Kvalificerade och kreativa forskningsmiljöer som spänner över många discipliner och områden.
Vår forskning eftersträvar en hög samhälls- och samtidsrelevans i förening med ett aktivt och kritiskt förhållningssätt till det förflutna. Forskningen vid högskolan vänder sig i allmänhet ut mot världen även inom ämnen som av hävd studerar den egna nationella kulturen och historien. Ett viktigt ledord är mångvetenskap.
PublikationerHär publiceras löpande publikationer från publikationsdatabasen DiVA.
Nedan listas den 50 senaste publikationerna som registrerats i DiVA, den publikationsdatabas som högskolan använder sig av. Vill du söka bland alla publikationer som är knutna till högskolan? Gå direkt till DiVA
Du kan också gå till fliken för Forskare, Projekt, Ämnen eller Centrumbildningar och där hitta publikationer knutna till respektive enhet.
In: IPBES. Bonn : Secretariat of the Intergovernmental Science -Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem services, 2018. 927-1129.
[Stockholm] : Centrum för Studier av Militär och Samhälle, 2018.
Detta är den fjärde boken i en serie antologier om svensk militär yrkespraktik. Elva olika forskare, med skilda vetenskapliga perspektiv, reflekterar över militärt yrkeskunnande.
Securing the working democracy - Inventive arrangements to guarantee circulation and the emergence of democracy policyMer info
In the 1990s, Swedish democracy's ability to remain strong and renew itself became increasingly questioned in government commission reports and social-scientific writings. The perceptions of the financial crisis in 1992–1994, new identities, immigration and changes in participation in civic associations and organizations were listed as challenges to democracy. Together, they helped constitute an understanding of an emerging gap between the population and existing representative democratic forms. In response, the 1990s and the first decade of the 2000s saw the emergence of several discourses, political initiatives and scientific contributions that articulated and responded to the need to secure a “working democracy”. By analyzing theoretically the arrangements of elements in policy and in attempts to shape the population's habits, dispositions and behavior, this thesis illuminates the role of aesthetics in the knowledge and power effects of these efforts. Methodologically, the thesis draws on Michel Foucault's genealogical approach in four empirical chapters. In doing so, the thesis displays why, when and how the efforts to secure a working democracy emerged, and analyzes the politics inherent to them. The chapters consist, first, of a study of the birth and changes in “democracy policy” as a distinct political domain; second, a mapping of the emergence of the discourse and dispositif of “valuefoundation”; third, a mapping of the discourse on exclusion and the discourse on and apparatus to combat “violence-promoting extremism”, and, finally, a mapping of inventive approaches in survey research that articulated how to secure a working democracy. This mapping exposes a vision of democratic dis-involvement and how to contain it infused by risk-management, benchmarking and a monitoring of changes in the population. Taken together, the chapters demonstrate the emergence of a complex network of power relations and knowledge used to achieve congruence between the population and governmental aims. This, the thesis underscores, marginalizes the role of dissent and interruptions in democratic life, to instead equate democracy with a system of congruence, smooth interactions and overall alignment to demands on circulation.
Almatourism 2018, 9 (17): 33-54.
City tourism, with its unique character and image, has increased considerably over the last decades. At the same time, the complexity of destination development and image marketing has increased, and there is a lack of analysis tools for image positioning. The purpose is to investigate city destination image and character as prerequisites for destination marketing and development and how the image and character position can be analysed. City destination character, visitor destination image and visitor segments are used as the main theoretical framework. An exploratory qualitative study approach has been chosen with an image case study of destination Stockholm. Qualitative interviews were conducted with the visitor segment international students and destination specialists. The study shows that destination specialists have assessed a combination of city destination characteristic areas, which can be developed. Furthermore, visitors have a mindset of several image aspects and holistic expressions for city destinations that can be used in destination marketing to change the current image position into the desired one. In order to determine a desired position, six analysis dimensions have been found useful: Desired positioning, Demand and supply, Visitor segmentation, Destination generalisation, Visit process and Expression type. The analysis dimensions are based on relevant dichotomous aspects. The effects of the used dimensions are called “positioning leverage effects”, and their main aim is to obtain a competitive advantage and to differentiate to other destinations.
