocacy (e.g. civic engagement in community gardening) groups are collaborating, but also showing that they often have different agendas and initial motivations for setting up new gardens. We argue that uncritical enthusiasm results in an overly instrumental approach to governance of community gardening and that the sustainability and endurance of the community gardening is not an issue that the governing bodies plan for, and hence it is forgotten. We suggest some routes forward, involving employing facilitators from various stakeholders such as the municipality, housing companies and various NGOs.
Value logics for service innovation - practice-driven implications for service-dominant logicMer info
Service Business 2018, : 1-25.
Service-dominant logic (SDL) provides a conceptual understanding of and widens the view on value creation in service innovation for product-centric companies. However, empirical research linking SDL and service innovation is still limited albeit expanding. This study provides insights beyond existing discussions on product and service dimensions using the theoretical lens of the value logic perspective. More specifically, the purpose of this study is to examine how value can be understood, targeted, and created in the pursuit of service innovation by product-centric manufacturing companies. Building on a previous investigation of two multinational product-centric manufacturing companies, this paper identifies and develops a theoretical model to describe the space shift in service innovation with four different kinds of value logics, namely, product-based value logic, service-based value logic, virtual-based value logic, and systemic-based value logic. Using a digitalization-driven new service innovation, namely the My Control System, which is a web-based service delivery platform, this paper describes space shifts to enhance value through four value logics as efforts. Further, challenges associated with different value logics are described in terms of complexity traps and service gaps. The study also contributes to bridging the gap between SDL theory and practice by developing a midrange theoretical model for value creation as a specification and amendment to SDL that supports SDL-guided service innovation and servitization in practice. © 2018 The Author(s)
Huddinge : Södertörns högskola, 2018. (Förvaltningsakademin ; 15)
Skolinspektionen har i drygt 150 år genom skolbesök och andra metoder ansvarat för övervakning, uppsikt, tillsyn, granskning och kontroll av kunskapsnivån, lärarnas arbete, skolbyggnadernas standard och mycket annat. Dess plats i statsförvaltningen har skiftat, likaså verksamhetens tyngdpunkt. Men hur viktiga är själva skolbesöken? Ska inspektörerna utöver att kontrollera skolarbetet också ge råd till såväl lärare som skolans politiker och administratörer? Spänningen mellan kontroll och rollen som rådgivare följer Skolinspektionen över hela dess tid.Professor Torbjörn Nilsson är historiker och verksam vid Samtidshistoriska institutet vid Södertörns högskola.
Environmental Politics 2018, : -.
The ways in which climate adaptation is understood in the European Union is examined via three key policy documents: the Strategy on adaptation and the Green and White Papers that preceded it. Drawing on Poststructuralist Discourse Theory, light is shed on the implicit values and assumptions that underpin this recent policy initiative. The findings demonstrate a tension between the declared ambition to act on adaptation and implicit suggestions that nothing really has to change, and the challenge can be addressed by market and technological innovations, and by mainstreaming adaptation into existing sectoral policies. The policy discourse effectively serves to depoliticize choices societies make in response to climate change, presenting adaptation as a non-political issue. Insight into European adaptation discourse enables deeper understanding of recent policy developments and opens up possible entry points for critique.
Nordicom Review 2018, : -.
This paper presents an analysis of how social class is constructed as a moral category on Swedish mainstream television. Practices of categorisation by the media is an important area of study since these practices are part of a process of co-construction of social categories that are offered to media users as cognitive tools and frames for navigating the social landscape. Based on a content analysis of television in Sweden, we show that the medium of television categorises people appearing on television along the social divisions of class and constructs class as a moral category, with a lower moral value assigned to the working class in comparison to the middle and upper class
European Journal of Development Research 2018, : -.
Growing competition in microfinance has been blamed for multiple borrowing, over-indebtedness and loan repayment crisis in recent times. Using the Boone indicator as a proxy for competition, we investigate how competition impacts microfinance institutions’ (MFIs’) outreach, financial performance and quality of loan portfolio in this paper. The analysis is based on data from 568 MFIs in 10 vibrant microfinance markets (Bangladesh, Bolivia, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nepal, Nicaragua, Peru and Philippines) for the period 2003-2014. We control for potential endogeneity of MFI performance, competition and other covariates by employing the generalized methods of moments (GMM) estimation technique. We find that increased competition leads to higher profitability and better loan portfolio quality of the sampled MFIs, but worsens depth of outreach to the poor, which is an indication of mission drift.
