There are many ways to write references. Here you will find guides to the referencing systems Harvard, Oxford and APA, and others. Ask your teacher if you are unsure of what to use in your course.
The Harvard system
The Harvard system is written using parentheses in the text and is widely used at Södertörn University (SH).
We recommend that you use our own guide "Referenser enligt Harvardsystemet" (in Swedish). It’s an introduction to referencing and the most common Harvard references, produced by the Library and the Study Support Unit at SH. Download our guide to the Harvard system. Pdf, 286.5 kB.
More examples can be found in the extensive web guide "Harvard system" External link, opens in new window. (in English) from the library at Anglia Ruskin University.
The APA system
APA stands for American Psychological Association. It is a variant of the Harvard system that is used at the Swedish Red Cross University (RKH).
We primarily recommend our guide "Referenser enligt APA-systemet" (in Swedish). It is a Swedish interpretation of the APA system, adapted for students at RKH. Download our guide to the APA system (in Swedish). Pdf, 520.1 kB, opens in new window.
For more examples, see also the web guide "Reference guide for APA" External link. (in English) from the library at Karolinska Institutet.
The Oxford system
The Oxford system is written with footnotes, usually at the bottom of the page or at the end of the document. It is used by some subjects at SH.
For an introduction to references and to the most common Oxford references, see "Referenser enligt Oxfordsystemet" (in Swedish). The guide is produced by the library and the Study Support Unit at SH. Download our guide to the Oxford system. Pdf, 278.1 kB, opens in new window.
More referencing guides
If you use the Vancouver system, we recommend the web guide "Reference Guide for Vancouver" External link, opens in new window. (in English) from the library at Karolinska Institutet.
Guides for the MLA, Chicago and IEEE systems can be found on the "How to cite ..." External link, opens in new window. (in English) website from the Concordia University library.
When and why are references needed? What is the difference between quoting, paraphrasing and plagiarizing? Learn more about writing references.
You can also get support from a librarian with referencing. Book an appointment with a librarian for one-to-one tutoring in referencing.