Stenbruk - Stenartefakter, råmaterial och mobilitet i östra Mellansverige under tidig- och mellanmesolitikumMer info
This thesis examines artefacts, raw materials and lithic technology between c. 9200–6200 cal BC in Eastern Central Sweden. The overall purpose of this study is to investigate when people first came to Eastern Central Sweden and where they came from. More precisely, it provides a typological, geographical and chronological survey of artefacts and the use of different raw materials. The study deals with assemblages with artefacts from more than thirty archaeologically excavated sites and loose finds in Eastern Central Sweden. The objects consist of chubby pecked axes, core axes, flake axes, shaft hole picks, microliths and micro burins, points, burins, rulers, unifacial blade core, conical cores, micro blade cores, blades, drills, retouched blades and micro blades. The artefacts have been compared with established typologies and chronologies for the rest of the Nordic countries and to some extent Russia and the Baltic States. An analysis of different raw materials present at Early and Middle Mesolithic sites in Eastern Central Sweden was also carried out. The materials are put into a chronological and geographical context. The raw materials included in the study are the non-local rocks flint and Cambrian flint, as well as local raw materials such as quartz, greenstone, local vulcanite, mylonite and red porphyry. From 9200 cal BC there is evidence of the first groups of people in the area, just shortly after that the Weichselian ice cap had withdrawn. Throughout the period studied the artefacts as well as the non-local raw materials exhibit great similarities to those found in the western part of Sweden. The study also shows, regarding the use of different raw materials and presence of certain artefacts, that some major events took place, suggesting a new chronological time frame for the Early- and Middle Mesolithic periods. In addition, a discussion regarding mobility and migration in Eastern Central Sweden during Early Post Glacial time is carried out.
Student independence in undergraduate projects: - different understandings in different academic contextsMer info
Journal of Further and Higher Education 2018, : -.
Independence is a concept of scholarly interest in relation to higher education, especially when it comes to undergraduate projects. At the same time independence is characterised by a certain conceptual ambiguity, and, consequently, tends to be understood differently in different academic contexts, both nationally, internationally and interdisciplinary. Based on the existing research in the field, we see a need for more studies on how supervisors of undergraduate projects handle this conceptual ambiguity. The aim of this article is, thus, to examine how supervisors from two different education programmes, teacher education and journalism, in two different countries, Sweden and Russia, understand the concept of independence within higher education in connection with the supervision of undergraduate projects. The analysis is based on 12 focus-group interviews with supervisors at different universities in the two countries. In our results, we highlight and discuss seven different understandings of independence that were recurrent in our material and in which phases of the undergraduate project they were seen as most significant. Using Wittgenstein’s ideas on family resemblances, we conclude with a discussion of how the concept independence may be understood in relation to some associated concepts that are also significant within higher education.
In: . : .
People travel solo to a destination due to different push–pull pre-travel motivators (Yoon and Uysal, 2005). Travel to a city destination brings a series of positive or negative experiences (Walls et al., 2011) and creates a sense of overall satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the destination and the travel itself. Also, several functional and psychosocial characteristics of a destination such as hosts, locals, services, prices (Echtner and Brent Ritchie, 1991; Philip, 2005), contribute to satisfaction with a trip, but also create destination loyalty among visitors (Chi and Qu, 2008; Zhang et al., 2014) and this loyalty in its turn leads to a return to the same destination. The phenomenon of solo travel to city destinations is an un-researched topic in Sweden. This exploratory study is the first in Sweden to focus on solo travellers visiting city destinations. The study aims to gain more insight into the phenomenon and attain more knowledge on the topic. The study employed a questionnaire consisting of qualitative and quantitative items. In all, 21 individuals (12 women, 9 men) responded. They were mostly well-educated, the majority were younger than 35, more than half were single and more than half reported travelling alone once or twice a year. The majority had a travel budget of SEK 10–20,000 per trip and the rest had a budget below SEK 10,000. They normally took flights and the majority went away for more than one week up to several weeks. The most important reason for solo travel was own free choice and in some cases difficulty finding companions. This result is coherent with earlier studies (e.g. Heimtun and Morgan, 2012; Mehmetoglu, 2004). Their loneliness gave rise to forced but positive socialization (e.g. Chiang and Jogaratnam, 2006; Laesser et al., 2009). Their activities at the destinations were mostly visiting attractions and they mostly mentioned advantages with solo travelling. They showed overall satisfaction with their travels, destination loyalty to one or several city destinations and wished to revisit them again and again. This finding is also partly or fully coherent with many earlier studies (e.g. Walls et al., 2011; Echtner and Brent Ritchie, 1991; Philip, 2005; Baloglu and McCleary, 1999; Beerli and Martin, 2004).