Ethics and morality beyond the Actor-Network - Doing the right thing in an algorithmic cultureMer info
Bedömningsstöd för familjehemsplacerade barns umgänge: En utvärdering ur socialarbetares perspektiv Mer info
Tullinge : FOU Södertörn, 2018. (FoU Södertörns skriftserie ; 160)
I denna rapport presenteras resultaten av en utvärdering av ett bedömningsstöd för familjehemsplacerade barns umgänge med föräldrar, syskon, andra anhöriga och närstående. Bedömningsstödet har utvecklats av FoU Södertörn i samarbete med barn- och familjehemssekreterare från nio Södertörnskommuner. Stödet utgår från erfarenhetskunskap hos personal inom familjehemsvården. Erfarenheter från placerade barn har också funnits med som en grund. Utvärderingen har genomförts av FoU Södertörn och Södertörns högskola på uppdrag av Socialstyrelsen. Utvärderingen bygger på en enkätundersökning och på fokusgruppsintervjuer med barn- och familjehemssekreterare som under en avgränsad period har prövat att använda bedömningsstödet i sitt arbete med att göra bedömningar av barnets bästa i umgängesfrågan.
Online purchase return policy leniency and purchase decision - Mediating role of consumer trustMer info
Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 2018, 41 : 190-200.
Recasting prior work on return-policy and purchase intentions literature, through the lens of signaling theory and relational signaling theory, we posit that returns policy, as a market signaling mechanism, is a costly investment that online retailers make to not only support current transaction but also to signal commitment towards customer service. What outcome would such costly signal result into? Based on relational signaling theory, it promotes trust, that in turn, could enhance purchase intentions. With empirical data from 730 online consumers of fast-moving consumer goods in Sweden, the study finds that, after controlling for shoppers' age, education, income, gender, and frequency of online purchases, perceived consumer trust fully mediates the effect of perceived return policy leniency on purchase intention. Building on past research, we apply a different theoretical lens that connects costly signaling that drives relational signaling to foster customer trust to improve purchase intentions.
Economic Modelling 2018, : -.
This paper provides new evidence on the impact of temperatures on tourism demand in the winter season. The analysis is based on time series data spanning from 1960 to 2015 for the South Tyrolean mountains in Italy. Since 1960, winter temperatures have increased by 0.4 degrees Celsius per decade, on average. A nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model is employed for the estimations. This model allows two separate coefficients to impact tourism demand, following temperature changes (decreases or increases). Results reveal that an increase in winter temperatures by one degree Celsius leads to a decline in the number of accommodation guests (arrivals) by eight per cent, while temperature decreases have no effect on the number of arrivals. However, sensitivity to temperature increases has been declining since the early 1990s, probably due to the widespread usage of snowmaking facilities. The number of these facilities has increased by almost 10 per cent per year on average over the same period. In recent years (1986-2015), and as a consequence of these measures, temperature increases no longer have an effect on winter tourism demand. Conversely, decreases in temperatures lead to small increases in arrivals (by four per cent increase due to a one degree Celsius decrease).
In: Handbook on Marine Environment Protection. Dordrecht : Springer, 2018. -.
While modern society is highly dependent on chemicals, numerous substances also turn out to be hazardous and many give rise to severe risks and problems in the marine environment. In response, national, regional and global chemical policies, often focusing on the land-based sources to marine pollution, have been developed, as outlined in the article. As a result, the levels of some pollutants have decreased, but the vast majority of substances are not controlled in line with the internationally stated objectives of sound management of chemicals. An environment-oriented development of present policies, implementing the precautionary principle, is considered needed in order to improve the situation, and the question is raised in the article whether the present main international chemicals agreements would not also gain from being merged into a global framework convention.
Has the Freedom of Information Act enhanced transparency and the free flow of information in Liberia? Mer info
Information Development 2018, 34 (1): 20-30.