In the Forge of Empire - Legal Order, Colonists, and Marriage in the Nineteenth-century Northern Black Sea SteppeMer info
In: New Perspectives on the History of Gender and Empire. London : Bloomsbury Academic, 2018. 59-84.
New Perspectives on the History of Gender and Empire extends our understanding of the gendered workings of empires, colonialism and imperialism, taking up recent impulses from gender history, new imperial history and global history. The authors apply new theoretical and methodological approaches to historical case studies around the globe in order to redefine the complex relationship between gender and empire. The chapters deal not only with 'typical' colonial empires like the British Empire, but also with those less well-studied, such as the German, Russian, Italian and U.S. empires. They focus on various imperial formations, from colonies in Africa or Asia to settler colonial settings like Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, to imperial peripheries like the Dodecanese or the Black Sea Steppe. The book deals with key themes such as intimacy, sexuality and female education, as well as exploring new aspects like the complex marriage regimes some empires developed or the so-called 'servant debates'. It also presents several ways in which imperial formations were structured by gender and other categories like race, class, caste, sexuality, religion, and citizenship. Offering new reflections on the intimate and personal aspects of gender in imperial activities and relationships, this is an important volume for students and scholars of gender studies and imperial and colonial history.
In: The story of Karl Marx 200 years after his birth. Ocala FL : Atlantic Publishing Group, 2018. 11-15.
“You are going to hate me!” - Ethnological perspectives on the role of emotions in undergraduate supervisionMer info
In: . : .
Working in multidisciplinary research settings often contributes to raising questions around one’s own research practice and disciplinary traditions and habits. Why do we do things the way we do and how may an ethnological perspective contribute to seeing and understanding things in a different way than in other disciplines? This presentation will start from a multidisciplinary project on higher education, where researchers from journalism, Swedish and ethnology cooperate in collecting and analyzing material and also write articles together. The focus of the research project is undergraduate supervision, and in particular how the idea and ideal of student independence, expressed for instance in the Swedish Higher Education Ordinance, is understood and handled by supervisors in journalism and teacher education.In my presentation I will concentrate on one of the types of material we have collected within the project, namely recorded supervision sessions, and how this material may be used to examine the role of emotions in undergraduate supervision, particularly in relation to the ideal of student independence. The analysis of the material is based in a theoretical framework centered on the concepts affective practices, anticipated emotions and anticipatory emotions, and focuses on how the participating supervisors handled students’ expressions of fear and anxiety, joy and relief, as well as on how anticipated emotions could be used by the supervisors during the supervision. In the discussion I will also put my ethnological perspective in relation to how researchers from the other disciplines within the project approach the same material.
European Journal of Communication 2018, : -.
The question of voice is a central and timeless political issue. Who gets to speak? Who is silenced? Who is listening? One of the main arenas for voice in modern, advanced democracies is the media. Media infrastructures, technologies, institutions and organizations are a precondition for political voice in large-scale societies, but are also an important factor in distributing the possibilities for voice among different groups and sectors of the population. In this article, we take on the question of voice in relation to social class and aim to analyse how the medium of television gives voice to people from different social classes. This study operationalizes the theoretical notion of voice by asking the following questions: who has the opportunity to appear and speak on television, to whom do they speak and under what circumstances does this communication occur? Based on a content analysis of television in Sweden, the results from this study show that voice is distributed in a highly unequal manner. It also shows that the relations enacted by television appearances conform to the social hierarchy. Whereas people from the ruling class frequently speak to people from the working and middle classes, they are rarely spoken to by members of a class that is positioned below their own. Television thus constructs a social hierarchy of voice and authority that reproduces and legitimizes already existing social hierarchies.
Theoretical and methodological perspectives to studying religious and cultural diversity in Finnish, Swedish and... Mer info
In: New international studies on religions and dialouge in education. Münster : Waxmann Verlag, 2018. 31-45.
This article presents some of the theoretical and methodological considerations in studying religious and cultural diversity in Finnish, Swedish and Estonian comprehensive schools. The perspective arises from our experiences of carrying out an international comparative research project looking at pupils´perspectives to diversity in the educational settings and their wider everyday environments. The data were gathered in diverse comprehensive school contexts across Sweden, Estonia and Finland. The article illustrates several important issues that are often lacking in the studies in this area and need to be accounted for when examining cultural and religious diversity in the schools and the everyday lives of children and youth.
Transmodernity and Socio-Historical Time in the Decolonization Process of the Plurinational State of Bolivia - La transmodernidad y el tiempo sociohistórico en el proceso descolonizador del Estado Plurinacional de BoliviaMer info
Revista de Estudios Sociales 2018, 65 : 48-62.
Este artículo analiza cómo se expresa la transmodernidad en el Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia desde 2009, enfocando, de manera particular, las complejidades relacionadas con la refundación del Estado y la construcción de una sociedad intercultural, basada en el reconocimiento constitucional de los valores yprácticas de la plurinacionalidad. Este momento histórico —con la reconstrucción del Estado y la sociedad desde las creencias, tradiciones, epistemologías y ontologías de los pueblos indígenas— simboliza un tiempo social específico, producto de la silenciosa sobrevivencia de culturas precoloniales que se transformaron gradualmente a lo largo de los siglos, y en interacción con la modernidad misma, volviéndose culturas transmodernas. Con la declaración del Estado Plurinacional, asimismo, se ha establecido la conceptualización indígena ético-filosófica del Suma Qamaña-Vivir Bien, sobre las relaciones armoniosas entre seres humanos y naturaleza, como visión socio-político-cultural y una alternativa a las lógicas eurocentristas, antropocéntricas, individualistas y capitalistas. Metodológicamente, el estudio se basa en una lectura crítica de publicaciones anteriores y varios años de trabajo etnográfico en Bolivia.
Journal of Historical Geography 2018, : -.
This introductory essay sets up the discussion in this special section on the first English language translation of Friedrich Ratzel's 1901 Lebensraum essay. After providing biographical context for this controversial nineteenth-century German geographer, we offer a brief history of what is perhaps his most famous conceptual contribution: Lebensraum (living space). We end by introducing the five contributions to this special section.
State, monopoly and bribery. Market reforms and corruption in a Swedish State-owned enterprise Mer info
Economics & Sociology 2018, 11 (2): 64-79.
Many studies of corruption have claimed that it is the size of the state and its bureaucratic apparatus that promote corruption. Other studies have suggested that it is the more recent New Public Management reforms that create opportunity for corrupt exchanges. Very few studies have investigated this issue systematically and empirically. The purpose of the present study is therefore to examine the relationship between market reforms and the conditions for corruption, using a qualitative case study of corrupt relations in the Swedish Alcohol Retailing Monopoly (SARM). The analysis shows that the market reforms increased the discretion of managers at SARM, established new informal relations between managers and private supplier companies and increased the demand for corrupt services among the suppliers. In contrast to earlier studies, the present study provides a better understanding of the complex interplay of the different organizational processes resulting from market reforms that may promote corruption.
Journal of Health Economics 2018, 61 : 1-12.