This article investigates if the adoption of the Liberian Freedom of Information (FOI) law 2010 has led to a transparent government and increased the free flow of government information. Freeing government information is expected to create transparent and accountable governments. It brings forth democratic and inclusive government institutions that work for the people. Inclusivity, transparency and accountability are expected to address sustainable development challenges and democracy deficits. Transparency and accountability can only be achieved through access to government information. The right to access government information is also included in the national constitution of Liberia. The citizens of Liberia in West Africa suffered from a protracted civil war between 1989-1996 and 1999-2003 respectively. These wars were partly caused by non-accountability of the governments, endemic corruption and the mismanagement of the countries' resources. Efforts are being made by the government with the help of the international community to embrace a new democratic dispensation. Liberia was also one of the first African countries to enact a Freedom of Information (FOI) Law that would enable Liberians to access government information.
This case describes the development and implementation of the Future workshops method (Jungk and Müllert 1987), as part of a mixed methodology in a PhD project about media technologies and future imaginaries in school art education. The workshop method described here is an attempt to visualize media infrastructures in teaching and the imaginaries surrounding them, thereby making them possible for the research participants to discuss and critique. The practical lessons learned from this case are that designing a functioning research workshop resembles the pedagogic planning done in teaching. Ritual aspects and emotional labor are highlighted as necessary in the process, as well as staying sensitive to the context where the workshops are performed, and to my role as a researcher in this context. Discussing some of the shortcomings of creative methods, the study concludes that workshop methods benefit from being combined with other methods to include, for example, historical perspectives in the analysis. The messiness and non-linearity of the research process is described in the text as a simultaneous development of research questions, theoretical concepts, experiences, and methods.
Planning for sustainability in expansive metropolitan regions - exploring practices and planners’ expectations in Stockholm, SwedenMer info
European Planning Studies 2018, 6 (3): 439-457.
In Sweden, local and regional planning practices are faced with the challenge of managing rapid growth in expansive urban regions. However, spatial planning should also contribute to the fulfilment of formalized sustainability objectives and support sustainable development. This includes addressing cross-cutting sustainability issues that transcend established administrative and territorial boundaries. Thus, the management of sustainability issues requires attention from actors at different levels, and challenges how contemporary planning practices plan for development. Based in the expansive Stockholm region, this study explores the cross-level interaction in spatial planning and decision-making and planning practitioners’ experiences and apprehensions of contemporary municipal planning practices with a focus on statutory plans to achieve sustainability targets and objectives. The results show that municipal planning organizations are under pressure because of rapid urban expansion. It is concluded that the role, format and content of statutory as well as informal planning instruments are decisive for the cross-level interaction between planning levels. Moreover, planning instruments find new trajectories resulting in mismatches in expectations from planners at adjacent planning levels. This influences the interplay and preconditions for achieving national and regional sustainability targets and objectives. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews 2018, 9 (1): -.
As globalization and other pressures intensify the economic, social and biophysical connections between people and places, it seems likely that adaptation responses intended to ameliorate the impacts of climate change might end up shifting risks and vulnerability between people and places. Building on earlier conceptual work in maladaptation and other literature, this article explores the extent to which concerns about vulnerability redistribution have influenced different realms of adaptation practice. The review leads us to conclude that the potential for adaptation to redistribute risk or vulnerability is being given only sparse—and typically superficial—attention by practitioners. Concerns about ‘maladaptation’, and occasionally vulnerability redistribution specifically, are mentioned on the margins but do not significantly influence the way adaptation choices are made or evaluated by policy makers, project planners or international funds. In research, the conceptual work on maladaptation is yet to translate into a significant body of empirical literature on the distributional impacts of real-world adaptation activities, which we argue calls into question our current knowledge base about adaptation. These gaps are troubling, because a process of cascading adaptation endeavors globally seems likely to eventually re-distribute risks or vulnerabilities to communities that are already marginalized and vulnerable. We conclude by discussing the implications that the potential for vulnerability redistribution might have for the governance of adaptation processes, and offer some reflections on how research might contribute to addressing gaps in knowledge and in practice.
What's (not) underpinning ambivalent sexism? - Revisiting the roles of ideology, religiosity, personality, demographics, and men's facial hair in explaining hostile and benevolent sexismMer info
Personality and Individual Differences 2018, 122 : 29-37.