We study the short- and long-term price effects of the number of competing firms, using panel-data on 1303 distinct pharmaceutical markets for 78 months within a reference-price system. We use actual transaction prices in an institutional setting with little scope for non-price competition and where simultaneity problems can be addressed effectively. In the long term, the price of generics is found to decrease by 81% when the number of firms selling generics with the same strength, form and similar package size is increased from 1 to 10. Nearly only competition at this fine-grained level matters; the effect of firms selling other products with the same active substance, but with different package size, form, or strength, is only a tenths as large. Half of the price reductions take place immediately and 70% within three months. Also, prices of originals are found to react to competition, but far less and much slower.
Comparative and Continental Philosophy 2018, : 1-11.
Taking its point of departure in an enigmatic passage from the Analects, in which the interlocutor is likened by the master to a sacrificial vase, the essay explores how this teaching can be read as a indirect commentary on the proper way of inhabiting and communicating tradition. The relation to the ancestors and the proper way of handling the rites for the dead is shown to reveal a more basic hermeneutic argument in Confucian thinking, opening the text to its own future transformation.
Global Media and Communication 2018, : -.
This article discusses the role of media and communications in contributing to social progress, as elaborated in a landmark international project – the International Panel on Social Progress. First, it analyses how media and digital platforms have contributed to global inequality by examining media access and infrastructure across world regions. Second, it looks at media governance and the different mechanisms of corporatized control over media platforms, algorithms and content. Third, the article examines how the democratization of media is a key element in the struggle for social justice. It argues that effective media access – in terms of distribution of media resources, even relations between spaces of connection and the design and operation of spaces that foster dialogue, free speech and respectful cultural exchange – is a core component of social progress.
Spatial decision support systems - Exploring differences in pilot-testing with students vs. professionalsMer info
Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 2018, : -.
This study explores the implications of engaging students vs. professionals / stakeholders in pilot-testing of SDSS and discusses likely differences in terms of experiences and outcomes for the given pilot-test. To this end we use data collected during two pilot tests of a novel SDSS. The pilot-tests were done with two different groups; one made of thirteen doctoral students, while the other of twelve professionals / stakeholders. The pilot-test served to gather feedback on SDSS usability and other aspects of interest to the development team. Based on the outcomes obtained we develop an analytical framework meant to summarise key aspects impacting on how different (tester) profiles will engage during a pilot, and on feedback they provide. These key aspects include expertise, stage of life, and institutional context (ESI). This framework could offer some help to SDSS / DSS development teams in planning, organizing, and delivering pilot-test, and processing the assessments received.
Multilevel Strategies for Political Influence - How and Why Do Domestic Civil Society Organisations Seek Political Influence at National and EU Levels?Mer info
Journal of Contemporary European Research 2018, 14 (2): 68-86.
This article addresses domestic civil society organisations (CSOs) and their multilevel strategies for gaining political influence in the European Union. Drawing on a theoretical framework identifying different ‘routes’ that CSOs can take in a multilevel system of EU governance, this article analyses which routes or combination of routes CSOs take and investigates what organisational factors can explain similarities and differences among domestic CSOs’ multilevel strategies for political influence. Factors like type of organisation, organisational resources, level of activity and perceived relevance of national and EU political levels are combined. The article shows that CSOs tend to choose a combination of routes and that most of them also participate at the national level when trying to influence EU policy. The article furthermore finds that domestic CSOs seek to influence EU policies above all when they organise around issues that face potential conflicts between national and EU policies, illustrating the analytical significance of how CSOs perceive different political levels.
Media and Communication 2018, 6 (2): 145-148.
This editorial introduces the thematic issue of “Media and Communication between the Local and the Global”. It does so first by presenting the origin of this thematic issue: the Media, Globalization and Social Change division at the NordMedia2017 conference. The thematic issue is then anchored theoretically through discussion of the widely conceived notion of mediation as a technological, symbolic and ethical process―highlighting the interest in how media actors and communication technologies, practices and artefacts mediate between global phenomena and local contexts, which is what unites the contributions to this thematic issue. Last, the final section of this editorial introduces the articles, which coalesce around three broad themes: migration, marginalised communities, and consumption.
Media and Communication 2018, 6 (2): 188-198.
This article explores how increased media access and use influences Kenyan women’s everyday life and alters the domestic space. Based on 30 in-depth interviews with women in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya, the article demonstrates that women have incorporated newly gained media into their daily lives and routines. Increased media access has opened up the home and turned the domestic sphere from a secluded place into a connected space in which women can receive input from,connect with and interact with the world beyond their immediate surroundings whilst simultaneously remaining at homeand fulfilling their traditional gender roles. Women’s media use thus reinforces their connection to the domestic sphereand the gendered division of labour. Although it has the potential to challenge gender inequalities, the extent to which this occurs depends on the individual woman’s ability to act on the imagin aries and ideas that media carry.
Media and Communication 2018, 6 (2): 149-157.
This article explores the relationship between online and offline practices in the special case of forced migration. By applying a central category in social relations, trust/distrust as developed by Niklas Luhmann, this article contributes to the understanding of forced migration in the digital age. It presupposes that, without a strategy of trust, it would be almost impossible to cope with situations of unfamiliarity and uncertainty. By interviewing refugees, the questionis in what contexts the refugee recognizes that they can trust (or not). The article concludes that through the combination of on- and offline communication practices, more varied mechanisms for the creation and stabilization of trust are provided. In contexts of unfamiliarity, interpersonal relations with the native inhabitants play an important role in bridging online and offline worlds.
The American journal of geriatric psychiatry 2018, : -.
Objective There is little research on the effects of childhood hunger on adult mental health. This study examined the association between childhood hunger and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide in older adults. Design Data were analyzed from adults aged 60 and above collected during the Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006 (N=2455). Retrospective information was obtained on the frequency (never, seldom, sometimes, often) of going to bed hungry in childhood, and on the presence of recurrent thoughts of death or suicide in the past 4 weeks. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables. Results Experiencing hunger in childhood was common (37.6%) with 14.3% of the respondents stating that they often went to bed hungry. In a univariate analysis going to bed hungry either sometimes or often more than doubled the odds for thoughts of death or suicide. Although adjustment for a range of covariates (including physical diseases and depressive episode) attenuated the associations, in the fully adjusted model going to bed hungry sometimes continued to be associated with significantly increased odds for thoughts of death or suicide in older adults (OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.10–2.74; Wald χ2 = 5.7, df = 1, p = 0.017). Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that the effects of childhood hunger may be long lasting and associated with mental health and well-being even in older adults.
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 2018, 53 (7): 709-716.
Purpose: To determine the prevalence of inhalant use in Russian adolescents and to investigate associated psychosocial problems from a gender perspective. Methods: Data on inhalant use and comorbid psychopathology were collected by means of self-reports from 2892 (42.4% boys) sixth to tenth grade students in public schools in Arkhangelsk, Russia. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to assess differences in the levels of internalizing and externalizing problems in boys and girls, who were non-users and users of inhalants. Results: The prevalence of inhalant use was 6.1% among boys and 3.4% among girls. Compared with non-users, inhalant users scored significantly higher on internalizing and externalizing problems, functional impairment and lower on academic motivation, with psychopathology increasing with age. While there were no gender differences for internalizing problems, increased levels of externalizing problems in inhalant users were gender-specific (significantly higher in boys). Conclusions: Inhalant use is related to significantly higher levels of comorbid psychopathology in Russian adolescents. Comprehensive, evidence-based prevention and intervention policies are needed to address inhalant use and its harmful effects.
En "medborgerlig" patientrörelse - Samhällssyn och maktkritik hos den svenska THX-rörelsen under 1970-talets andra hälftMer info
Scandia 2018, 84 (1): 36-60.