Ambivalent sexism is a two-dimensional framework that assesses sexist and misogynous attitudes. The current corpus of research on such attitudes suggest that they are predicted by numerous variables, including religious beliefs, ideological variables, and men's facial hair. Most studies, however, have treated such predictors as if they are independent – inferring that zero-order correlations between sexism and its predictors are not confounded by omitted third variables. In the current work, we address ambivalent sexism using a large array of known correlates of sexist attitudes in two large and demographically diverse samples. We show that low empathic concern is the primary driver of hostile-, but not benevolent sexism (Study 1); that social dominance orientation, right-wing authoritarianism, religiosity, and low Openness and Agreeableness differentially predict ambivalent sexism (Study 2); along with male gender and low education level (Study 1 and 2). Contradicting an earlier finding, men's facial hair was not correlated with hostile sexism in either studies and a short full beard predicted lower scores on benevolent sexism in Study 2. Thus, we replicated the main findings from most previous research except for men's facial hair, and we also show the paths through which predictors of sexist attitudes exert their effects.
Childhood hunger and depressive symptoms in adulthood - findings from a population-based studyMer info
Journal of Affective Disorders 2018, 226 : 332-338.
Background: Several studies have linked childhood hunger to an increased risk for later depression. However, as yet, there has been little research on this relation in adults of all ages or whether there are sex differences in this association. The current study examined these issues using data from a national population-based sample.Methods: Data were analyzed from 5095 adults aged 25–84 collected during the Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006. Information was obtained on the frequency of going to bed hungry in childhood and on depressive symptoms using the Emotional State Questionnaire (EST-Q). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between hunger and depression while controlling for other demographic, socioeconomic and health-related variables.Results: In a fully adjusted model, going to bed hungry in childhood either sometimes or often was associated with significantly increased odds for adult depressive symptoms. When the analysis was stratified by sex the association was more evident in men where any frequency of childhood hunger was linked to adult depression while only women who had experienced hunger often had higher odds for depressive symptoms in the final model.Limitations: Data on childhood hunger were retrospectively reported and may have been affected by recall bias. We also lacked information on potentially relevant variables such as other childhood adversities that might have been important for the observed associations.Conclusion: Childhood hunger is associated with an increased risk for depressive symptoms among adults. Preventing hunger in childhood may be important for mental health across the life course.
In: Contemporary Approaches to Ethnographic Research. New Delhi : Sage Publications, 2018. -.
Metagenomic Analysis of Subtidal Sediments from Polar and Subpolar Coastal Environments Highlights the Relevance... Mer info
Microbial Ecology 2018, 1 : 123-139.
In this work, we analyzed the community structure and metabolic potential of sediment microbial communities in high-latitude coastal environments subjected to low to moderate levels of chronic pollution. Subtidal sediments from four low-energy inlets located in polar and subpolar regions from both Hemispheres were analyzed using large-scale 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequencing. Communities showed high diversity (Shannon's index 6.8 to 10.2), with distinct phylogenetic structures (<40% shared taxa at the Phylum level among regions) but similar metabolic potential in terms of sequences assigned to KOs. Environmental factors (mainly salinity, temperature, and in less extent organic pollution) were drivers of both phylogenetic and functional traits. Bacterial taxa correlating with hydrocarbon pollution included families of anaerobic or facultative anaerobic lifestyle, such as Desulfuromonadaceae, Geobacteraceae, and Rhodocyclaceae. In accordance, biomarker genes for anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation (bamA, ebdA, bcrA, and bssA) were prevalent, only outnumbered by alkB, and their sequences were taxonomically binned to the same bacterial groups. BssA-assigned metagenomic sequences showed an extremely wide diversity distributed all along the phylogeny known for this gene, including bssA sensu stricto, nmsA, assA, and other clusters from poorly or not yet described variants. This work increases our understanding of microbial community patterns in cold coastal sediments, and highlights the relevance of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation processes in subtidal environments.
Educational Philosophy and Theory 2018, 50 (3): 254-269.