Since the 1990s, historians of medicine have pointed to a change in the status and self-image of patients in the West. Patients, it is claimed, have gone from being passively dependent on medicine to active consumers of health care. However, this narrative does not consider the fact that Western countries differ a great deal in terms of access to health care, access to alternative treatments and the role and status assigned to formal expertise in society at large. This study aims to contribute to a deeper and more historically nuanced understanding of the transformation of the patient into a consumer. Through an analysis of the Swedish THX movement - a patient movement trying to achieve legal access to, and formal approval of, the controversial anti-cancer drug THX in the 1970s - the study shows how the agenda and demands of the THX patients mirrored the specific Swedish settings in which they were articulated. THX patients did not wish to be regarded as consumers or clients. On the contrary, their arguments were firmly rooted in a collective identity as "the people" who expected the state and politicians to meet their needs. They emphasized their collective experience as evidence of the efficiency of THX and pointed to the popularity of THX treatment, thereby rejecting the results of several scientific trials initiated by the medical authorities. Doing so, THX patients made use of the culturally resonant frame of collectivity in Sweden at the time, as well as of a widespread belief that the medical authorities were corrupt and insensitive to the needs of ordinary people.
Efficient Worker or Reflective Practitioner? - Competing Technical Rationalities of Media Software ToolsMer info
In: Technologies of Labour and the Politics of Contradiction. Cham : Palgrave Macmillan, 2018. 99-119.
The work of creators of digital media today is profoundly reliant on the use of specialised software. Yet, software is not merely an instrument of labour. The current hegemonies of society are incorporated in the technological design of tools, explicating what Feenberg (2009) calls technical rationality. Different production frameworks can embed distinct forms of such rationality depending on the goals of their creators. Drawing on theories of knowledge and feminist theory of technological development, Forsler and Velkova present an analysis of the production frameworks of three different manufactures of software tools for computer graphics, both industrial and user-driven. The chapter contributes with a conceptual theoretical model of how these frameworks are underpinned by different epistemological assumptions and competing visions of media practitioners.
Homophobia as Geopolitics - ‘Traditional Values’ and the Negotiation of Russia’s Place in the WorldMer info
Sibship size, birth order and psychotic experiences - Evidence from 43 low- and middle-income countriesMer info
Schizophrenia Research 2018, : -.
Background Sibship size and birth order may be contributing factors to the multifactorial etiology of psychosis. Specifically, several studies have shown that sibship size and birth order are associated with schizophrenia. However, there are no studies on their association with psychotic experiences (PE). Methods Cross-sectional, community-based data from 43 low- and middle-income countries which participated in the World Health Survey were analyzed. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to identify four types of past 12-month PE. The association of sibship size and birth order with PE was assessed with multivariable logistic regression. Results The final sample consisted of 212,920 adults [mean (SD) age 38.1 (16.0) years; 50.7% females]. In the multivariable analysis, compared to individuals with no siblings, the OR increased linearly from 1.26 (95%CI = 1.01–1.56) to 1.72 (95%CI = 1.41–2.09) among those with 1 and ≥ 9 siblings, respectively. Compared to the first-born, middle-born individuals were more likely to have PE when having a very high number of siblings (i.e. ≥9). Conclusions Future studies should examine the environmental and biological factors underlying the association between sibship size/birth order and PE. Specifically, it may be important to examine the unmeasured factors, such as childhood infections and adversities that may be related to both family structure and PE.
International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management 2018, 46 (5): 507-527.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a cohesive overview of the available self-service and customer value literature, identify customer value in self-service kiosks (SSKs), and analyze this value from the customer experience perspective. Design/methodology/approach The study comprises a systematic literature review of available works on customer value. Findings The paper presents conclusions on the SSK's technological forms, presence in industries, and conceptual state. The review also provides a cohesive inventory of customer value elements in SSKs. The in-depth analysis proposes two alternative models of the customer value creation process: linear and circular. Research limitations/implications The study reveals gaps stemming from the inconsistency and fragmented nature of previous research on customer value in SSKs. The gaps are treated as opportunities for future studies. Practical implications By identifying new sources of competitive advantage and new ways to improve customer service strategies and experience management, the findings support managerial decision making at the stages of considering, implementing, and improving SSK networks. Originality/value This study is the first to systematically review and provide an inventory of customer value elements in SSKs. It, therefore, offers new perspectives on customer value creation using self-service technology.
Romani Studies 2018, 28 (1): 41-78.
Half a century after the first work on the Romanian Roms written by M. Kogǎlniceanu (1837) at the suggestion of the father of modern geography, Alexander von Humboldt, similarly, at the suggestion of a foreign scholar, the father of Romani dialectology, Franz Miklosich, a graduate of the Faculty of Theology, University of Leipzig, and Ph.D. of the same university, Barbu Constantinescu, started to learn Romani and became the first Romanian scholar in the emergent field. He was an acknowledged educationist, the first exponent of Herbatianism in Romania, and worked in many educational pioneering projects, such as the establishment of the first kindergarten, as well as the reformation of the pedagogical and theological systems of education. In the field of Romani studies, unfortunately, he could not publish all his projected work, and posterity forgot his huge effort of travelling in all counties of Wallachia and Moldavia in search of Romani settlements. He published in Bucharest, in 1877 and 1878, a dozen songs and tales in Romani of his own translation, which were duly acknowledged (e.g. by F.H. Groome in his 1899 anthology of Gypsy folk songs). However, his work, comprising hundreds of documents, was not included in a collection, though it is partially preserved in some unedited manuscripts at the Romanian Academy Library in Bucharest, which are described here for the first time, in sections § 2.1-6. The article describes the intellectual legacy left by Barbu Constantinescu in the field of Romani studies.
Journal of Business Research 2018, 89 : 251-257.
The dynamic capabilities theorem posits that rapidly changing operating environments necessitate dynamic capabilities (i.e. sensing, seizing and reconfiguring) for success. Dynamic capabilities reconfigure existing asset positions and create organizational renewal. We contend that higher performance outcomes can be achieved when dynamic capabilities interact with operational-level changes (i.e., changes in management and practices or changes in used technologies and target markets). The present study explores different pathways of dynamic capabilities and operational-level changes for performance success in a media industry context (i.e., magazines). Due to the digitalization of its business, the media industry has undergone significant changes the past years. We use a set-theoretic approach with fsQCA and data from 78 magazines to test our conceptualization. Our findings contribute to the literature of dynamic capabilities by providing empirical evidence on the relationship between dynamic capabilities, operational changes, and performance.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2018, 115 (25): 6440-6445.
Unfavorable health trends among the lowly educated have recently been reported from the United States. We analyzed health trends by education in European countries, paying particular attention to the possibility of recent trend interruptions, including interruptions related to the impact of the 2008 financial crisis. We collected and harmonized data on mortality from <i>ca</i> 1980 to <i>ca</i> 2014 for 17 countries covering 9.8 million deaths and data on self-reported morbidity from <i>ca</i> 2002 to <i>ca</i> 2014 for 27 countries covering 350,000 survey respondents. We used interrupted time-series analyses to study changes over time and country-fixed effects analyses to study the impact of crisis-related economic conditions on health outcomes. Recent trends were more favorable than in previous decades, particularly in Eastern Europe, where mortality started to decline among lowly educated men and where the decline in less-than-good self-assessed health accelerated, resulting in some narrowing of health inequalities. In Western Europe, mortality has continued to decline among the lowly and highly educated, and although the decline of less-than-good self-assessed health slowed in countries severely hit by the financial crisis, this affected lowly and highly educated equally. Crisis-related economic conditions were not associated with widening health inequalities. Our results show that the unfavorable trends observed in the United States are not found in Europe. There has also been no discernible short-term impact of the crisis on health inequalities at the population level. Both findings suggest that European countries have been successful in avoiding an aggravation of health inequalities.
Sociologija 2018, 60 (1): 64-83.
This paper presents challenges and life strategies of highly educated single mothers in Lithuania. My ethnography traces the impact on strategies of remaining in a country where exit strategies – alcoholism, suicide, emigration – prevail and seem as an “easier” option. It is a study concerned with the relationship between precarity, single motherhood, social reproduction and everyday living. I focus on precarious living conditions, social isolation and stigmatization, unappreciated and highly gendered care-work. Based on collaborative ethnographic fieldwork material, the paper presents the micro-level attempts to negotiate what it means to be a lone care-taker, to revalorize and challenge the hegemonic narratives of individual strength and success.