Drawing on recent interdisciplinary, multidimensional research on civic and religious education in northern Europe, this article explores disciplinary epistemological economies in an era of mounting discontent with the narrowness of mono-disciplinary analyses of complex social and educational issues. It is argued in the article that under conditions of sufficient world complexity, interdisciplinarity provides for a more cogent scholarly approach to educational structures and phenomena than either of the logics of mono-, multi- and transdisciplinarityâthe main extant alternatives. It is shown in both conceptual and empirical terms that these alternatives cannot accommodate social and educational diversity, complexity and sprawl other than thinly, hence should mainly be endorsed by universities and research funders for other than epistemological reasons or when there is agreement that the object subjected to analysis is correspondingly thin and isolated. As education in and of itself is a remarkably complex social phenomenon and field of study, it is concluded that interdisciplinary environments may typically be expected to provide a stronger potential for assessing and understanding it.
Identities 2018, : -.
Migration literature has traditionally distinguished between different motivations of migration, such as labour, family and newly also lifestyle migration, never fully exploring the background of these motivations. This article suggests that these different motivations may be explained by different modes of reflexivity as distinguished by Margaret Archer. Linking modes of reflexivity with migration motivations addresses two problems in current migration literature. First, it provides for practical application of reflexivity in explaining migration motivations, which has been missing so far. Second, the article advocates using psycho-social approach as opposed to more commonly adapted ethnical or class based explanations in understanding migration behavior, hence avoiding the potential trap of falling into the trap of methodological nationalism or classism. Through the interview with highly-skilled Estonian migrants it is shown that the reasons of migration among highly skilled are versatile and cannot be explained solely by their class background.
Social Identities 2018, 24 (1): 120-133.
Whereas migration research has been heavily influenced by the individualization paradigm, studies on return migration have been more inspired by theories on attachment and belonging. It is common for this kind of research to assert that the main motivations for returning are social contacts and a homing desire. Although this article does not question the importance of such motivations for some, it does argue that return migration needs to be more problematized, not least by studying people who have decided not to return. Based on interviews with highly skilled Estonians, this article suggests that return decisions are influenced by three types of comparisons: social, temporal, and intra-subjective. The first two comparisons have been discussed to some degree in migration literature; however, a focus on intra-subjective comparisons – in which people compare different parts of their identity in order to decide on a potential return – has been scarce. This article suggests that, in line with the individualization of social relationships, but also with the introduction of a new EU mobility space, it is the latter type of comparison that is becoming increasingly widespread.
Developmental exposure to the SSRI citalopram causes long-lasting behavioural effects in the three-spined stickl... Mer info
Ecotoxicology 2018, 27 (1): 12-22.
Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of psychotropic drugs used to treat depression in both adolescents and pregnant or breast-feeding mothers as well as in the general population. Recent research on rodents points to persistent behavioural effects of pre- and perinatal exposure to SSRI which last into adulthood. To study effects of developmental exposure in fish, three-spine sticklebacks were exposed to 1.5 µg/l of the SSRI citalopram in the ambient water for 30 days, starting two days post-fertilisation. After 100 days of remediation in clean water the fish were put through an extensive test battery. Feeding behaviour was tested as the number of bites against a piece of food and found to be increased in the exposed fish. Aggression levels were measured as the number of bites against a mirror image during 10 minutes and was also found to be significantly increased in the exposed fish. Novel tank behaviour and locomotor activity was tested in an aquarium that had a horizontal line drawn half-way between the bottom and the surface. Neither the latency to the first transition to the upper half, nor the number of transitions or the total time spent in the upper half was affected by treatment. Locomotor activity was significantly reduced in the exposed fish. The light/dark preference was tested in an aquarium where the bottom and walls were black on one side and white on the other. The number of transitions to the white side was significantly reduced in the exposed fish but there was no effect on the latency to the first transition or the total time spent in the white half. The results in the current study indicate that developmental SSRI exposure causes persistent behavioural effects in fish and contribute to the existing knowledge about SSRIs as environmental pollutants.
In: Handbook of Sustainability Science and Research. Cham : Springer, 2018. 341-356.
The ambitious UN-adopted sustainable development goals (SDGs) have been criticized for being inconsistent, difficult to quantify, implement and monitor. Disparaging analysis suggests that there exists a potential inconsistency in the SDGs, particularly between the socio-economic development and the environmental sustainability goals. Critiques also raise questions on the measurability and monitoring of the broadly framed SDGs. The goals are non-binding, with each country being expected to create their own national or regional plans. Moreover, the source(s) and the extent of the financial resources and investments for the SDGs are ambiguous. This chapter quantifies and examines the inconsistencies of the SDGs. It further inspects which of the underlying social, economic or environmental pillars are that most effective for achieving sustainable development. Analyses of the data reveal that the developed countries need to remain focused on their social and environmental policies. The developing countries, on the other hand, are better off being focused on their economics and social policies in the short run, even though environmental policies remain significant for sustainable development.
Applied Economics 2018, 58 (1): 1-14.
Do microfinance institutions (MFIs) operate in a monopoly, monopolistic competition environment or are their revenues derived under perfect competition markets? We employ the Panzar–Rosse revenue test on a global panel data to assess the competitive environment in which MFIs of five selected countries operate: Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Peru and Philippines, over the period 2005–2009. We estimate the static and the dynamic revenue tests, with analyses of the interest rate and the return on assets. We control for microfinance-specific variables such as capital-assets-ratio, loans-assets and the size of the MFI. The analyses also account for the endogeneity problem by employing the fixed-effects two-stage least squares and the fixed-effects system generalized method of moments. Our results suggest that MFIs in Peru and India operate in a monopolistic environment. We also find weak evidence that the microfinance industry in Ecuador, Indonesia and Philippines may operate under perfect competition.
The European Journal of Women's Studies 2018, 25 (1): 71-85.
In the past decades a large number of students have taken courses and degrees in Gender Studies around Europe and proceeded to find employment. This article is based on a quantitative and qualitative study carried out in 2012 of Gender Studies students in Sweden, their education and employment. The design of the study was inspired by a large European research project investigating Women’s Studies in Europe and concerned with the motives for doing Gender Studies among Swedish students, as well as who the students were, how they evaluated their Gender Studies education and what work they proceeded to after they left the university. In this article the results are discussed in terms of dilemmas: between Gender Studies’ critique of neoliberalism,employability and the former students’ wishes to be employed, and their evaluation of their studies and employment. The Swedish study is also compared with previous research in order to understand general and particular traits in Swedish Gender Studies education and employment. Analysis points to interesting contradictions within Gender Studies in relation to the labor market, student groups and employability.
Binge drinking in adolescence - Social stratification and the collectivity of drinking culturesMer info
European Journal of Social Work 2018, 21 (1): 74-85.
Research investigating what shapes young people’s drinking habits is of great importance. This study aimed to analyse the relation between close social networks and adolescents’ drinking habits and the extent to which close social networks may explain differences in binge drinking among social groups. Data from the ‘Stockholm Survey 2012’ were analysed. The Stockholm Survey was a census survey administered to students in academic years 9 and 11, with a response rate of 76%. Ordered logit models were used to estimate relations between the frequency of binge drinking and the independent variables. Parental educational level is associated with adolescent binge drinking, as students with more highly educated parents are more frequent binge drinkers. Parents’ willingness to offer their teenagers alcohol and peers’ drinking habits are also associated with adolescent binge drinking, with a more permissive parental attitude and a prevalence of drinking among peers increasing the risk. Both parents’ willingness to provide alcohol and peers’ drinking habits may statistically explain a large portion of the observed differences in adolescent drinking by parental education. Close social networks are an important factor influencing adolescent binge drinking, and they may explain a large portion of the differences between social groups.
Revolutionary Russia 2017, 30 (2): 247-267.
Studies on Soviet culture have treated the aesthetics of the sublime predominantly in terms of the Soviet sublime as manifested in Stalinist culture. This article will argue that the sublime cannot, in its impact on Soviet aesthetics, be delimited to imperial representations. The aesthetics of the sublime in Romanticism and its continuation into modernism in European Literatures arose from a problematization of the very notion of representation in art, in the mind and in politics. The legacy of this aesthetics in Soviet literature can be linked to the paradoxical quest for a means of representing or writing the breakdown in the understanding of the world that occurred after the Revolution. As will be shown in examples from 1920s Soviet literature, the people appear as an immense natural force that demands a different means of presentation.